Compostela (Santiago de Compostela), capital of Galicia (Galicia (Spain)). Population, main cities and languages The official Statistical body of Galicia is the ''Instituto Galego de Estatística'' (IGE). According to the IGE, Galicia's total population in 2008 was 2,783,100 (1,138,474 in A Coruña (A Coruña (province)), A Coruña province 2008 census 355.406 in Lugo (Province of Lugo), Lugo province census 2008 336.002 in Ourense (Province of Ourense), Ourense province census 2008 and 953.218 in Pontevedra (Pontevedra (province)) Pontevedra province census 2008 ). The most important cities in this region, which serve as the provinces' administrative centres, are Vigo, Pontevedra (in Pontevedra), Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, Ferrol (Ferrol, Spain) (in A Coruña), Lugo (in Lugo), and Ourense (in Ourense). The official languages are Galician and Spanish. Knowledge of Spanish is compulsory according to the Spanish constitution and virtually universal. Knowledge of Galician, after declining for many years owing to the pressure of Spanish and official persecution, is again on the rise due to favorable official language policies and popular support. Currently about 82% of Galicia's population can speak Galician Knowledge of Galician language 2003 and about 61% has it as a mother tongue. Use of Galician language 2003 Galician ''gaiteiros'' thumb left (Image:Gaiteiros em romaria galega.jpg) '''Muxia''' (in Galician (Galician language): ''Muxía''; in Spanish (Spanish language): ''Muxía'' ) is a coastal town in the province of A Coruña (A Coruña (province)), in Galicia (Galicia, Spain), Spain. It is one of the final destinations for pilgrims on the Way of St. James after visiting the shrine of the apostle (Twelve apostles) Saint James the Great in Santiago de Compostela. Another nearby final destination on the Way of St. James is Cape Finisterre. Whitekirk Whitekirk is WikiPedia:Santiago de Compostela Commons:Category:Santiago de Compostela
style was carried by the Spanish and Portuguese to South and Central America, to the Philippines and to Goa in India where it was to become the prominent style of building for churches large and small. Both in the Americas and the Philippines, large baroque churches often have a proportionally very wide facade which seems stretched between the towers. The intensely ornate decoration both in Spain and the Americas is called Churrigueresque. During the Fifth Crusade (1218–1221) he
campaign for the Holy Year of 1993, the number of pilgrims completing the route has been steadily rising. More than 272,000 pilgrims made the trip during the course of the Holy Year of 2010. Following 2010, the next Holy Year will not be for another 11 years. Outside of Holy Years, the city still receives a remarkable number of pilgrims. Editorial Compostela owns daily newspaper El Correo Gallego, a local TV, and a radio station. Galician language online news
-1328 Editions Longman page 76: "Central political power was weak and society unusually lacking in hierarchy... Dukes William IX and William X made some headway, and later so too did Richard the Lionheart (Richard I of England), but they were only partly successful." - bgcolor #DCDCDC Santiago de Compostela align center SCQ align center LEST bgcolor #DCDCDC Santiago de Compostela Airport # align center ref name "
through the region on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, originated the hereditary line. Legend holds that Fernão Mendes (a Braganção) presumably kidnapped, then married, Sancha, daughter of Afonso Henriques and Teresa, obtaining with his dead the important defense of the region. Fernão Mendes and Sancha would find the ruins of the ancient village and rebuilt from the ground in the ''Realenga das Terras da Bragança''. Historically, Fernão Mendes was later referred to as the ''Brave'' for his gallantry during the Battle of Ourique. Yet, later, the region of Bragança would become a property of the Crown as no heir would develop from their union. The Bragançãos contributed to the foundation of the settlement, and its importance would remain integral to the defense of the country, owing to the geopolitical position in the northwest frontier with the Spanish Kingdoms of León and Castile. By the seventh generation, around 1258, the Bragançãos lose their hereditary title, and Afonso III transfer the title to Nuno Martins a descendent of the line. In 1116, in an effort to expand her power, Theresa fought her half-sister, Queen Urraca. They fought again in 1120, as she continued to pursue a larger share in the Leonese inheritance, and allied herself as a widow to the most powerful Galician nobleman for that effect. This was the Count of Trava (Fernando Peres, Count of Trava), who had rejected his first wife to openly marry her, and served her on her southern border of the Mondego. In 1121, she was besieged and captured at Lanhoso, on her northern border with Galicia, fighting her sister Urraca. A negotiated peace was coordinated with aid from the Archbishops of Santiago de Compostela and Braga. The terms included that Theresa would go free and hold the county of Portugal as a fief of León, as she had received it at first. thumb San Antón Castle (File:Castillo de San Antón 1.jpg) In 1208, Alfonso IX re-founded the city of ''Crunia''. Some privileges, such as those of disembarking and selling salt without paying taxes, were granted to the city, and it enjoyed a big growth in fishing and mercantile business. The city grew and extended through the isthmus. In 1446 John II of Castile granted to A Coruña the title of "City". The Catholic Monarchs established the Royal Audience of the Kingdom of Galicia in the city, instead of Santiago (Santiago de Compostela). A Coruña also became the headquarters of the Captaincy General. thumb left Dome of coal in A Coruña (File:Cupula del carbon.001 - La Coruña.JPG) The population of the City of A Coruña in 1900 reached 43,971, while the population of the rest of the province including the City and Naval Station of nearby Ferrol (Ferrol, Spain) as well as Santiago de Compostela was 653,556. ether data taken from WikiPedia:Santiago de Compostela Commons:Category:Santiago de Compostela
(disambiguation) Saint James ". According to legend, ''Compostela'' derives from the Latin (Latin language) ''Campus Stellae'' (i.e., "field of the star"); it seems unlikely, however, that this phrase could have yielded the modern ''Compostela'' under normal evolution from Latin to Medieval Galician. Other etymologies derive the name from Latin ''compositum'', local Vulgar Latin ''Composita Tella'', meaning "burial ground", or simply from Latin ''compositellam'', meaning "the well-composed one". Other sites in Galicia share this toponym, akin to ''Compostilla'' in the province of León (León (province)). The city thumb left Santiago's Old Town is a UNESCO (File:Lateral do Hostal dos Reis Católicos. Santiago de Compostela.jpg) World Heritage Site The cathedral (Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela) borders the main plaza of the old and well-preserved city. Legend has it that the remains of the apostle James (James, son of Zebedee) were brought to Galicia for burial. In 813, according to medieval legend, the light of a bright star guided a shepherd who was watching his flock at night to the burial site in Santiago de Compostela. Marilyn Stokstad,''Santiago de Compostela In the Age of the Great Pilgrimages.''(Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978), 7. The shepherd quickly reported his discovery to the bishop of Iria, Bishop Teodomiro. Stokstad, ''Santiago de Compostela'', 8. The bishop declared that the remains were those of the apostle James and immediately notified King Alfonso II in Oviedo. To honour St. James, the cathedral was built on the spot where his remains were said to have been found. The legend, which included numerous miraculous events, enabled the Catholic faithful to bolster support for their stronghold in northern Spain during the Christian crusades against the Moors, but also led to the growth and development of the city. Stokstad, ''Santiago de Compostela'', 6. Along the western side of the ''Praza do Obradoiro'' is the elegant 18th century Pazo de Raxoi, now the city hall. Across the square is the Pazo de Raxoi (Raxoi's Palace), the town hall, and on the right from the cathedral steps is the Hostal dos Reis Católicos, founded in 1492 by the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand II of Aragon, as a pilgrims' hospice (now a parador). The Obradoiro façade of the cathedral, the best known, is depicted on the Spanish euro coins of 1 cent, 2 cents, and 5 cents (€ (euro)0.01, €0.02, and €0.05). Santiago is the site of the University of Santiago de Compostela, established in the early 16th century. The main campus can be seen best from an alcove in the large municipal park in the centre of the city. Within the old town there are many narrow winding streets full of historic buildings. The new town all around it has less character though some of the older parts of the new town have some big flats in them. Santiago de Compostela has a substantial nightlife. Both in the new town (''a zona nova'' in Galician (Galician language), ''la zona nueva'' in Spanish (Spanish language) or ''ensanche'') and the old town (''a zona vella'' in Galician or ''la zona vieja'' in Spanish (Spanish language), trade-branded as ''zona monumental''), a mix of middle-aged residents and younger students maintain a lively presence until the early hours of the morning. Radiating from the centre of the city, the historic cathedral is surrounded by paved granite streets, tucked away in the old town, and separated from the newer part of the city by the largest of many parks throughout the city, ''Parque da Alameda''. Santiago gives its name to one of the four military orders of Spain: Santiago (Order of Santiago), Calatrava (Order of Calatrava), Alcántara (Order of Alcantara) and Montesa (Order of Montesa). One of the most important economic centres in Galicia, Santiago is the seat for organisations like Association for Equal and Fair Trade Pangaea. Climate Under the Köppen climate classification, Santiago de Compostela has a temperate oceanic (oceanic climate) (''Cfb'') climate, with cool and somewhat dry summers and cool (but not cold) wet winters. The prevailing winds from the Atlantic (Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding mountains combine to give Santiago some of Spain’s highest rainfall: about WikiPedia:Santiago de Compostela Commons:Category:Santiago de Compostela
John White. History Mentioned as a Viking base in the cartulary of Lescar, Mimizan was part of the former royal province of Gascony. In the Middle Ages, the town was a stop on a secondary pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela. The size and beauty of the old church highlights the importance of the place at this time. The town turned into a seaside resort during the Belle Epoque (Belle Époque) thanks to the railway connection (which no longer exists), and to the growing trend of sea bathing, beneficial to the health of those suffering from tuberculosis. May 17 2008, Cardinal (Cardinal (Catholicism)) Simonis (Adrianus Johannes Simonis) opened the Trail of St James, connecting Uithuizen to Hasselt, Le Puy en Velay, and Santiago de Compostela, creating a modern, northern branch of the Way of St James. NOS journaal, "Kort binnenlands nieuws", NOS 2008, retrieved 7-may-2008 History The Xunta de Galicia finds its origins in the Xunta of the Kingdom of Galicia active between 1528 and 1833. The Xunta was Galicia's representation to the central Spanish monarchy. The Xunta was composed by representatives from the cities (dioceses) of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Betanzos, A Coruña, Mondoñedo, Ourense and Tui (Tui, Galicia). But at that time the Xunta did not hold real power; it was a consultative body only. Location * '''Edificios Administrativos San Caetano''' San Caetano, s n 15704 - Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña (A Coruña (province))) * '''Pazo de Raxoi''' Praza do Obradoiro 15705 - Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña (A Coruña (province))) * '''Sede da Xunta de Galicia en Vigo''' Concepción Arenal, 8 36201 - Vigo (Pontevedra (Pontevedra (province))) session_alt meeting_place Salón de Plenos Pazo do Hórreo Santiago de Compostela Galicia (Galicia (Spain)), Spain website http: www.parlamentodegalicia.es ** Charlemagne gains control of all of Catalonia, which is designated "the Hispanic Mark" until 874. *813 - The grave of James the Apostle (Saint James the Great) is "discovered" near Santiago de Compostela, in Galicia (Galicia (Spain)), beginning the cult of St. James that would unite Iberian Christians of many different petty kingdoms. *818 - The revolt in Córdoba against the Muslims is punished by three days of massacres and pillage, with 300 notables crucified and 20,000 families expelled. Such tolls were charged to pilgrims and traders traveling to Santiago de Compostela, the Way of St. James, in Galicia (Galicia (Spain)), Spain. Military clashes between the "English run" Basques of Aquitaine and the Navarrese in 1249 led however in 1250 the Seigneur of Ainhoa, to recognize the suzerainty of king Henry III of England, but by 1265, Gonzalvo Juanis, Seigneur of Ainhoa, a.k.a. Gonzalvo Ibáñez, a.k.a. Gonzalvo Yáñes, did not recognize either, English or Navarrese, dying in 1289 and opening the way to conquering it by old historical claims with military actions. Then, Garda Arnaut de Espelette, with affinity for the "English run" Basques of the Duchy of Aquitaine, sent a letter, dated 29 July 1289 praying the Ainhoa people to the adequate connivence. The outcome of such frontier business was to set up some sort of joint '''undivided''' land as it had been done also previously with the nearby Aldudes, close to the Baztan (Baztan (valley)) valley . '''Oloron-Sainte-Marie''' is a commune (Communes of France) in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department (Departments of France) in south-western France. The town of Oloron-Sante-Marie is positioned at the junction of two rivers and has a population of approximately 12,000. While not spectacular, it is a pleasant looking town, with an ancient quarter, Sainte Croix, containing the oldest Romanesque church in the Bearn region. This church, the Eglise Sainte Croix, has recently WikiPedia:Santiago de Compostela Commons:Category:Santiago de Compostela
in Lugo with those of Soult, who had to leave Portugal, and they all withdrew from Galicia in July 1809. This marked the final evacuation of Galicia by the French army and the creation of a new front. thumb left 175 px Codex Las Huelgas (File:Codex Las Huelgas.gif), a medieval Spanish music manuscript, circa 1300 AD (1300). The Moors of Al-Andalus were usually relatively tolerant of Christianity and Judaism, especially during the first three centuries of their long presence in the Iberian peninsula, during which Christian and Jewish music continued to flourish. Music notation was developed in Spain as early as the eighth century (the so-called Visigothic neumes) to notate the chant and other sacred music of the Christian church (Christian music), but this obscure notation has not yet been deciphered by scholars, and exists only in small fragments. The music of the early medieval Christian church in Spain is known misleadingly as the "Mozarabic Chant". The chant developed in isolation prior to the Islamic invasion and was not subject to the Papacy's enforcement of the Gregorian chant as the standard chant around the time of Charlemagne, by which time the Muslim's had conquered most of the Iberian peninsula. As the Christian reconquista progressed, these chants were almost entirely replaced by the Gregorian standard, once Rome had regained control of the Iberian churches. The style of Spanish popular songs of the time is presumed to have been heavily influenced by Moorish music, especially in the south, but as much of the country still spoke various Latin dialects while under Moorish rule (known today as Mozarabic (Mozarabic language)) earlier musical folk styles from the pre-Islamic period continued in the countryside where most of the population lived, in just the same way as the Mozarabic Chant continued to flourish in the churches. In the royal Christian courts of the reconquistors, the music, like the Cantigas de Santa Maria, also absorbed Moorish influences. Other important medieval sources include the Codex Calixtinus collection from Santiago de Compostela and the Codex Las Huelgas from Burgos. The so-called Llibre Vermell de Montserrat (red book) is an important devotional collection from the 14th century. Twin towns * WikiPedia:Santiago de Compostela Commons:Category:Santiago de Compostela
with historical landmarks and a lively cultural agenda. Religion Spain is an important place for Catholicism, Islam, and Judaism. In fact, some of the holiest places for the Catholic Church are in Spain: city of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia (Galicia (Spain)) (North-West Spain), the third holiest place after the Vatican City in Rome and Jerusalem. It's also the terminus of the Way of Saint James. Santo Toribio de Liébana, Cantabria (also
James the Great St. James in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is known in English as the Way of St. James and in Spanish as the ''Camino de Santiago''. Over 100,000 pilgrims travel to the city each year from points all over Europe and other parts of the world. The pilgrimage has been the subject of many books, television programmes, and films, notably Brian Sewell's ''The Naked Pilgrim'' produced for the British television channel Channel 5 (Channel 5 (UK)) and the Martin Sheen Emilio Estevez collaboration ''The Way (The Way (film))''. Pre-Christian legends As the lowest-lying land on that stretch of coast, the city's site took on added significance. Legends supposed of Celtic (celtic mythology) origin made it the place where the soul (Soul (spirit))s of the dead gathered to follow the sun across the sea. Those unworthy of going to the Land of the Dead haunted Galicia as the ''Santa Compaña'' or ''Estadea''. In popular culture Santiago de Compostela is featured prominently in the 1988 historical fiction novel ''Sharpe's Rifles (Sharpe's Rifles (novel))'', by Bernard Cornwell, which takes place during the French Invasion of Galicia, January 1809, during the Napoleonic Wars. Main sights * Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela * 12th century Colegiata de Santa María del Sar * 16th century Baroque (Baroque architecture) Abbey of San Martín Pinario (Monasterio de San Martín Pinario) * University of Santiago de Compostela * Centro Galego de Arte Contemporánea (Galician Center for Contemporary Art), designed by Alvaro Siza Vieira * Parque de San Domingos de Bonaval, redesigned by Eduardo Chillida and Alvaro Siza Vieira * City of Culture of Galicia, designed by Peter Eisenman Transport Santiago de Compostela is served by Santiago de Compostela Airport and a rail service (RENFE). The town is linked to the Spanish High Speed Railway Network (AVE). On 24 July 2013 there was a serious rail accident (Santiago de Compostela derailment) near the city in which 79 people died and at least 130 were injured when a train derailed on a bend as it approached Compostela station. "Spain train crash: Driver formally detained", BBC News, 26 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013. International relations WikiPedia:Santiago de Compostela Commons:Category:Santiago de Compostela
established_title established_date area_magnitude unit_pref area_footnotes area_total_km2 220 area_land_km2 area_water_km2 area_water_percent elevation_footnotes tags-- elevation_m 260 elevation_ft population_as_of 2012 population_footnotes INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain)) population_note population_total 95,671 population_metro population_density_km2 428.81 population_demonym Santiagan ''compostelán'', ''-ana'' (gl (Galician language)) ''compostelano'', ''-na'' (es (Spanish language)) timezone1 CET (GMT +1) utc_offset1 timezone1_DST CEST (GMT +2) utc_offset1_DST latd 42 latm 52 lats 40 latNS N longd 8 longm 32 longs 40 longEW W postal_code_type postal_code 15700 area_code +34 website footnotes '''Santiago de Compostela''', * * * commonly known as '''Santiago''' ( ), is the capital (Capital (political)) of the autonomous community (autonomous communities of Spain) of Galicia (Galicia (Spain)) in northwestern Spain.
The city has its origin in the shrine of Saint James the Great, now the city's cathedral (Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela), as destination of the Way of St. James, a leading Catholic pilgrimage route originated in the . In 1985 the city's Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.