also became an inspiration to Mughal architects. During the 14th and 15th century, Timur and his successors adorned Samarkand and other Central-Asian cities with spectacular and stately edifices. The Sanctuary of Ahmed Yasawi (Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi), situated in southern Kazakhstan was never finished, but has got the largest existing brick dome in Central Asia (List of largest domes in the world#Famous large domes), measuring 18.2 m in diameter. The dome exterior
. *''The Road to Samarcand'' is one of Patrick O'Brian's early novels (1954) about an American teenage boy, the son of recently deceased missionary parents, who travels from China with a small party on the Silk Road ''en route'' to the West. *For part of the history espoused in Clive Barker's novel ''Galilee'' (Galilee (novel)), the city of Samarkand is held as a shining light of humanity, and one of the characters longs to go there. Clive Barker, ''Galilee'' ISBN 0-00-617805
-- The earliest use of water-powered mills (Watermill) in paper production, specifically the use of pulp mills for preparing the pulp for papermaking, dates back to Samarkand in the 8th century. The earliest references to paper mills also
Routledge Hill (1986). ''Islamic Technology: An illustrated history'', p. 54. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42239-6. These were introduced to Europe through Spain. The bridge mill was a unique type of water mill that was built as part of the superstructure of a bridge. The earliest record of a bridge mill is from Córdoba in the 12th century. Adam Lucas (2006), ''Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology'', p. 62, BRILL
, ISBN 90-04-14649-0 The first forge to be driven by a hydropowered water mill rather than manual labour, also known as a finery forge, was invented in 12th century Al-Andalus. Adam Lucas (2006), ''Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology'', p. 65, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-14649-0 Stamp mills were used by miners in Samarkand from as early as 973. They were used in medieval Persia for the purpose
Vostoka '' in Tashkent. He achieved prominence as a talented reporter and was invited to move to Moscow to work for the ''Izvestia''. From there, he covered the massive Soviet construction and heavy industry-building campaigns and became a prominent propagandist, such as the White Sea – Baltic Canal, Uralmash, etc. He also wrote movie scripts and radio plays, and El-Registan is perhaps better known for his script of the Soviet film ''Djulbars'' (1935). Domination The Samanids were a Persian state that reigned for 180 years, encompassing a territory which included Khorasan (Greater Khorasan) (including Kabul), Tabaḳāt-i-nāsiri: a general history of the Muhammadan dynastics of Asia, pg.31, By Minhāj Sirāj Jūzjānī Ray (Ray, Iran), Transoxiania, Tabaristan, Kerman, Gorgan, and west of these provinces up to Isfahan. At the peak of their power, the Samanids controlled territory extending as far south as the Sulaiman Mountains in Pakistan, Ghazni and Kandahar. The historical,social and economic setting By M. S. Asimov, pg.79 The Samanids were descendants of Bahram Chobin, Iran and America: Re-Kind l ing a Love Lost By Badi Badiozamani, Ghazal Badiozamani, pg. 123 History of Bukhara by Narshakhi, Chapter XXIV, Pg 79 and thus descended from the House of Mihrān (House of Mihran), one of the Seven Great Houses of Iran. In governing their territory, the Samanids modeled their state organization after the Abbasids, mirroring the caliph's court and organization. The Monumental Inscriptions from Early Islamic Iran and Transoxiana By Sheila S. Blair, pg. 27 They were rewarded for supporting the Abbasids in Transoxania and Khorasan (greater Khorasan), and with their established capitals located in Bukhara, Balkh, Samarkand, and Herat, they carved their kingdom after defeating the Saffarids. History The Samanid Empire was the first native Persian dynasty to arise after the Muslim Arab conquest. The four grandsons of the dynasty's founder, Saman Khuda, had been rewarded with provinces for their faithful service to the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun: Nuh obtained Samarkand; Ahmad, Fergana; Yahya, Shash; and Elyas, Herat. Ahmad's son Nasr became governor of Transoxania in 875, but it was his brother and successor, Ismail Samani who overthrew the Saffarids and the Zaydites of Tabaristan, thus establishing a semiautonomous rule over Transoxania and Khorasan, with Bukhara as his capital. In 893, Ismail invaded and defeated the Karluk Turks, taking Talas (Taraz) and converting the Nestorian church (Church of the East) there into a mosque. Renee Grousset, ''The Empire of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia'', Transl. Naomi Walford, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 142. ''Samanids'', C.E.Bosworth, '''The Encyclopedia of Islam''', Vol. VIII, Ed. C.E.Bosworth, E.van Donzel, W.P.Heinrichs and G.Lecomte, (E.J.Brill, 1995), 1026. Ismail's son, Ahmad (Ahmad the Samanid), sent two military excursions(911 & 912-913) into Sistan to re-establish Samanid control over the Caspian provinces. ''Samanids'', C.E.Bosworth, 1027. The Karotegin consisted of a highland district bounded on the north by Samarkand and Kokand, on the east by Ferghana, on the south by Darvaz and on the west by Hissar (Hisor) and other Bokharian provinces. Traditionally rough woolen cloth and mohair were woven by the natives, who also made excellent firearms and other weapons. Gold was mined in various places and there were salt-pits in the mountains. The chief town, Garm (Garm, Tajikistan), situated on a hill on the right bank of the Vakhsh River, was a place of some 2,000 inhabitants, Commons:Category:Samarkand Wikipedia:Samarkand
capital was relocated from Samarkand to Tashkent. In 1936, the Uzbek SSR was enlarged with the addition of the Karakalpak ASSR taken from the Kazakh SSR in the last stages of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union. Further bits and pieces of territory were transferred several times between the Kazakh SSR and the Uzbek SSR after World War II. Water-powered mills An exhaustive survey of milling in Al-Andalus did not uncover a single water-powered paper mill, nor
architecture upon India. Banister Fletcher, Dan Cruickshan, "Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture ",Architectural Press, 1996. pg 606 In the realm of architecture, the Timurids drew on and developed many Seljuq (Great Seljuq Empire) traditions. Turquoise and blue tiles forming intricate linear and geometric patterns decorated the facades of buildings. Sometimes the interior was decorated similarly, with painting and stucco
in Herat, and the mosque of Gowhar Shād (Goharshad) in Mashhad. Double domes of various shapes abound, and the outsides are perfused with brilliant colors. Timur's dominance of the region strengthened the influence of his capital and Persian architecture upon India. Banister Fletcher, Dan Cruickshan, "Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture ",Architectural Press, 1996. pg 606 **''Abu Sa'id's sons divided Transoxiana upon his death, into Samarkand
of all major Timurid structures, notably the Shāh-e Zenda (Shah-i-Zinda) in Samarkand, the ''Musallah'' complex in Herat, and the mosque of Gowhar Shād (Goharshad) in Mashhad. Double domes of various shapes abound, and the outsides are perfused with brilliant colors. Timur's dominance of the region strengthened the influence of his capital and Persian architecture upon India. Banister Fletcher, Dan Cruickshan, "Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture "
in astronomy-related mathematics, such as trigonometry and spherical geometry. Being an genius astronomer he built the great Ulugh Beg Observatory (Ulugh Beg Observatory) in Samarkand between 1424 and 1429. It was considered by scholars to have been one of the finest observatories in the Islamic world at the time and the largest in Central Asia. Science in Islamic civilisation: proceedings of the international symposia: "Science institutions in Islamic civilisation", & "Science and technology in the Turkish and Islamic world"He also build the Registan Ulugh Beg Madrasah (1417–1420) in Samarkand and Bukhara, transforming the cities into cultural center of learning in Central Asia. The global built environment as a representation of realities: By author:A.J.J. MekkingHe was also a mathematics genius of the 15th century with unusual endowment of intellect. History of mathematics. By David Eugene Smith He ruled Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Kazakhstan for almost half an century from 1411 to 1449 and occupied the Herat province (Herat Province) in Afghanistan for an short time in 1448. '''Ulugh Beg''' ( Commons:Category:Samarkand Wikipedia:Samarkand
. This train bypasses Moscow, nearest stop is in the town of Ozherelye. There is also a weekly connection from Alma-Ata departing every Sunday at 3:50PM arriving 7:59AM two nights later. By car Samarkand is about 4 hours by road from Tashkent; shared taxis leave from Sobir Rahimov bus station. The distance to Samarkand from Tashkent is 290 km, from Bokhara 270 km, from Khiva 740 km, from Andizhan 610 km, from Fergana 600
amounted to 156, 81, 55 and 48 thousand, respectively. The city prospered due to the fact that Tashkent had a substantial trade with Russia, but it suffered from Kokand's high taxes. Tashkent lost its sovereignty in 1814. At that was the time of numerous popular uprisings against the Kokand government. The best-known of these revolts took place in 1847 and 1863 (under the leadership of a weaver called Yusuf). The first siege of Tashkent by the Russians in 1864 was unsuccessful. -- In June
In the realm of architecture, the Timurids drew on and developed many Seljuq (Great Seljuq Empire) traditions. Turquoise and blue tiles forming intricate linear and geometric patterns decorated the facades of buildings. Sometimes the interior was decorated similarly, with painting and stucco relief further enriching the effect. Timurid architecture is the pinnacle of Islamic art in Central Asia. Spectacular and stately edifices erected by Timur and his successors in Samarkand and Herat helped to disseminate the influence of the Ilkhanid school of art in India, thus giving rise to the celebrated ''Mughal'' (or ''Mongol'') school of architecture. Timurid architecture started with the sanctuary of Ahmed Yasawi (Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi) in present-day Kazakhstan and culminated in Timur's mausoleum Gur-e Amir in Samarkand. Timur's Gur-I Mir, the 14th-century mausoleum of the conqueror is covered with ‘’turquoise Persian tiles’’ John Julius Norwich, Great Architecture of the World, Da Capo Press
'''Samarkand''' ( The city is most noted for its central position on the Silk Road between China and the West, and for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study. In the 14th century it became the capital of the empire of Timur (Tamerlane) and is the site of his mausoleum (the Gur-e Amir). The Bibi-Khanym Mosque (a modern replica) remains one of the city's most notable landmarks. The Registan was the ancient center of the city. The city has carefully preserved the traditions of ancient crafts: embroidery, gold embroidery, silk weaving, engraving on copper, ceramics, carving and painting on wood. Энциклопедия туризма Кирилла и Мефодия. 2008.
In 2001, UNESCO added the city to its World Heritage List as ''Samarkand – Crossroads of Cultures''.