Samarra

What is Samarra known for?


art+classical

Art historian Robert Hillenbrand (1999) likens the movement to the foundation of an "Islamic Rome", because the meeting of Eastern influences from Iranian, Eurasian steppe, Chinese, and Indian sources created a new paradigm for Islamic art. Classical forms inherited from Byzantine Europe and Greco-Roman sources were discarded in favor of those drawn from the new Islamic hub. Even the design of the city of Baghdad placed it in the "navel of the world," as 9th-century


wearing+trademark

organizations in the Sunni areas of Iraq. On November 30, 2003, a U.S. convoy traveling through the town of Samarra in the Sunni Triangle was ambushed by over 100 Iraqi guerillas, reportedly wearing trademark Fedayeen Saddam uniforms. Exactly how much influence they have in the resistance, especially following Saddam Hussein's capture on December 13, 2003, is a source of controversy. On October 25, 2005 the United States

and northern Iraq, especially in an area known as the Sunni Triangle. Some units of the Fedayeen also continued to operate independently of other insurgent organizations in the Sunni areas of Iraq. On November 30, 2003, a U.S. convoy traveling through the town of Samarra in the Sunni Triangle was ambushed by over 100 Iraqi guerillas, reportedly wearing trademark Fedayeen Saddam uniforms. Over 500 counter-insurgency operations have been undertaken by the US-led Coalition


major innovations

historian al-Ya'qubi wrote. Hillenbrand (1999), p.40 Samarra witnessed the "coming of age" of Islamic art. Polychrome painted stucco allowed for experimentation in new styles of moulding and carving. The Abbasid period also coincided with two major innovations in the ceramic arts: the invention of faience, and of metallic lusterware. Hadithic prohibition of the use of golden or silver vessels led to the development of metallic lusterware in pottery, which was made by mixing sulphur and metallic oxides to ochre and vinegar, painted onto an already glazed vessel and then fired a second time. It was expensive, and difficult to manage the second round through the kiln, but the need to replace fine Chinese pottery led to the development of this technique. Hillenbrand (1999), p.54 wikipedia:Samarra


extreme acts

States in making war against their own nation. Further, Islamic Jihadist - of which Al Qaeda in Iraq is a member - continued to use terror and extreme acts of violence against collaborationist populations to advance their religious and political agenda(s). The aims of these attacks were not completely clear, but it was argued in 2006 7 that these attacks were aimed at fomenting civil conflict within Iraq to destroy the legitimacy of the newly created collaborationist Iraqi government (which


character development

the events one after the other, without emphasis on character development. Characters and events are introduced forcefully at times. One such example is the introduction of Vathek's brother and successor Motavakel, based on Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim (Arabic (Arabic language) المتوكل على الله جعفر بن المعتصم') (March 821 – December 861), who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861. Up to the point when he is introduced in the novel as the leader of a rebel army, the reader is not even aware of Vathek's having a brother. The reader is also never exposed to Motavakel’s character, except as Carathis mentions him. The novel, while it may lend itself to be divided into chapters, is one complete manuscript without pause. thumb Al-Mu'tazz Sends Gifts to Abdulla ibn Abdulla, from the Tarikh-i Alfi manuscript, Tarikh-i-Alfi, c. 1592-94 (File:Al-Mu'tazz Sends Gifts to Abdulla ibn Abdulla, from the Tarikh-i Alfi manuscript, Tarikh-i-Alfi, c. 1592-94.jpg) '''Al-Mu'tazz''' ( wikipedia:Samarra


century battle

sites of worship. The Sunnis also pray in the mosques similar to the Shi'a; they also conduct pilgrimages to these sites (coming as far as from South Asia), but they do not believe this to be obligatory, but rather an affair providing spiritual blessings. Modern era thumb Men walk down a street in Samarra in 1970. The Al-Askari Mosque (File:Les dômes de Samarra en 1970 (2).jpg) is in the background. In the eighteenth century, Battle of Samara one of the most bloody battles


art+founder

is the personal papers of Freer Gallery of Art founder Charles Lang Freer, which includes his purchase records, diaries, and personal correspondence with public figures such as artists, dealers and collectors. Freer's extensive correspondence with James McNeill Whistler forms one of the largest sources of primary documents about the American artist. Other significant collections in the Archives includes the papers (notebooks, letters, photography, squeezes) and personal objects


868

so large that land taxes were collected in his name.” 'Thawrat al-Zanj . The rebellion eventually failed and ʻAlī relocated to Basrah in 868 CE. Also in 868 C.E., a leader of the Zanj Rebellion claimed to be the incarnated form of the former Alid rebel Yahya ibn Umar. Their ultimate goal however was control over the whole Basrah area and they finally accomplished their objective with a tight blockade that prevented

: news.bbc.co.uk 1 hi world south_asia 4739800.stm (BBC) Ahmad Ibn Ṭūlūn was a member of the mostly Central Asian Turkish guard formed initially in Baghdad, then later settled in Samarra, upon its establishment as the seat of the caliphate by al-Mu'tasim. In 254 868, The first date indicates the year according to the Hijri calendar (Islamic calendar), while the second one denotes the corresponding Gregorian year Ibn Tulun was sent to Egypt

in Europe and the Islamic World: The Tradition of 1000 Years in Maiolica, Faience and Delftware'', London, Faber and Faber, 1973 ISBN 0-571-09349-3 From Mesopotamia, tin glazes spread to the Islamic Egypt (868–905 AD) during the 10th century, and then to the Islamic Spain (711-1492 AD), leading to the maximum development of Islamic lusterware Manson, R. B., and M. S. Tite, "The beginnings of tin-opacification of pottery glazes", ''Journal


battle site

to him, Sayyed Mohammed Kazem Yazdi, Mulla Mohammad-Kazem Khorasani, Mirza Mohammad Taqi Shirazi (called as Mirza the second), Sheikh Fazlollah Noori, and Mirza Ismael Shirazi. He died in Samarra at the age of 82 and his body is buried in the Imam Ali Mosque. Ayatollah Mirza Mohammad Hasan Shirazi * Al-Qādisiyyah was also a historical town, near the battle-site and an important location on a Mesopotamian trade-route (and, later, a Muslim pilgrim route to al-Madīnah (Medina)). * Al-Qādisiyyah, another city of the same name and noted mediæval glass-making centre, located south-east of Sāmarrāʾ (Samarra), and the location of the Husn al-Qādisiyyah fort, in Iraq. * Al-Qādisiyyah Canal, a drainage canal from the Tigris (Tigris River) and Euphrates (Euphrates River) Rivers, constructed by the Iraqi government by 1994 with the intent of drying out the marsh-waters of southern Iraq. (report) Military forces and installations * Husn al-Qādisiyyah, ruins of an ʿAbbassid (Abbasid) walled fort, in al-Qādisiyyah near Sāmarrāʾ (Samarra), Iraq. (website) * Al-Qādisiyyah, a large class of Iraqi tankers. History The task force was made up of units from the 1st (1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion), 2nd (2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion) & 3rd (3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion) Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalions, Welcome to Weapons Company G, 2dBn, 23d Marine Regiment the 1st Marine Division (1st Marine Division (United States)) jump Headquarters, Golf Company and a CAAT section from Weapons Company 2 23 (2nd Battalion 23rd Marines), 5 11 (5th Battalion 11th Marines),the DASC (Fwd) (Direct Air Support Center) that had been supporting the Division, and a detachment from Combat Service Support Battalion-10. On April 13, Task Force Marines rescued seven American Prisoners of War in Samarra. wikipedia:Samarra


history art

Iraq: Babylon, Samarra, and Nineveh. They are now simply called A, B and C. thumb Luster-ware bowl from Susa (Image:Cup Susa Louvre MAO568.jpg), 9th century, today in the Louvre. The Abbasid dynasty (750 A.D. - 1258 Gruber, World of Art ) witnessed the movement of the capital from Damascus to Baghdad, and then from Baghdad to Samarra. The shift to Baghdad influenced politics, culture, and art. Art history

Art historian Robert Hillenbrand (1999) likens the movement to the foundation of an "Islamic Rome", because the meeting of Eastern influences from Iranian, Eurasian steppe, Chinese, and Indian sources created a new paradigm for Islamic art. Classical forms inherited from Byzantine Europe and Greco-Roman sources were discarded in favor of those drawn from the new Islamic hub. Even the design of the city of Baghdad placed it in the "navel of the world," as 9th-century

Samarra

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'''Sāmarrā''' ( north of Baghdad. In 2003 the city had an estimated population of 348,700. Samarra is in the Sunni Triangle.

The city was once the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate and the only remaining Islamic capital that retains its original plan, architecture and artistic relics. UNESCO, Samarra Archaeological City, http: whc.unesco.org en list 276 In 2007, UNESCO named Samarra one of its World Heritage Sites.

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