Saint-Louis, Senegal

What is Saint-Louis, Senegal known for?


record breaking

Internationale FAI light tourist plane class. The RWD-5bis was at that time the smallest plane that has ever flown across the Atlantic (Transatlantic flight) — its empty weight was below 450 kg (1000 lb), loaded 1100 kg (2425 lb). The plane had no radio nor safety equipment, due to weight. It returned to Europe on a ship. After its record-breaking flight, the RWD-5bis was converted to a two-seater variant without additional tanks, and used by Skarżyński. After further training during the 1920s, in 1927 he became one of few Africans to receive an officer's commission. As commander of the Tirailleurs in the French Sudan (present-day Mali), he improved the military training for the sons of African soldiers. In 1937 N'Tchoréré became a battalion chief, and after serving as commandant of École des Enfants de Troupe at Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal) in Senegal, he retired, with the rank of lieutenant. Gorée is famous as a destination for people interested in the Atlantic slave trade but relatively few slaves were processed or transported from there. The more important centres for the slave trade from Senegal were north, at Saint-Louis, Senegal, or to the south in the Gambia, at the mouths of major rivers for trade. "Goree and the Atlantic Slave Trade", Philip Curtin, History Net, accessed 9 July 2008 ''Les Guides Bleus: Afrique de l'Ouest'' (1958 ed.), p. 123 thumb Map of Gorée (Image:Map of Goree.svg) With the foundation of Dakar in 1857, Gorée gradually lost its importance. In 1872, the French colonial authorities created the two communes of Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal) and Gorée, the first western-style municipalities in West Africa, with the same status as any commune in France. Dakar, on the mainland, was part of the commune of Gorée, whose administration was located on the island. However, as early as 1887, Dakar was detached from the commune of Gorée and was turned into a commune in its own right. Thus, the commune of Gorée became limited to its tiny island. Early years He was born Baye Fall in the port city of Saint-Louis, Senegal. While still a teenager, Siki changed his name, and moved to metropolitan France, where, by the age of 15, he began his professional boxing career. Siki's early years were inauspicious. From 1912 to 1914 he compiled a record of just 8 wins, 6 losses and 2 draws. image Fouta.jpg image_caption A Fouta in Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal), Senegal features Barthelemy Attisso from Togo was a law student in Dakar, and a self taught musician, whose arpeggiated runs became instantly recognizable. With the saxophone of N'Diaye, this was the first core of the band. Issa Cissoko (Saxophone) and Mountage Koite (drums) were both from Maninka griot families, from Mali and eastern Senegal respectively. The original group was rounded out by the slow groove Latin styles of Latfi Benjeloum (rhythm guitar), who came from a Moroccan (Morocco) family exiled to Saint-Louis, Senegal, and Charlie N'Diaye (bass) from Casamance. The city lies on the N1 (N1 road (Senegal)) and N7 road (N7 road (Senegal))s. As a part of the Trans-Sahelian Highway system, these are critical for traffic going between the Kayes Region of Mali and the coastal regions of Sénégal (Dakar, Thiès, Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal)): the most densely populated parts of both these nations. This east - west travel intersects with Senegal's most important route from Dakar to the Casamance region, which is cut off by Gambia. Slow river ferries, border posts, and corrupt border guards mean that many Senegalese are willing to travel far out of their way to avoid the international border. In 2002 the MV Joola ferry from Dakar to Ziguinchor sank, since then a new ferry has replaced it and the water route to Ziguinchor has reopened. The road through Tambacounda is the only internal route between the two parts of the country, however it is also possible to travel through the Gambia. '''Thiès''' (pronounced : ''chess'' in Noon language) is the third largest city in Senegal with a population officially estimated at 320,000 in 2005. It lies 60 km east of Dakar on the N2 road (N2 road (Senegal)) and at the junction of railway lines to Dakar, Bamako and St-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal). It is the capital of Thiès Region and is a major industrial city. birth_date championed by French Republican political leader Jules Ferry. Equal rights and citizenship were extended to those peoples who adopted French culture, including primary use of the French language in their lives, wearing Western clothes, and conversion to Christianity. Despite granting French citizenship to the residents of the "Four Communes" (Dakar, Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal), Gorée, and Rufisque), most West Africans did not adopt French culture or Christianity. Following World War I, "association" replaced assimilation as the fundamental tenet of the colonial relationships. It was thought that French culture might exist in association with indigenous societies and that these autonomous colonies might freely associate with France in the French Union.


size population

Dakar assumed the role of capital of the French West Africa federation. The colonial institutions set up in the city in the 19th century, such as the Muslim Tribunal and the School for Chiefs’ Sons, were to play important roles in the history of French Africa. Though relatively small in size (population of 10,000 in 1826; 23,000 in 1914, and 39,000 in 1955) Saint-Louis dominated Senegalese politics throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, not least because of its numerous political parties


small single

, and received a public funeral. Statues and monuments to his memory were erected at Lille, Bapaume, Saint-Quentin (Saint-Quentin, Aisne) and Saint-Louis, Senegal. Numerous streets are named after him and also a subway station in Paris (Faidherbe-Chaligny) (Faidherbe - Chaligny (Paris Métro)). Transatlantic flight On May 7 May 8, 1933 Skarzynski flew solo in a small single-seater Polish tourist airplane RWD-5bis (SP-AJU) across the southern Atlantic (Atlantic Ocean), from Saint


international music

, jam the Saint-Louis warf. Today they are used for fishing, transport, and tourism. Tourism constitutes an important part of Saint-Louis' economy. The city preserves much of its 19th-century morphology, reminiscent of other cities of the “Creole Atlantic”: Bahia, Cartagena (Cartagena, Spain), Havana and New Orleans. Thanks to its distinctive appearance, numerous sites of attraction and its international music festivals and cultural exhibitions, Saint-Louis attracts many tourists each year. Saint-Louis remains the most characteristically French colonial destination in West Africa along with Gorée Island. Natural sites Among Saint-Louis’ numerous natural sites we have the National Park of the Langue de Barbarie, the National Park of the Birds of Djoudj (Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary), the Fauna Reserve of Gueumbeul, beaches like that of the Langue de Barbarie, the colonial waterworks at Makhana, the palace of championed by French Republican political leader Jules Ferry. Equal rights and citizenship were extended to those peoples who adopted French culture, including primary use of the French language in their lives, wearing Western clothes, and conversion to Christianity. Despite granting French citizenship to the residents of the "Four Communes" (Dakar, Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal), Gorée, and Rufisque), most West Africans did not adopt French culture or Christianity. Following World War I, "association" replaced assimilation as the fundamental tenet of the colonial relationships. It was thought that French culture might exist in association with indigenous societies and that these autonomous colonies might freely associate with France in the French Union.


painting dance

to 7 May. Werewere Liking, Cameronian multidisciplinary artist (music, theatre, literature, painting, dance) was rewarded with the ''Massao d'honneur'' ("Honorary Massao"). In 1904, it was the fifth largest city in Sénégal after Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal), Dakar, Rufisque and Gorée. French colonial era The civilizing mission was initially championed by French Republican political leader Jules Ferry. Equal rights and citizenship


famous political

was not just limited to its economy, but spread to all aspects of its life as the loss of its past status meant less recognition and lack of interest from the colony’s officials and, after Senegal’s independence, from the Senegalese government. When its most famous political son, the French-educated lawyer Lamine Guèye (Lamine Guèye (politician)), died in 1968, the city lost its strongest proponent. Today, rich in three centuries of history, in cultural background, geography, architecture and other characteristics, Saint-Louis is a bridge between the savanna and the desert, the ocean and the river, tradition and modernity, Islam and Christianity, Europe and Africa. Home to a society with a distinctive lifestyle, Saint-Louis has retained its unique identity. “No one comes without falling in love with the city," proudly say its people who consider Saint-Louis as the birthplace of Senegalese Teranga, the Wolof word for hospitability. Economy Saint-Louis’ economy is a third important, yet critical, facet of its identity. As is supported in the article, Saint Louis has economically declined since the transfer of the Capital of French Western Africa in Dakar. This has caused the dispossession of Saint Louis of all its past economic attributes and is said to have “ … reached its paroxysm in 1960 when the capitol of the independent Senegal was transferred to Dakar”. Saint-Louis, however, has remained an important tourist and trading center championed by French Republican political leader Jules Ferry. Equal rights and citizenship were extended to those peoples who adopted French culture, including primary use of the French language in their lives, wearing Western clothes, and conversion to Christianity. Despite granting French citizenship to the residents of the "Four Communes" (Dakar, Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal), Gorée, and Rufisque), most West Africans did not adopt French culture or Christianity. Following World War I, "association" replaced assimilation as the fundamental tenet of the colonial relationships. It was thought that French culture might exist in association with indigenous societies and that these autonomous colonies might freely associate with France in the French Union.


french

estimated at 176,000 in 2005. Saint-Louis was the capital of the French colony of Senegal from 1673 until 1902 and French West Africa from 1895 until 1902, when the capital was moved to Dakar. From 1920 to 1957 it also served as the capital of the neighboring colony of Mauritania. Geography The heart of the old colonial city is located on a narrow island (just over 2 km long and about 400 m wide) in the Senegal River, 25 km from its mouth. At this point

; thumb left French view of the fort at Saint-Louis island, from "L'Afrique ou histoire, moeurs, usages et coutumes des Africains", by René Claude Geoffroy de Villeneuve, 1814. (Image:Saint-LouisMer.jpg)

thumb ''Negresse of quality from the Island of Saint Louis in Senegal, accompanied by her slave'', Illustration from ''Costumes civils de tous les peuples connus'', Paris, 1788, by . Saint-Louis was established in 1659 by French traders on an uninhabited island called Ndar. It was baptized Saint-Louis-du-Fort in homage to the French king Louis XIV. It was the first permanent French settlement in Senegal. The fortified factory commanded trade along


military technical

1997 p 10 . Bokassa was then stationed as a military technical assistant in Brazzaville and later Bangui before being promoted to the rank of Captain (Captain (OF-2)) on 1 July 1961. Wolof is spoken by more than 10 million people and about 40 percent (approximately 5 million people) of Senegal's population speak Wolof as their native language. Increased mobility, and especially the growth of the capital Dakar, created the need for a common language: today, an additional 40 percent of the population speak Wolof as a second or acquired language. In the whole region from Dakar to Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal), and also west and southwest of Kaolack, Wolof is spoken by the vast majority of the people. Typically when various ethnic groups in Senegal come together in cities and towns, they speak Wolof. It is therefore spoken in almost every regional and departmental capital in Senegal. Nevertheless, the official language of Senegal is French (French language). championed by French Republican political leader Jules Ferry. Equal rights and citizenship were extended to those peoples who adopted French culture, including primary use of the French language in their lives, wearing Western clothes, and conversion to Christianity. Despite granting French citizenship to the residents of the "Four Communes" (Dakar, Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal), Gorée, and Rufisque), most West Africans did not adopt French culture or Christianity. Following World War I, "association" replaced assimilation as the fundamental tenet of the colonial relationships. It was thought that French culture might exist in association with indigenous societies and that these autonomous colonies might freely associate with France in the French Union.


important roles

Dakar assumed the role of capital of the French West Africa federation. The colonial institutions set up in the city in the 19th century, such as the Muslim Tribunal and the School for Chiefs’ Sons, were to play important roles in the history of French Africa. Though relatively small in size (population of 10,000 in 1826; 23,000 in 1914, and 39,000 in 1955) Saint-Louis dominated Senegalese politics throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, not least because of its numerous political parties and associations and its independent newspapers. Following independence, when Dakar became sole capital of the country, Saint-Louis slipped into a state of lethargy. As its French population and military departed, many of the town’s shops, offices and businesses closed. This generated a loss of jobs and human potential, and less investment in the economic activities of Saint-Louis, thus causing its economic decline. For some people, however, Saint-Louis' decline was not just limited to its economy, but spread to all aspects of its life as the loss of its past status meant less recognition and lack of interest from the colony’s officials and, after Senegal’s independence, from the Senegalese government. When its most famous political son, the French-educated lawyer Lamine Guèye (Lamine Guèye (politician)), died in 1968, the city lost its strongest proponent. Today, rich in three centuries of history, in cultural background, geography, architecture and other characteristics, Saint-Louis is a bridge between the savanna and the desert, the ocean and the river, tradition and modernity, Islam and Christianity, Europe and Africa. Home to a society with a distinctive lifestyle, Saint-Louis has retained its unique identity. “No one comes without falling in love with the city," proudly say its people who consider Saint-Louis as the birthplace of Senegalese Teranga, the Wolof word for hospitability. Economy Saint-Louis’ economy is a third important, yet critical, facet of its identity. As is supported in the article, Saint Louis has economically declined since the transfer of the Capital of French Western Africa in Dakar. This has caused the dispossession of Saint Louis of all its past economic attributes and is said to have “ … reached its paroxysm in 1960 when the capitol of the independent Senegal was transferred to Dakar”. Saint-Louis, however, has remained an important tourist and trading center championed by French Republican political leader Jules Ferry. Equal rights and citizenship were extended to those peoples who adopted French culture, including primary use of the French language in their lives, wearing Western clothes, and conversion to Christianity. Despite granting French citizenship to the residents of the "Four Communes" (Dakar, Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal), Gorée, and Rufisque), most West Africans did not adopt French culture or Christianity. Following World War I, "association" replaced assimilation as the fundamental tenet of the colonial relationships. It was thought that French culture might exist in association with indigenous societies and that these autonomous colonies might freely associate with France in the French Union.


local musical

of music. The Festival Métissons, held for the first time in 2010, is a grassroots music festival organized by local communities and small businesses. Every edition sports international, national and local musical talent. The annual reggata, or pirogue race organized by teams of fishermen from Guet-Ndar, takes place on the "little branch" of the river, between Ndar Island and the Langue de Barbarie. The Magal of the Niari Rakas, a yearly commemoration of Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba Mbacké’s (the founder of Mouridism) two prayers in the Governor's Palace in 1895, is the city's largest religious gathering. thumb left Girls gather on a street in Saint-Louis, 2007. (Image:SaintLouisGirls.jpg) The city was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000 and cultural tourism has become an engine of growth. As a result, a process of gentrification has set in, with many historic buildings on the island being turned into restaurants and hotels. Other economic activities Beyond tourism, Saint-Louis is also a commercial and an industrial centre for sugar production. Its other economic activities are fishing, irrigated alluvial agriculture, pastoral farming, trading and exportation of peanut skins. It is important to note that each of these economic activities is assured by a particular ethnic group. The Wolofs and Lebous who are the main inhabitants of Saint-Louis are mostly fishermen that live in fishing communities like Guet-Ndar on the Langue de Barbarie. The Fulas (Fula people) In championed by French Republican political leader Jules Ferry. Equal rights and citizenship were extended to those peoples who adopted French culture, including primary use of the French language in their lives, wearing Western clothes, and conversion to Christianity. Despite granting French citizenship to the residents of the "Four Communes" (Dakar, Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal), Gorée, and Rufisque), most West Africans did not adopt French culture or Christianity. Following World War I, "association" replaced assimilation as the fundamental tenet of the colonial relationships. It was thought that French culture might exist in association with indigenous societies and that these autonomous colonies might freely associate with France in the French Union.

Saint-Louis, Senegal

'''Saint-Louis''', or '''Ndar''' as it is called in Wolof (Wolof language), is the capital of Senegal's Saint-Louis Region. Located in the northwest of Senegal, near the mouth of the Senegal River, and 320 km north of Senegal's capital city Dakar, it has a population officially estimated at 176,000 in 2005. Saint-Louis was the capital of the French colony of Senegal from 1673 until 1902 and French West Africa from 1895 until 1902, when the capital was moved to Dakar. From 1920 to 1957 it also served as the capital of the neighboring colony of Mauritania.

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