of the Safavid state, reflecting the view that the people had of their ruler, as someone elevated above humanity. Savory, R, Iran under the Safavids, p. 177. Also among the aristocracy, in the middle of the hierarchical pyramid, were the religious officials, who, mindful of the historic role of the religious classes as a buffer between the ruler and his subjects, usually did their best to shield the ordinary people from oppressive governments. The customs and culture of the people Jean Chardin devoted a whole chapter in his book to describing the Persian character, which apparently fascinated him greatly. As he spent a large bulk of his life in Persia, he involved himself in, and took part in, their everyday rituals and habits, and eventually acquired intimate knowledge of their culture, customs and character. He admired their consideration towards foreigners, but he also stumbled upon characteristics that he found challenging. His descriptions of the public appearance, clothes and customs are corroborated by the miniatures, drawings and paintings from that time which have survived. As he describes them: Ferrier, RW, ''A journey to Persia: Jean Chardin's portrait of a seventeenth-century empire'', p. 110. Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
Last-Afghan-empire title Last Afghan empire author Louis Dupree (Louis Dupree (professor)), Nancy Hatch Dupree and others publisher Encyclopædia Britannica Online accessdate 10 September 2010 Pashtuns played a vital role during the Great Game (The Great Game) from the 19th century to the 20th century as they were caught between the imperialist designs of the British (British Raj) and Russian (Russian Empire) empires. File:Ghilzai nomads in Afghanistan.jpg thumb
Abdolaziz Farmanfarmaian and Hooshang Seyhoun are examples of this movement. Later, in mid-1960s, Ali Sardar Afkhami, Kamran Diba and Nader Ardalan are among those Iranian architects who have opened their design approach to the history and traditions to represent a trend of Iranian Post-Modernism. The Pakhtun conqueror Sher Shah Suri, turned Peshawar's renaissance into a boom when he ran his Delhi-to-Kabul Shahi Road, now called the Grand Trunk Road, through the Khyber Pass and Peshawar. Thus the Mughals turned Peshawar into a "City of Flowers" by planting trees and laying out gardens similar to those found to the west in Persia. The Mughals and Safavids (Safavid dynasty) of Iran would often contest the region as well. Khushal Khan Khattak, the Pakhtun Afghan warrior poet, was born near Peshawar and his life was intimately tied to the city. He was also an implacable foe of the Mughal rulers, especially Aurangzeb. Khattak apparently was an early Pakhtun nationalist, who agitated for an independent Afghanistan including Peshawar. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the city came under Persian control during the reign of Nadir Shah by the 18th century. Past The representation of living beings in Islamic art is not just a modern phenomenon or due to current technology, westernization or the cult of the personality (Cult of personality). Frescos and reliefs of humans and animals adorned palaces of the Ummayad (Umayyad Caliphate) era, as on the famous Mshatta facade now in Berlin. Allen, Terry, "Aniconism and Figural Representation in Islamic Art", Palm Tree Books Educational Site: Archaeological Sites: Qusayr `Amra Figurative miniatures in books occur later in most Islamic countries, though somewhat less in Arabic-speaking areas. The human figure is central to the Persian miniature and other traditions such as the Ottoman miniature and Mughal painting, and represents a good deal of the attractiveness of Islamic art for non-Muslims. Reza Abbasi Museum "Portraits of the Sultans," Topkapi Palace Museum The Persian miniature tradition began when Persian courts were Sunni, and continued after the Shiah Safavid dynasty took power. Shah Tahmasp I of Persia began as a keen patron and amateur artist himself, but turned against painting and other forbidden activities after a religious crisis in mid-life. From the 13th to 17th century depictions of Muhammad, in later examples usually veiled, Bibliotheque nationale de France - Torah, Bible, Coran; Bibliotheque nationale de France - Torah, Bible, Coran ) and other prophets or Biblical (Bible) characters, like Adam, "Angels Kneeling before Adam from ''Stories of the Prophets'' Bnf - Torah, Bible, Coran Abraham Bibliotheque nationale de France - Torah, Bible, Coran or Jesus Bnf - Torah, Bible, Coran and Solomon Bibliotheque nationale de France - Torah, Bible, Coran and Alexander the Great (often identified with a figure in the Quran (Alexander the Great in the Quran)), Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
' (Islamic law) marja s'' who practice ''ijtihad''.
postscript It achieved its greatest influence in the late Safavid and early post-Safavid era, when it dominated Twelver Shia Islam.
An introduction to Shi'i Islam : the history and doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism edition volume series publication-place Oxford place publisher G. Ronald pages page 222 id isbn 0-85398-201-5 doi oclc url accessdate postscript It remains only a small minority in the Shia Muslim world. One result of the resolution of this conflict was the rise in importance of the concept of ijtihad and the position
;John Onians, Atlas of World Art, Laurence King Publishing, 2004. pg 132. It was the Mongol ethnicity of the Chaghatayid (Chagatai Khanate) and Timurid Khans (Khan (title)) that is the source of the stylistic depiction Persian art during the Middle Ages. These same Mongols intermarried with the Persians (Persian people) and Turks (Turkic peoples) of Central Asia, even adopting their religion and languages. Yet their simple control of the world at that time, particularly
occasions like weddings and the Nowruz, while men of status never wore the same turban two days running. Clothes that became soiled in any way were changed immediately. Ferrier; p. 124. Turks and Tajiks Although the Safavid rulers and citizens were of native stock and continuously reasserted their Iranian identity, the power structure of the Safavid state was mainly divided into two groups: the Turkic-speaking military ruling elite—whose job was to maintain
on court poetry, painting, and monumental architecture that symbolized not only the Islamic credentials of the state but also the glory of the ancient Persian traditions." while members of the family and some Shahs composed Persian poetry as well. Colin P. Mitchell, "Ṭahmāsp I" in ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. "Shah Ṭahmāsp's own brother, Sām Mirzā, wrote the Taḏkera-yetoḥfa-ye sāmi, in which he mentioned 700 poets during the reigns of the first two Safavid
name "gBooks" era status Empire status_text empire
; Richard Wilson, “When Golden Time Convents
in Persia. And his power reached its peak in 1598, when he became the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Savory; p. 82. Thus, this new group eventually came to constitute a powerful "third force" within the state, alongside the Persians and the Qizilbash Turks, and it only goes to prove the meritocratic society of the Safavids. It is estimated that during Abbas' reign some 130,000-200,000 Georgians, Eskandar Beg, pp. 900-901, tr. Savory, II, p. 1116<
, and many others. Transcendent Theosophy The third period, according to Corbin, begins in the 16th century after emergence of Safavid dynasty in Persia. The most prominent figure of this period
The '''Safavid dynasty''' ( The Safavid shahs ruled over one of the so-called gunpowder empires (Gunpowder Empires), one that had neither the power, weath nor longevity of the empires of the Ottoman (its rival) nor the Mughal (its occasional ally). Streusand, Douglas E., ''Islamic Gunpowder Empires: Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals'' (Boulder, Col : Westview Press, 2011) ("Streusand"), p. 135. But they ruled one of the greatest Persian empires after the Muslim conquest of Persia Helen Chapin Metz. ''Iran, a Country study''. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313. Emory C. Bogle. ''Islam: Origin and Belief''. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145. Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77. Andrew J. Newman, ''Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire'', IB Tauris (March 30, 2006). and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam (Imamah (Shi'a Twelver doctrine)) RM Savory, ''Safavids'', ''Encyclopedia of Islam'', 2nd ed. as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history.
The empire presided over by the Safavids was not a revival of the Achaemenids or the Sasanians, and it more resembled the Ilkhanate and Timurid (Timurid dynasty) empires than the Islamic caliphate. Nor was it a direct precursor to the modern Iranian state. According to Donald Struesand, " a lthough the Safavid unification of the eastern and western halves of the Iranian plateau and imposition of Twelver Shii Islam on the region created a recognizable precursor of modern Iran, the Safavid polity itself was neither distinctively Iranian nor national." Streusand, p. 137. Rudolph Matthee concluded that " t hough not a nation-state, Safavid Iran contained the elements that would later spawn one by generating many enduring bureaucratic features and by initiating a polity of overlapping religious and territorial boundaries." Rudolph P. Matthee, ''The Politics of Trade in Safavid Iran: Silk for Silver, 1600-1730'' (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 231.
The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of modern Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain and Armenia, most of Georgia (Georgia (country)), the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Unlike the Ottomans and the Mughals, the Safavids did not gradually extend their territory over successive generations. Rather, in an initial burst of religion-infused enthusiasm ("a blend of ''ghuluww (Ghulat)'', Turko-Mongol conceptions of kingship, and the folk Sufism of the Turkmen" Struesand, p. 135. ), they reached their geographical apogee almost immediately, soon lost large chunks of territory, mostly to the Ottomans, and spent much of their history contesting that loss and protecting against further territorial constriction, until they rather suddenly succumbed to rapid collapse in 1722. Struesand, p. 136.
The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safaviyya Sufi order (sufism), which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan (Iran)) region. It was of mixed ancestry (Azerbaijani (Azerbaijani people), "Peoples of Iran" ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. RN Frye. Kurdish (Kurdish people), RM Savory. Ebn Bazzaz. ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' Persian (Persian people), Roger M. Savory. "Safavids" in Peter Burke, Irfan Habib, Halil İnalcık: ''History of Humanity-Scientific and Cultural Development: From the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century'', Taylor & Francis. 1999, p. 259. and Turkmen (Turkmen people) Peter B. Golden: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples; In: Osman Karatay, Ankara 2002, p.321 which included intermarriages with Georgian (Georgians), Aptin Khanbaghi (2006) ''The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early''. London & New York. IB Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-056-0, pp. 130-1 Circassian (Circassians), ''Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire'', L.B. Tauris. 2006, p. 41. Rudolph (Rudi) Matthee ''Encyclopaedia Iranica'', Columbia University, New York 2001, p.493 and Pontic Greeks Pontic Greek Anthony Bryer. "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", ''Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 29'' (1975), Appendix II "Genealogy of the Muslim Marriages of the Princesses of Trebizond" dignitaries). From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over all of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity (culture of Iran) of the region, ''Why is there such confusion about the origins of this important dynasty, which reasserted Iranian identity and established an independent Iranian state after eight and a half centuries of rule by foreign dynasties?'' RM Savory, ''Iran under the Safavids'' (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980), p. 3. thus becoming the first native dynasty since the Sasanian Empire to establish a unified Iranian state. Alireza Shapur Shahbazi (2005), "The History of the Idea of Iran", in Vesta Curtis ed., Birth of the Persian Empire, IB Tauris, London, p. 108: "Similarly the collapse of Sassanian Eranshahr in AD 650 did not end Iranians' national idea. The name "Iran" disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor. But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam. On the other hand, when the Safavids (not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations".
Despite their demise in 1736, the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Persia as an economic stronghold between East and West, the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy based upon "checks and balances", their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts. The Safavids have also left their mark down to the present era by spreading Shi'a Islam (Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism) in Iran, as well as major parts of the Caucasus, Anatolia, Central Asia, and South Asia.