the events one after the other, without emphasis on character development. Characters and events are introduced forcefully at times. One such example is the introduction of Vathek's brother and successor Motavakel, based on Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim (Arabic (Arabic language) المتوكل على الله جعفر بن المعتصم') (March 821 – December 861), who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861. Up to the point when he is introduced in the novel as the leader
in hegemony. Wolkstein, Dianna and Kramer, Samuel Noah "Innana: Queen of Heaven and Earth". It appears that this early culture was an amalgam of three distinct cultural influences: peasant farmers, living in wattle and daub or clay brick houses and practicing irrigation agriculture, hunter-fishermen living in woven reed houses and living on floating islands in the marshes (Proto-Sumerians), and Proto-Akkadian nomadic pastoralists, living in black tents. Leick, Gwendolyn (2001), "Mespotamia: the Invention of the City" (Allen Lane) Population right 350px thumb The first farmers from Samarra (File:Sumer1.jpg) migrated to Sumer, and built shrines and settlements at Eridu. In spite of the importance of this region, genetic studies on the Sumerians are limited and generally restricted to analysis of classical markers due to Iraq's modern political instability. It has been found that Y-DNA Haplogroup J2 (Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA)) originated in Northern Mesopotamia (Assyria). Sumerians and haplogroup J - DNA Forums N. Al-Zahery et al, "Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroad of the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic migrations," Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (2003) It is speculated by some archaeologists that Sumerian speakers were farmers who moved down from the north, after perfecting irrigation agriculture there note there is no consensus among scholars on the origins of the Sumerians . The Ubaid pottery of southern Mesopotamia has been connected via Choga Mami Transitional ware to the pottery of the Samarra period culture (c. 5700 – 4900 BC C-14 (Radiocarbon dating)) in the north, who were the first to practice a primitive form of irrigation agriculture along the middle Tigris River and its tributaries. The connection is most clearly seen at Tell Awayli (''Oueilli'', ''Oueili'') near Larsa, excavated by the French in the 1980s, where 8 levels yielded pre-Ubaid pottery resembling Samarran ware. Farming peoples spread down into southern Mesopotamia because they had developed a temple-centered social organization for mobilizing labor and technology for water control, enabling them to survive and prosper in a difficult environment. wikipedia:Samarra
occurs on the outskirts of Nagaoka (Nagaoka, Niigata). Both area is southern and central Niigata Prefecture in Japan. According to Japanese officials, 68 people are killed, 4,085 are injured, and 103,000 are rendered homeless. - Samaraa Stadium (Samarra) 10,000 Samaraa FC - **Ramadi (FOB Blue Diamond) **Samarra (FOB Brassfield-Mora) **Camp Taji As a poet Lucas was a polished ironist. Early collections were mostly personal lyrics or satires, but he
of Anthropological Museum Collections pages 229–245, December 1981. The Ubaid period is marked by a distinctive style of fine quality painted pottery which spread throughout Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf. During this time, the first settlement in southern Mesopotamia was established at Eridu, ca. 5300 BC, by farmers who brought with them the Hadji Muhammed culture, which first pioneered irrigation agriculture. It appears this culture was derived from
pastoralists of herds of sheep and goats living in tents in semi-desert areas. All three cultures seem implicated in the earliest levels of the city. The urban settlement was centered on an impressive temple complex built of mudbrick, within a small depression that allowed water to accumulate. * June 16 – The Roman army (Late Roman army) starts its retreat northward to Corduene (Armenia). Julian marches back up the Tigris and burns his fleet of supply ships. During
of Mesopotamia in the mid 7th century AD, when it was finally dissolved. Parpola, Simo (2004). "National and Ethnic Identity in the Neo-Assyrian Empire and Assyrian Identity in Post-Empire Times" (PDF). Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies (JAAS) Under Ashurbanipal (669-627 BC) its domination spanned from the Caucasus Mountains in the north to Nubia, Egypt and Arabia in the south, and from Cyprus and Antioch
Marines 5 11 ,the DASC (Fwd) (Direct Air Support Center) that had been supporting the Division, and a detachment from Combat Service Support Battalion-10. On April 13, Task Force Marines rescued seven American Prisoners of War in Samarra. Five of the POWs were members of the 507th Maintenance Company that had been
sites of worship. The Sunnis also pray in the mosques similar to the Shi'a; they also conduct pilgrimages to these sites (coming as far as from South Asia), but they do not believe this to be obligatory, but rather an affair providing spiritual blessings. Modern era thumb Men walk down a street in Samarra in 1970. The Al-Askari Mosque (File:Les dômes de Samarra en 1970 (2).jpg) is in the background. In the eighteenth century, Battle of Samara one of the most bloody battles
of believed guerrilla (guerrilla warfare) fighters and suspected terrorists. Operation Details The 4th Infantry Division (U.S. 4th Infantry Division) and Task Force Ironhorse initiated Operation Ivy Blizzard, a joint operation with Iraqi security forces within Samarra at the request of local leadership, according to U.S. Central Command officials. Archives and Library The Freer Sackler Archives houses over 120 important manuscripts collections. The core collection is the personal papers of Freer Gallery of Art founder Charles Lang Freer, which includes his purchase records, diaries, and personal correspondence with public figures such as artists, dealers and collectors. Freer's extensive correspondence with James McNeill Whistler forms one of the largest sources of primary documents about the American artist. Other significant collections in the Archives includes the papers (notebooks, letters, photography, squeezes) and personal objects of the German archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld (1879–1946), documenting his research at Samarra, Persepolis and Pasargadae. The papers of Carl Whiting Bishop, Dwight William Tryon, Myron Bement Smith, Benjamin March and Henri Vever are also located at the Archives. The Archives also holds over 125,000 photographs of Asia dating from the 19th and early 20th centuries. Highlights of photographic holdings include the Henry and Nancy Rosin Collection of 19th century photography of Japan, the 1903-1904 photographs of the Chinese Empress Dowager Cixi, and photographs of Iran by Antoin Sevruguin. http: asia.si.edu research archivesHighlights.asp Surayya, a village near Medina, Saudi Arabia He was poisoned in Samarra, Iraq on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tazz. Tabatabae (1979), pp.208-209 Buried in the Al Askari Mosque in Samarra. - Medina, Saudi Arabia He was poisoned on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tamid in Samarra, Iraq. Buried in Al Askari Mosque in Samarra. Tabatabae (1979), pp.209-210 - He is believed by Shi'ites to be the current Imam and the promised Mahdi, a messianic figure who will return in end times. Samarra, Iraq He is believed to be living in the Occultation (Muhammad al-Mahdi#The Occultation) since 872 by the Twelver Shi'ites. '''Imam Hasan al-‘Askarī (Askari)''' ( wikipedia:Samarra
Sunni Muslim family in Baghdad, Iraq, the second youngest of 13 children. His father, Jasim, was born and raised in Samarra. He later founded one of Iraq's largest construction companies. From a young age, Alsammarae was intimately familiar with Iraqi politics due to his family's presence in this sphere. Many of his close relatives served as ambassadors, cabinet advisors, and members of parliament. Growing up in the 1960s, Alsammarae received his primary and secondary education in Baghdad
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'''Sāmarrā''' ( north of Baghdad. In 2003 the city had an estimated population of 348,700. Samarra is in the Sunni Triangle.
The city was once the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate and the only remaining Islamic capital that retains its original plan, architecture and artistic relics. UNESCO, Samarra Archaeological City, http: whc.unesco.org en list 276 In 2007, UNESCO named Samarra one of its World Heritage Sites.