Sais, Egypt

What is Sais, Egypt known for?


period+medical

, Egypt Abydos and Saïs (Sais, Egypt) in the Late period. Medical papyri show empirical knowledge (A priori and a posteriori (philosophy)) of anatomy, injuries, and practical treatments. Stroual (1989) pp. 244–46 '''Amasis II''' ( ) or '''Ahmose II''' was a pharaoh (570 B.C.E. – 526 B.C.E.) of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt, the successor of Apries at Sais (Sais, Egypt). He was the last great ruler of Ancient Egypt Egypt


contemporary events

Greek . Some scholars argue Plato drew upon memories of past events such as the Thera eruption or the Trojan War, while others insist that he took inspiration from contemporary events like the destruction of Helike in 373 BC Plato's ''Timaeus (Timaeus (dialogue))'' is usually dated 360 BC; it was followed by his ''Critias (Critias (dialogue))''. or the failed Athenian invasion of Sicily (Sicilian Expedition) in 415–413 BC. When the Assyrians and Nubians left, a new Twenty-sixth Dynasty (Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt) emerged from Sais (Sais, Egypt). It lasted until 525 BCE, when Egypt was invaded by the Persians (Achaemenid Empire). Unlike the Assyrians, the Persians stayed. In 332, Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great. This was the beginning of the Ptolemaic dynasty, which ended with Roman conquest in 30 BCE. Pharaonic Egypt had come to an end. The stele almost certainly did not originate in the town of Rashid (Rosetta) (Rosetta) where it was found, but more likely came from a temple site farther inland, possibly the royal town of Sais (Sais, Egypt). Parkinson (2005) (#Parkinson70) p. 14 The temple it originally came from was probably closed around AD 392 when Eastern Roman (Byzantine Empire) emperor Theodosius I ordered the closing of all non-Christian temples of worship. Parkinson (2005) (#Parkinson70) p. 17 At some point the original stele broke, its largest piece becoming what we now know as the Rosetta Stone. Parkinson (2005) (#Parkinson70) p. 20 Ancient Egyptian temples were later used as quarries for new construction, and the Rosetta Stone probably was re-used in this manner. Later it was incorporated in the foundations of a fortress constructed by the Mameluke (Mamluk) Sultan Qaitbay (ca. 1416 18–1496) to defend the Bolbitine branch (Nile Delta) of the Nile at Rashid. There it would lie for at least another three centuries until its rediscovery. Distribution ''Hippopotamus amphibius'' was widespread in North Africa and Europe during the Eemian The '''Twenty-sixth Dynasty''' of Egypt (also written '''Dynasty XXVI''' or '''Dynasty 26''') was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt (Ancient Egypt) before the Persian conquest (History of Persian Egypt) in 525 (525 BC) BC (Before Christ) (although others followed). The Dynasty's reign (''c''. 685 (685 BC)-525 (525 BC) BC ) is also called the '''Saite Period''' after the city of Sais (Sais, Egypt), where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt. Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, London 2004 Rulers The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty of Egypt had one ruler, Amyrtaeus, who was a descendant of the Saite (Sais, Egypt) kings of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty (Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt), and led a successful revolt against the Persians (Achaemenid Empire) on the death of Darius II. No monuments of his reign have been found, and little is known of his reign. '''Necho I''' (sometimes '''Nekau''') (672 BC–664 BC) was the prince (Prince of Saïs) or governor of the Egyptian city of Sais (Sais, Egypt). He was the first attested local Saite king of the twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt who reigned for 8 years, according to Manetho's Epitome. Egypt was reunified by his son, Psamtik I. Necho I is primarily known from Assyrian documents but is now also attested in one contemporary Egyptian document from his reign. He was officially "installed" at Sais by Assurbanipal around 670 BC, but he already ruled Egypt as a local king prior to this event. According to historical records, Necho I was killed by an invading Kushite force in 664 BC under Tantamani for being an ally of Assyria. The Nubian invasion into the Egyptian Delta was subsequently repelled by the Assyrians who proceeded to advance south into Upper Egypt and sack Thebes. Twenty-Fourth Dynasty The Twenty-fourth Dynasty (Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt) was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais (Sais, Egypt)), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 (732 BC) to 720 BC. Instead, Egypt was ruled (from 664 BC, a full eight years prior to Tanutamun's death) by the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, client kings established by the Assyrians who successfully brought about Egypt's political independence under their reign. Psamtik I was the first to be recognised by them as the King of the whole of Egypt, and he brought increased stability to the country in a 54 year reign from the city of Sais (Sais, Egypt). Four successive Saite kings continued guiding Egypt into another period of peace and prosperity from 610-525 BC. Unfortunately for his dynasty, a new power was growing in the Near East – Persia. Pharaoh Psamtik III had succeeded his father Ahmose II for only 6 months before he had to face the Persian Empire at Pelusium. The Persians had already taken Babylon and Egypt was no match. Psamtik III was defeated and briefly escaped to Memphis, before he was ultimately imprisoned and, later, executed at Susa, the capital of the Persian king Cambyses, who now assumed the formal title of Pharaoh. 28th-30th Dynasties The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty (Twenty-eighth dynasty of Egypt) consisted of a single king, Amyrtaeus, prince of Sais (Sais, Egypt), who rebelled against the Persians. He left no monuments with his name. This dynasty lasted 6 years, from 404 BC to 398 BC. Biography Tefnakht erected two donation stelas in Years 36 and 38 of Shoshenq V as a Prince at Saïs. His Year 38 stela from Buto is significant not only because Tefnakht employs the rather boastful epithet of "Great Chief of the entire land" but due to its list of his religious titles as '''prophet of Neith, Edjo and the Lady of Imay'''. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, p.362 This reflects his control over Sais, Buto to the north and Kom el-Hish to the southwest even prior to the end of the 22nd Dynasty—with the death of Shoshenq V—and reflects Tefnakht's political base in the Western Delta region of Egypt. The 22nd Dynasty was politically fragmenting even prior to the death of Shoshenq V. Tefnakht established his capital at Sais (Sais, Egypt), and formed an alliance with other minor kings of the Delta (Nile Delta) region in order to conquer Middle and Upper Egypt, which was under the sway of the Nubian king Piye. He was able to capture and unify many of the cities of the Delta region, thus making Tefnakht considerably more powerful than any of his predecessors in either the 22nd (Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt) or 23rd dynasties. '''Bakenranef''', known by the ancient Greeks as '''Bocchoris''', Bakenranef's name is consistently ''Bocchoris'' in the Greek accounts and in Tacitus; the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics (Champollion) has permitted the reconstruction of his authentic Egyptian name. was briefly a king of the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt. Based at Sais (Sais, Egypt) in the western Delta, he ruled Lower Egypt from c. 725 to 720 BC. Though the Ptolemaic period Egyptian historian Manetho Manetho, frags. 64, 65. considers him the sole member of the Twenty-fourth dynasty, modern scholars include his father Tefnakht in that dynasty. Although Sextus Julius Africanus quotes Manetho as stating that "Bocchoris" ruled for six years, some modern scholars again differ and assign him a shorter reign of only five years, based on evidence from an Apis Bull burial stela. It establishes that Bakenranef's reign ended only at the start of his 6th regnal year which, under the Egyptian dating system, means he had a reign of 5 full years. Bakenranef's prenomen or royal name, ''Wahkare'', means "Constant is the Spirit of Re" in Egyptian. Peter A. Clayton, ''Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt'', Thames and Hudson, London, 1994. p.188 Osorkon probably lived into his eighties, which explains why he appointed his son Takelot as the junior coregent to the throne in his final years. He would have been in failing health by this time. Osorkon III's coregency with Takelot III is the last attested royal coregency in ancient Egyptian history. Later dynasties from Nubia, Sais (Sais, Egypt), and Persia (Achaemenid Empire) all ruled Egypt with a single king on the throne.


title ancient

The '''Twenty-sixth Dynasty''' of Egypt (also written '''Dynasty XXVI''' or '''Dynasty 26''') was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt (Ancient Egypt) before the Persian conquest (History of Persian Egypt) in 525 (525 BC) BC (Before Christ) (although others followed). The Dynasty's reign (''c''. 685 (685 BC)-525 (525 BC) BC ) is also called the '''Saite Period''' after the city of Sais (Sais, Egypt), where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt. Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, London 2004 Rulers The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty of Egypt had one ruler, Amyrtaeus, who was a descendant of the Saite (Sais, Egypt) kings of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty (Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt), and led a successful revolt against the Persians (Achaemenid Empire) on the death of Darius II. No monuments of his reign have been found, and little is known of his reign. '''Necho I''' (sometimes '''Nekau''') (672 BC–664 BC) was the prince (Prince of Saïs) or governor of the Egyptian city of Sais (Sais, Egypt). He was the first attested local Saite king of the twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt who reigned for 8 years, according to Manetho's Epitome. Egypt was reunified by his son, Psamtik I. Necho I is primarily known from Assyrian documents but is now also attested in one contemporary Egyptian document from his reign. He was officially "installed" at Sais by Assurbanipal around 670 BC, but he already ruled Egypt as a local king prior to this event. According to historical records, Necho I was killed by an invading Kushite force in 664 BC under Tantamani for being an ally of Assyria. The Nubian invasion into the Egyptian Delta was subsequently repelled by the Assyrians who proceeded to advance south into Upper Egypt and sack Thebes. Twenty-Fourth Dynasty The Twenty-fourth Dynasty (Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt) was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais (Sais, Egypt)), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 (732 BC) to 720 BC. Instead, Egypt was ruled (from 664 BC, a full eight years prior to Tanutamun's death) by the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, client kings established by the Assyrians who successfully brought about Egypt's political independence under their reign. Psamtik I was the first to be recognised by them as the King of the whole of Egypt, and he brought increased stability to the country in a 54 year reign from the city of Sais (Sais, Egypt). Four successive Saite kings continued guiding Egypt into another period of peace and prosperity from 610-525 BC. Unfortunately for his dynasty, a new power was growing in the Near East – Persia. Pharaoh Psamtik III had succeeded his father Ahmose II for only 6 months before he had to face the Persian Empire at Pelusium. The Persians had already taken Babylon and Egypt was no match. Psamtik III was defeated and briefly escaped to Memphis, before he was ultimately imprisoned and, later, executed at Susa, the capital of the Persian king Cambyses, who now assumed the formal title of Pharaoh. 28th-30th Dynasties The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty (Twenty-eighth dynasty of Egypt) consisted of a single king, Amyrtaeus, prince of Sais (Sais, Egypt), who rebelled against the Persians. He left no monuments with his name. This dynasty lasted 6 years, from 404 BC to 398 BC. Biography Tefnakht erected two donation stelas in Years 36 and 38 of Shoshenq V as a Prince at Saïs. His Year 38 stela from Buto is significant not only because Tefnakht employs the rather boastful epithet of "Great Chief of the entire land" but due to its list of his religious titles as '''prophet of Neith, Edjo and the Lady of Imay'''. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, p.362 This reflects his control over Sais, Buto to the north and Kom el-Hish to the southwest even prior to the end of the 22nd Dynasty—with the death of Shoshenq V—and reflects Tefnakht's political base in the Western Delta region of Egypt. The 22nd Dynasty was politically fragmenting even prior to the death of Shoshenq V. Tefnakht established his capital at Sais (Sais, Egypt), and formed an alliance with other minor kings of the Delta (Nile Delta) region in order to conquer Middle and Upper Egypt, which was under the sway of the Nubian king Piye. He was able to capture and unify many of the cities of the Delta region, thus making Tefnakht considerably more powerful than any of his predecessors in either the 22nd (Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt) or 23rd dynasties. '''Bakenranef''', known by the ancient Greeks as '''Bocchoris''', Bakenranef's name is consistently ''Bocchoris'' in the Greek accounts and in Tacitus; the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics (Champollion) has permitted the reconstruction of his authentic Egyptian name. was briefly a king of the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt. Based at Sais (Sais, Egypt) in the western Delta, he ruled Lower Egypt from c. 725 to 720 BC. Though the Ptolemaic period Egyptian historian Manetho Manetho, frags. 64, 65. considers him the sole member of the Twenty-fourth dynasty, modern scholars include his father Tefnakht in that dynasty. Although Sextus Julius Africanus quotes Manetho as stating that "Bocchoris" ruled for six years, some modern scholars again differ and assign him a shorter reign of only five years, based on evidence from an Apis Bull burial stela. It establishes that Bakenranef's reign ended only at the start of his 6th regnal year which, under the Egyptian dating system, means he had a reign of 5 full years. Bakenranef's prenomen or royal name, ''Wahkare'', means "Constant is the Spirit of Re" in Egyptian. Peter A. Clayton, ''Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt'', Thames and Hudson, London, 1994. p.188 Osorkon probably lived into his eighties, which explains why he appointed his son Takelot as the junior coregent to the throne in his final years. He would have been in failing health by this time. Osorkon III's coregency with Takelot III is the last attested royal coregency in ancient Egyptian history. Later dynasties from Nubia, Sais (Sais, Egypt), and Persia (Achaemenid Empire) all ruled Egypt with a single king on the throne.


temple+ancient

Isis.html Isis and Osiris ''", ch. 9. There are today no surviving traces of this town prior to the Late New Kingdom (c.1100 BC) due to the extensive destruction of the city by the ''Sebakhin (Sebakh)'' (farmers removing mud brick deposits for use as fertilizer) leaving only a few relief blocks ''in situ''. Medical school The Temple of Sais had a medical school associated with it, as did many Egyptian temple ancient Egyptian temples


temple site

certainly did not originate in the town of Rashid (Rosetta) (Rosetta) where it was found, but more likely came from a temple site farther inland, possibly the royal town of Sais (Sais, Egypt). Parkinson (2005) (#Parkinson70) p. 14 The temple it originally came from was probably closed around AD 392 when Eastern Roman (Byzantine Empire) emperor Theodosius I ordered the closing of all non-Christian temples of worship. ref name "


732

Inc., 1985. ISBN 0-87779-508-8, ISBN 0-87779-509-6 (indexed), and ISBN 0-87779-510-X (deluxe). It was the provincial capital of Sap-Meh, the fifth nome (nome (Egypt)) of Lower Egypt and became the seat of power during the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt (c. 732–720 BC) and the Saite Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (664–525 BC) during the Late Period (Late Period of Ancient Egypt). Ian Shaw & Paul Nicholson, The Dictionary

of Sais * Official site at the University of Durham

-fourth dynasty of Egypt Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais (Sais, Egypt)), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 (732 BC) to 720 BC. Instead, Egypt was ruled (from 664 BC, a full eight years prior to Tanutamun's death) by the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, client kings established by the Assyrians who successfully brought about Egypt's political independence under their reign. Psamtik I was the first to be recognised by them


ancient

website footnotes '''Sais''' ( ) or '''Sa el-Hagar''' was an ancient Egyptian town in the Western Nile Delta on the Canopic (Canopus, Egypt) branch of the Nile. Mish, Frederick C., Editor in Chief. "Saïs." ''Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (Webster's Dictionary#The Collegiate Dictionary)''. 9th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster

Inc., 1985. ISBN 0-87779-508-8, ISBN 0-87779-509-6 (indexed), and ISBN 0-87779-510-X (deluxe). It was the provincial capital of Sap-Meh, the fifth nome (nome (Egypt)) of Lower Egypt and became the seat of power during the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt (c. 732–720 BC) and the Saite Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (664–525 BC) during the Late Period (Late Period of Ancient Egypt). Ian Shaw & Paul Nicholson, The Dictionary

of Ancient Egypt, British Museum Press, 1995. p.250 Its Ancient Egyptian name was '''Zau'''. Overview Herodotus wrote that Sais is where the grave of Osiris was located and that the sufferings of the god were displayed as a mystery by night on an adjacent lake. Herodotus, II, 171. ref


610

reign from the new capital of Sais (Sais, Egypt). Four successive Saite kings continued guiding Egypt successfully and peacefully from 610-526 BC, keeping the Babylonians away with the help of Greek (Greece) mercenaries. Amasis, however, reportedly treated Apries' mortal remains with respect and observed the proper funerary rituals by having Apries' body carried to Sais (Sais, Egypt) and buried there with "full military honours." ref name "Shaw & Nicholson, p.37

as the King of the whole of Egypt, and he brought increased stability to the country in a 54 year reign from the city of Sais (Sais, Egypt). Four successive Saite kings continued guiding Egypt into another period of peace and prosperity from 610-525 BC. Unfortunately for his dynasty, a new power was growing in the Near East – Persia. Pharaoh Psamtik III had succeeded his father Ahmose II for only 6 months before he had to face the Persian Empire at Pelusium


famous long

famous long after their deaths. Filer (1995) p. 39 Herodotus remarked that there was a high degree of specialization among Egyptian physicians, with some treating only the head or the stomach, while others were eye-doctors and dentists. Strouhal (1989) p. 243 Training of physicians took place at the ''Per Ankh'' or "House of Life" institution, most notably those headquartered in Per-Bastet (Bubastis) during the New Kingdom and at Abydos (Abydos, Egypt) and Saïs (Sais, Egypt) in the Late period. Medical papyri show empirical knowledge (A priori and a posteriori (philosophy)) of anatomy, injuries, and practical treatments. Stroual (1989) pp. 244–46 '''Amasis II''' ( The '''Twenty-sixth Dynasty''' of Egypt (also written '''Dynasty XXVI''' or '''Dynasty 26''') was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt (Ancient Egypt) before the Persian conquest (History of Persian Egypt) in 525 (525 BC) BC (Before Christ) (although others followed). The Dynasty's reign (''c''. 685 (685 BC)-525 (525 BC) BC ) is also called the '''Saite Period''' after the city of Sais (Sais, Egypt), where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt. Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, London 2004 Rulers The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty of Egypt had one ruler, Amyrtaeus, who was a descendant of the Saite (Sais, Egypt) kings of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty (Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt), and led a successful revolt against the Persians (Achaemenid Empire) on the death of Darius II. No monuments of his reign have been found, and little is known of his reign. '''Necho I''' (sometimes '''Nekau''') (672 BC–664 BC) was the prince (Prince of Saïs) or governor of the Egyptian city of Sais (Sais, Egypt). He was the first attested local Saite king of the twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt who reigned for 8 years, according to Manetho's Epitome. Egypt was reunified by his son, Psamtik I. Necho I is primarily known from Assyrian documents but is now also attested in one contemporary Egyptian document from his reign. He was officially "installed" at Sais by Assurbanipal around 670 BC, but he already ruled Egypt as a local king prior to this event. According to historical records, Necho I was killed by an invading Kushite force in 664 BC under Tantamani for being an ally of Assyria. The Nubian invasion into the Egyptian Delta was subsequently repelled by the Assyrians who proceeded to advance south into Upper Egypt and sack Thebes. Twenty-Fourth Dynasty The Twenty-fourth Dynasty (Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt) was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais (Sais, Egypt)), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 (732 BC) to 720 BC. Instead, Egypt was ruled (from 664 BC, a full eight years prior to Tanutamun's death) by the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, client kings established by the Assyrians who successfully brought about Egypt's political independence under their reign. Psamtik I was the first to be recognised by them as the King of the whole of Egypt, and he brought increased stability to the country in a 54 year reign from the city of Sais (Sais, Egypt). Four successive Saite kings continued guiding Egypt into another period of peace and prosperity from 610-525 BC. Unfortunately for his dynasty, a new power was growing in the Near East – Persia. Pharaoh Psamtik III had succeeded his father Ahmose II for only 6 months before he had to face the Persian Empire at Pelusium. The Persians had already taken Babylon and Egypt was no match. Psamtik III was defeated and briefly escaped to Memphis, before he was ultimately imprisoned and, later, executed at Susa, the capital of the Persian king Cambyses, who now assumed the formal title of Pharaoh. 28th-30th Dynasties The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty (Twenty-eighth dynasty of Egypt) consisted of a single king, Amyrtaeus, prince of Sais (Sais, Egypt), who rebelled against the Persians. He left no monuments with his name. This dynasty lasted 6 years, from 404 BC to 398 BC. Biography Tefnakht erected two donation stelas in Years 36 and 38 of Shoshenq V as a Prince at Saïs. His Year 38 stela from Buto is significant not only because Tefnakht employs the rather boastful epithet of "Great Chief of the entire land" but due to its list of his religious titles as '''prophet of Neith, Edjo and the Lady of Imay'''. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, p.362 This reflects his control over Sais, Buto to the north and Kom el-Hish to the southwest even prior to the end of the 22nd Dynasty—with the death of Shoshenq V—and reflects Tefnakht's political base in the Western Delta region of Egypt. The 22nd Dynasty was politically fragmenting even prior to the death of Shoshenq V. Tefnakht established his capital at Sais (Sais, Egypt), and formed an alliance with other minor kings of the Delta (Nile Delta) region in order to conquer Middle and Upper Egypt, which was under the sway of the Nubian king Piye. He was able to capture and unify many of the cities of the Delta region, thus making Tefnakht considerably more powerful than any of his predecessors in either the 22nd (Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt) or 23rd dynasties. '''Bakenranef''', known by the ancient Greeks as '''Bocchoris''', Bakenranef's name is consistently ''Bocchoris'' in the Greek accounts and in Tacitus; the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics (Champollion) has permitted the reconstruction of his authentic Egyptian name. was briefly a king of the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt. Based at Sais (Sais, Egypt) in the western Delta, he ruled Lower Egypt from c. 725 to 720 BC. Though the Ptolemaic period Egyptian historian Manetho Manetho, frags. 64, 65. considers him the sole member of the Twenty-fourth dynasty, modern scholars include his father Tefnakht in that dynasty. Although Sextus Julius Africanus quotes Manetho as stating that "Bocchoris" ruled for six years, some modern scholars again differ and assign him a shorter reign of only five years, based on evidence from an Apis Bull burial stela. It establishes that Bakenranef's reign ended only at the start of his 6th regnal year which, under the Egyptian dating system, means he had a reign of 5 full years. Bakenranef's prenomen or royal name, ''Wahkare'', means "Constant is the Spirit of Re" in Egyptian. Peter A. Clayton, ''Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt'', Thames and Hudson, London, 1994. p.188 Osorkon probably lived into his eighties, which explains why he appointed his son Takelot as the junior coregent to the throne in his final years. He would have been in failing health by this time. Osorkon III's coregency with Takelot III is the last attested royal coregency in ancient Egyptian history. Later dynasties from Nubia, Sais (Sais, Egypt), and Persia (Achaemenid Empire) all ruled Egypt with a single king on the throne.


medical studies

, and Zipporah's experience with circumcision, referenced in Exodus 4:25, may indicate medical studies. * Archeological description

Sais, Egypt

'''Sais''' ( ) or '''Sa el-Hagar''' was an ancient Egyptian town in the Western Nile Delta on the Canopic (Canopus, Egypt) branch of the Nile. Mish, Frederick C., Editor in Chief. "Saïs." ''Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (Webster's Dictionary#The Collegiate Dictionary)''. 9th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc., 1985. ISBN 0-87779-508-8, ISBN 0-87779-509-6 (indexed), and ISBN 0-87779-510-X (deluxe). It was the provincial capital of Sap-Meh, the fifth nome (nome (Egypt)) of Lower Egypt and became the seat of power during the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt (c. 732–720 BC) and the Saite Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (664–525 BC) during the Late Period (Late Period of Ancient Egypt). Ian Shaw & Paul Nicholson, The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, British Museum Press, 1995. p.250 Its Ancient Egyptian name was '''Zau'''.

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