. '''City of Culture of Galicia''' ( ) is a complex of cultural buildings in Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, Galicia (Galicia (Spain)), Spain, designed by architect Peter Eisenman and office. The buildings are an extreme challenge to construct as the design of them makes them look like rolling hills with high degree contours. Nearly every window of the thousands that are part of the external façade has its own custom shape. ref>
. Alfonso IX of León was addressed as: ''rex Gallaeciae'' (''Ad Petrum Compostellanum archaepiscopum'', year 1199) Cf.
) but the most popular route is Via Regia and its last part - the French Way (''Camino Francés''). Historically, most of the pilgrims came from France, from Paris, Vézelay, Le Puy and Arles and Saint Gilles, due to the Codex Calixtinus. These are today important starting points. The Spanish consider the Pyrenees a starting point. Common starting points along the French border are Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port or Somport on the French side of the Pyrenees and Roncesvalles or Jaca on the Spanish side. (The distance from Roncesvalles to Santiago de Compostella through León (León, Spain) is about 800 km.). Another possibility is to do the Northern Route that was first used by the pilgrims in order to avoid travelling through the territories occupied by the Muslims in the Middle Ages. The greatest attraction is its landscape, as a large part of the route runs along the coastline against a backdrop of mountains and overlooking the Cantabrian Sea. During the 16th century, attained the apex of its commercial and maritime importance due to naval construction, associated with the Portuguese Age of Discovery. Many of the historical buildings, such as the port and customshouse, were all integral in the commercial relief of the 16th century. The passage of King Manuel (Manuel I of Portugal) through Vila do Conde, during a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, in 1502, helped to develop some of the important infrastructures in the city: the Matriz Church, ''Praça Nova'' and municipal buildings, along with new arterials, were begun under the reign of Manuel I. The ''Praça Nova'' ( WikiPedia:Santiago de Compostela Commons:Category:Santiago de Compostela
were declared to be found in Galicia, at Santiago de Compostela (from Latin campus stellae, literally "the field of the star"). Pilgrims from all over Europe opened a way of communication between the isolated Asturias and the Carolingian lands and beyond. The founding of St. James tomb was a formidable political success for the Kingdom of Asturias: Now Asturias could claim the honour of having a corpse of one of the apostles of Jesus, a privilege shared only with Asia (Ephesus) where Saint John (John the Apostle) was buried, and Rome, where the corpses of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (Paul the Apostle) rested. From this moment on, Santiago de Compostela became one of the three sacred cities of Christianity, together with Rome and Jerusalem. In later centuries, many Central European cultural influences travelled to Iberia through the Way of St. James, from the Gothic and Romanesque styles, to the Occitan lyric poetry. This small kingdom was a milestone in the fight against Adoptionist heresy, with Beatus of Liébana as a major figure. In the time of Alfonso II (Alfonso II of Asturias), the shrine of Santiago (Santiago de Compostela) was "found." The pilgrimage to Santiago, Camino de Santiago, was a major nexus within Europe, and many pilgrims (and their money) passed through Asturias on their way to Santiago de Compostela. Religion Across Europe, the late 11th and 12th "centuries" saw an unprecedented growth in the number of churches. "In the years that followed the year 1000, we witnessed the rebuilding of churches all over the universe, but especially in Italy and Gaul." Chronicle of Raoul Glaber, quoted by Jean Hubert, ''Romanesque Art''. A great number of these buildings, both large and small, remain, some almost intact and in others altered almost beyond recognition in later centuries. They include many very well known churches such as Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome, famous for the ancient Roman "Mouth of Truth" set into the wall of its narthex the Baptistery in Florence (Florence Baptistry) famous for the 15th century Ghiberti Doors and San Zeno Maggiore in Verona. traditionally the marriage place of Romeo and Juliet In France, the famous abbeys of Aux Dames and Les Hommes at Caen and Mont Saint-Michel date from this period, as well as the abbeys of the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela. Many cathedrals owe their foundation to this date, with others beginning as abbey churches, and later becoming cathedrals. In England, of the cathedrals of ancient foundation, all were begun in this period with the exception of Salisbury, where the monks relocated from the Norman church at Old Sarum, and several, such as Canterbury, which were rebuilt on the site of Saxon churches. John Harvey, ''English Cathedrals'' Alec Clifton-Taylor, ''The Cathedrals of England'' In Spain, the most famous church of the period is Santiago de Compostela. In Germany, the Rhine and its tributaries were the location of many Romanesque abbeys, notably Mainz (Mainz Cathedral), Worms (Worms Cathedral), Speyer (Speyer Cathedral) and Bamberg (Bamberg Cathedral). In Cologne, then the largest city north of the Alps, a very important group of large city churches survives largely intact. As monasticism spread across Europe, Romanesque churches sprang up in Scotland, Scandinavia, Poland, Hungary, Sicily, Serbia and Tunisia. Several important Romanesque churches were built in the Crusader kingdoms. Rolf Toman, ''Romanesque''. WikiPedia:Santiago de Compostela Commons:Category:Santiago de Compostela
transformation (FINSA), the automotive industry (UROVESA (Uro (trucks))), and telecommunications and electronics (Blusens and Televés) have been established. Banco Gallego, a banking institution owned by Novacaixagalicia, has its headquarters in downtown ''rúa do Hórreo''. Tourism is very important thanks to the Way of St. James, particularly in Holy Compostelan Years (when 25 July falls on a Sunday). Following the Xunta's considerable investment and hugely successful advertising
campaign for the Holy Year of 1993, the number of pilgrims completing the route has been steadily rising. More than 272,000 pilgrims made the trip during the course of the Holy Year of 2010. Following 2010, the next Holy Year will not be for another 11 years. Outside of Holy Years, the city still receives a remarkable number of pilgrims. Editorial Compostela owns daily newspaper El Correo Gallego, a local TV, and a radio station. Galician language online news portal Galicia Hoxe is also based in the city. Televisión de Galicia, the public broadcaster corporation of Galicia, has its headquarters in Santiago. Way of St. James WikiPedia:Santiago de Compostela Commons:Category:Santiago de Compostela
. Works Alvarus is chiefly remarkable for his work ''De planctu ecclesiae libri duo''. This work, begun at Avignon in 1330, completed in 1332, corrected in 1335 and again in 1340 at Compostela (Santiago de Compostela), is notable not only for its extreme defence of ecclesiastical rights but still more, perhaps, for the freedom and force with which the author assails and rebukes the ecclesiastical abuses of his time. Alvarus has been reproached by St. Antoninus and others with having
composer and defender of the ars subtilior, and helped popularize polyphony while in the court of Fernando I . owners Feliciano Barrera headquarters Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Galicia (Spain)) Spain editor Feliciano Barrera '''Galicia Hoxe''' was a Galician (Galicia (Spain)) newspaper from Santiago de Compostela written in Galician
language Galician . Founded in January 1994, it was formerly called ''O Correo Galego''. It changed its name to ''Galicia Hoxe'' in May 2003, and closed down on 28th June 2011, due to financial reasons. owners Grupo Correo Gallego headquarters Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Galicia (Spain)) editor Life Cunqueiro was born to Joaquín Cunqueiro Montenegro, a pharmacist, and Pepita Mora Moirón
had to be raised to cover the debt, but a ''Cortes (Cortes Generales#History of the Cortes)'' (the Spanish parliamentary body) was required to approve new taxes. Thus, in late March 1520, Charles convened the Cortes in Santiago de Compostela. Charles ensured the Cortes would only have limited power, and further attempted to stack the Cortes with pliable representatives he could bribe. Support for the opposition only increased in response, and the representatives demanded that their grievances be heard first before any new tax was granted. Haliczer 1981 (#Hal81), p. 159. A group of clerics soon circulated a statement in protest of the king. It argued three points: any new taxes should be rejected; Castile should be embraced and the foreign Empire rejected; and if the king did not take into account his subjects, the ''Comunidades'' themselves should defend the interests of the kingdom. Pérez 2001 (#Per01), p. 39–40. It was the first occasion in which the word ''comunidades'' (communities, communes) was used to signify the independent populace, and the name would stick to the councils later formed. At this point, most of the members of the Cortes in Santiago intended to vote against
with historical landmarks and a lively cultural agenda. Religion Spain is an important place for Catholicism, Islam, and Judaism. In fact, some of the holiest places for the Catholic Church are in Spain: city of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia (Galicia (Spain)) (North-West Spain), the third holiest place after the Vatican City in Rome and Jerusalem. It's also the terminus of the Way of Saint James. Santo Toribio de Liébana, Cantabria (also
manufactories for tapestry, the other being the one of the Gobelins (Gobelins manufactory) in Paris. In their pilgrimages the people combined the celebration of a holy place and a holy day. Pilgrimages are still an important feature of country life, particularly in Ireland, Brittany and Galicia. The most impressive pilgrimages include
established_title established_date area_magnitude unit_pref area_footnotes area_total_km2 220 area_land_km2 area_water_km2 area_water_percent elevation_footnotes tags-- elevation_m 260 elevation_ft population_as_of 2012 population_footnotes INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain)) population_note population_total 95,671 population_metro population_density_km2 428.81 population_demonym Santiagan ''compostelán'', ''-ana'' (gl (Galician language)) ''compostelano'', ''-na'' (es (Spanish language)) timezone1 CET (GMT +1) utc_offset1 timezone1_DST CEST (GMT +2) utc_offset1_DST latd 42 latm 52 lats 40 latNS N longd 8 longm 32 longs 40 longEW W postal_code_type postal_code 15700 area_code +34 website footnotes '''Santiago de Compostela''', * * * commonly known as '''Santiago''' ( ), is the capital (Capital (political)) of the autonomous community (autonomous communities of Spain) of Galicia (Galicia (Spain)) in northwestern Spain.
The city has its origin in the shrine of Saint James the Great, now the city's cathedral (Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela), as destination of the Way of St. James, a leading Catholic pilgrimage route originated in the . In 1985 the city's Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.