state hardly lasted a year and was soon dissolved. Since the Republic was short-lived, it did not use any flags or symbols. Nevertheless, some historians consider a horizontal gold, black, and red tricolor, similar to that of the German flag (Flag of Germany) but arranged differently, to have been flag of Transcaucasia.
Armenia declared its independence and joined the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, together with Georgia (Georgia (country)) and Azerbaijan. This unified state hardly lasted a year and was soon dissolved. Since the Republic was short-lived, it did not use any flags or symbols. Nevertheless, some historians consider a horizontal gold, black, and red tricolor, similar to that of the German flag (Flag of Germany) but arranged differently, to have been flag
of Alaska who was a prominent fisher (fishing), hunter (hunting), and trapper (animal trapping). He became the first licensed big game (Big game hunting) guide in Alaska. Early life and emigration Andrew Berg was born Anders Berg on October 16, 1869 in Nykarleby, Finland, then part of the Russian Empire. His father Johan and mother Lovisa owned a small farm. The family also hunted and fished. Because of extreme poverty, Andrew left Finland in 1887 at the age of 16
of stop-motion short films, and became a director of feature length films combining live-action, stop-motion, creative special effects, and Russian mythology. Along the way he would be responsible for a number of firsts in Russian film history (including the first feature (feature film)-length animated film, and the first film in color), and would make several extremely popular and internationally praised films full of visual flair and spectacle. '''Rawa''' ('''Rawicz'''), is a coat
Asian newspapers, including ''Pravda Vostoka'' in Tashkent. He achieved prominence as a talented reporter and was invited to move to Moscow to work for the ''Izvestia''. From there, he covered the massive Soviet construction and heavy industry-building campaigns and became a prominent propagandist, such as the White Sea – Baltic Canal, Uralmash, etc. He also wrote movie scripts and radio plays, and El-Registan is perhaps better known for his script of the Soviet film
(Russian Empire), present day Rēzekne, Latvia. His brother-in-law was Veniamin Kaverin, another well-known Russian author. While attending the Petrograd University (Saint Petersburg State University), Tynyanov frequented the Pushkin seminar held by a venerable literary academic, Semyon Vengerov. His first works made their appearance in print in 1921. An incident illustrates the circumstances under which Polish society then labored. At one of Modrzejewska's Warsaw performances
character character of the people who created them. By the 17th century, the proverbs were collected and documented. They were studied in the 19th and 20th centuries. Vladimir Dal was a famous lexicographer of the Russian Empire whose collection was published in Russian language in the late 19th century as ''The Sayings and Bywords of the Russian People,'' featuring more than 30,000 entries. They continue to endure in modern literature and folklore. Image:Slavic
attempts to implement fundamental internal reforms; with the second half of the century bringing a much improved economy, significant population growth and far-reaching progress in the areas of education, intellectual life, art, and especially toward the end of the period, evolution of the social and political system. The most populous capital city of Warsaw replaced Gdańsk (Danzig) as the leading centre of commerce, and the role of the more prosperous townsfolk soon increased. The Royal
online More extreme social doctrines were elaborated by such Russian radicals on the left as Alexander Herzen, Mikhail Bakunin, and Peter Kropotkin.
of Sydney explorer, ethnologist (ethnology), anthropologist and biologist who became famous as the first scientist to settle among and study people who had never seen a white man. Webster, E. M. (1984). ''The Moon Man: A Biography of Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay''. University of California Press, Berkeley. 421 pages. ISBN 0-520-05435-0 '''Nicholas Miklouho-Maclay''' ( ,
scientist to settle among and study people who had never seen a white man. Webster, E. M. (1984). ''The Moon Man: A Biography of Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay''. University of California Press, Berkeley. 421 pages. ISBN 0-520-05435-0 Head of the Royal House of Georgia Known as "Giorgi" in Georgia, the prince became a claimant (pretender) to the Headship of the Georgian royal family in exile upon the death of his father on October
the introduction of the local languages into all spheres of public life and usage of the local languages to the widest possible extent, particularly, in education, publishing, culture, and, most importantly, government and the Communist Party (CPSU). Not only was the local cadre of the titular nations to be promoted at all levels but the ethnic Russians who served in the local governments were encouraged (or required) to learn the local culture. In most cases korenizatsiya was preceded by National
religion Official Russian Orthodox (Russian Orthodox Church) header Minority content government_type Autocracy (Tsarist autocracy) title_leader Emperor (Emperor of Russia) leader1 Peter I (Peter the Great) year_leader1 leader2 Nicholas II (Nicholas II of Russia) year_leader2 title_deputy deputy1 Sergei Witte year_deputy1 deputy2 Nikolai Golitsyn year_deputy2 1917 legislature Emperor (Emperor of Russia) exercises legislative power in conjunction with the house1 State Council (State Council of Imperial Russia) house2 State Duma (State Duma of the Russian Empire) event_pre Accession of Peter I (Peter the Great) date_pre event_start Empire proclaimed date_start event1 Decembrist revolt date_event1 event2 date_event2 event3 1905 Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1905) date_event3 Jan–Dec 1905 event4 date_event4 event_end February Revolution date_end event_post October Revolution date_post stat_year1 1866 stat_area1 22800000 stat_year2 1916 stat_area2 21799825 stat_year3 1916 stat_area3 stat_pop3 181,537,800 currency Ruble (Russian ruble) p1 Tsardom of Russia flag_p1 Flag of Oryol (variant).svg s1 Russian Republic flag_s1 Flag of Russia.svg s2 Ober Ost flag_s2 Flag of the German Empire.svg s3 Karafuto Prefecture flag_s3 Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg s4 Department of Alaska flag_s4 US flag 48 stars.svg s5 Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus flag_s5 Flag of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.svg s6 State of Buryat-Mongolia flag_s6 Flag of Mongolia (1911-1921).svg today header content footnotes b. '''^ (#infob)''' Renamed Petrograd in 1914.
The '''Russian Empire''' (Pre-reform Russian orthography (Reforms of Russian orthography): Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian (Russian language): Российская империя, translit (Romanization of Russian): ''Rossiyskaya Imperiya'') was a state (Sovereign state) that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917 (February Revolution). . Swain says, "The first government to be formed after the February Revolution of 1917 had, with one exception, been composed of liberals." One of the largest empires (List of largest empires) in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British (British Empire) and Mongol (Mongol Empire) empires. It played a major role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe, and expanded to the west and south. It was often in conflict with the Ottoman Empire (which in turn was usually protected by the British).
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, and (until 1867) into Alaska in North America on the east. In pictures: Russian Empire in colour photos, BBC News Magazine, March 2012. With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census (Russian Empire Census), it had the third largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China (Qing Dynasty) and the British Empire. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, ethnicity, and religion. There were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts; they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire was heavily rural, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, until they were freed in 1861. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility called Boyars from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and then was ruled by an emperor called the "Tsar" (Emperor of All Russia). Tsar Ivan III (Ivan III of Russia) (1462–1505) laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged. He tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great (1682–1725) fought numerous wars and built a huge empire that became a major European power. He moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, and led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system.
Catherine the Great (1761–1796) presided over a golden age. She expanded the nation rapidly by conquest, colonization and diplomacy. She continued Peter the Great's policy of modernisation along West European lines. Tsar Alexander II (Alexander II of Russia) (1855–1881) promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe was to protect the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That involvement by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War (World War I) on the side of Serbia and the Allies, and against the German, Austrian and Ottoman empires. Russia was an absolute monarchy until the Revolution of 1905 and then became a constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 (February Revolution), the result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War.