a vast "Cosmopolitan Railway" in 1890 linking the entire world via a series of railways. Two years later, Joseph Strauss (Joseph Strauss (engineer)), who went on to design over 400 bridges, including the Golden Gate Bridge, put forward the first proposal for a Bering Strait railroad bridge in his senior thesis. Kevin Starr. ''Endangered Dreams: The Great Depression in California'', 330. Oxford University Press, 1996. ISBN 0195100808 The project
theatre and art veterans were advocates of the Constructivist (Constructivism (art)) school in Russia, as opposed to Stanislavski's (Konstantin Stanislavski) form of Realism (Realism (arts)), and they convinced Aronson to embrace the Constructivist style. Biography Boris Schatz was born in Varniai, Kaunas district, Lithuania, under the rule of the Russian Empire in 1867. His father, a teacher in a ''cheder'' (a religious school), sent him to study in a yeshiva
wounded from the battlefield to Moscow and Ekaterinoslav hospitals. Smith, p. 311. In the late 19th century Hunza became embroiled in the Great Game, the rivalry between Britain (British Raj) and Russia (Russian Empire) for control of the northern approaches to India. The British suspected Russian involvement "with the Rulers of the petty States on the northern boundary of Kashmir;"
and exploitation of petroleum in the 1870s led to a period of unprecedented prosperity and growth in the years prior to World War I but also created huge disparities in wealth between the largely European capitalists and the local Muslim work force. By 1900, the population of Baku increased from 10,000 to roughly 250,000 people as a result of worker migration from all over the Russian Empire, Iran, and other places. The growth of Baku and the progression of an exploitative economy resulted
(Maria Giurgea, Constantin Nottara and Aristizza Romanescu among them). Beginning 1905, the paper had for its illustrator Iosif Iser, one of the major graphic artists of his generation, whose satirical drawings most often targeted Carol I and Russian (Russian Empire) Emperor (List of Russian rulers) Nicholas II (Nicholas II of Russia) (attacked for violently suppressing the 1905 Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1905)). ref>
online More extreme social doctrines were elaborated by such Russian radicals on the left as Alexander Herzen, Mikhail Bakunin, and Peter Kropotkin.
grandmother's maiden name was Kyrgyz and her family originated from Kars (Kars Province), Turkey. Dylan, ''Chronicles, Volume One'', pp. 92–93. The film depicts a strike (Strike action) in 1903 by the workers of a factory in pre-revolutionary Russia (Russian Empire), and their subsequent suppression. The film is most famous for a sequence near the end in which the violent putting down of the strike is cross-cut (cross-cutting) with footage of cattle being slaughtered
likened the social democratic project to the successful social democratic effort to divest the king of all power but formal grandeur: “Without dangerous and disruptive internal fights…After a few decades they (capitalists) will then remain, perhaps formally as kings, but in reality as naked symbols of a passed and inferior development state.” Pp. 101-102 in Adler-Karlsson, Gunnar. 1967. Functional Socialism. Stockholm: Prisma. Cited on p. 196 in Berman, Sheri. 2006. The Primacy
be bordered by large classical style buildings and numerous city parks. A prominent example of this later development is the former House of Charity (built in 1786), which is now one of the buildings of the city's 'Demidov' State University (Yaroslavl State University). '''Alexei Nikolaevich''' ( ) (12 August 1904 — 17 July 1918) of the House of Romanov, was the Tsesarevich and heir apparent to the throne of the Russian Empire. He was the youngest
; for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -- In Iran, a popular for a Baha'i conspiracy to destroy Islam is a short book entitled ''Italic text'' Khatirat-e Kenyaz-e Dolgoruki (The Memoirs of Count Dolgoruki Dolgorukov). Attributed to the mid-19th century, it was, in fact, written in the 1930s or 1940s and is filled with historical errors, notably mistakes about the real Count Dolgorukov, a Russian diplomat. 'These accusations against
religion Official Russian Orthodox (Russian Orthodox Church) header Minority content government_type Autocracy (Tsarist autocracy) title_leader Emperor (Emperor of Russia) leader1 Peter I (Peter the Great) year_leader1 leader2 Nicholas II (Nicholas II of Russia) year_leader2 title_deputy deputy1 Sergei Witte year_deputy1 deputy2 Nikolai Golitsyn year_deputy2 1917 legislature Emperor (Emperor of Russia) exercises legislative power in conjunction with the house1 State Council (State Council of Imperial Russia) house2 State Duma (State Duma of the Russian Empire) event_pre Accession of Peter I (Peter the Great) date_pre event_start Empire proclaimed date_start event1 Decembrist revolt date_event1 event2 date_event2 event3 1905 Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1905) date_event3 Jan–Dec 1905 event4 date_event4 event_end February Revolution date_end event_post October Revolution date_post stat_year1 1866 stat_area1 22800000 stat_year2 1916 stat_area2 21799825 stat_year3 1916 stat_area3 stat_pop3 181,537,800 currency Ruble (Russian ruble) p1 Tsardom of Russia flag_p1 Flag of Oryol (variant).svg s1 Russian Republic flag_s1 Flag of Russia.svg s2 Ober Ost flag_s2 Flag of the German Empire.svg s3 Karafuto Prefecture flag_s3 Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg s4 Department of Alaska flag_s4 US flag 48 stars.svg s5 Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus flag_s5 Flag of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.svg s6 State of Buryat-Mongolia flag_s6 Flag of Mongolia (1911-1921).svg today header content footnotes b. '''^ (#infob)''' Renamed Petrograd in 1914.
The '''Russian Empire''' (Pre-reform Russian orthography (Reforms of Russian orthography): Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian (Russian language): Российская империя, translit (Romanization of Russian): ''Rossiyskaya Imperiya'') was a state (Sovereign state) that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917 (February Revolution). . Swain says, "The first government to be formed after the February Revolution of 1917 had, with one exception, been composed of liberals." One of the largest empires (List of largest empires) in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British (British Empire) and Mongol (Mongol Empire) empires. It played a major role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe, and expanded to the west and south. It was often in conflict with the Ottoman Empire (which in turn was usually protected by the British).
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, and (until 1867) into Alaska in North America on the east. In pictures: Russian Empire in colour photos, BBC News Magazine, March 2012. With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census (Russian Empire Census), it had the third largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China (Qing Dynasty) and the British Empire. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, ethnicity, and religion. There were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts; they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire was heavily rural, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, until they were freed in 1861. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility called Boyars from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and then was ruled by an emperor called the "Tsar" (Emperor of All Russia). Tsar Ivan III (Ivan III of Russia) (1462–1505) laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged. He tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great (1682–1725) fought numerous wars and built a huge empire that became a major European power. He moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, and led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system.
Catherine the Great (1761–1796) presided over a golden age. She expanded the nation rapidly by conquest, colonization and diplomacy. She continued Peter the Great's policy of modernisation along West European lines. Tsar Alexander II (Alexander II of Russia) (1855–1881) promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe was to protect the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That involvement by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War (World War I) on the side of Serbia and the Allies, and against the German, Austrian and Ottoman empires. Russia was an absolute monarchy until the Revolution of 1905 and then became a constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 (February Revolution), the result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War.