September 1789, a detachment of Russian forces (Armed Forces of the Russian Federation) under Ivan Gudovich took Khadjibey and Yeni Dünya for the Russian Empire. One part of the troops came under command of a Spaniard (Spanish people) in Russian service, Major General José de Ribas (known in Russia as Osip Mikhailovich Deribas), and the main street in Odessa today, Derybasivska Street (Deribasovskaya Street), is named after him. Russia formally gained possession of the area
isbn 052136051 pages 31–58 editor L. C. Moll chapter Vygotsky: The man and his cause (p. 35) and publish "copies of great literary works". The Russian Empire lost territories with about 30
The causes of World War I included many factors, including the conflicts and antagonisms of the four decades leading up to the war. The Triple Entente was the name given to the loose alignment between the United Kingdom (British Empire), France (French Third Republic), and Russia (Russian Empire) after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente in 1907. The alignment of the three powers, supplemented by various agreements with Japan (Empire of Japan), the United States, and Spain (Spain under the Restoration), constituted a powerful counterweight to the Triple Alliance (Triple Alliance (1882)) of Germany (German Empire), Austria-Hungary, and Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)), the third having concluded an additional secret agreement with France effectively nullifying her Alliance commitments. Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism played major roles in the conflict. The immediate origins of the war lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and generals during the July crisis of 1914, the spark (or casus belli) for which was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed and the Soviets (Soviet republic (system of government)) under the domination of the Bolshevik party assumed power, first in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) (Saint Petersburg) and then in other places. In the wake of the October Revolution, the old Russian Imperial Army had been demobilized; the volunteer-based Red Guard was the Bolsheviks' main military force, augmented by an armed military component of the Cheka, the Bolshevik state security apparatus. There was an instituted mandatory conscription of the rural peasantry into the Red Army. Read, Christopher, ''From Tsar to Soviets'', Oxford University Press (1996), p. 237: By 1920, 77% of the Red Army's enlisted ranks were composed of peasant conscripts. Opposition of rural Russians to Red Army conscription units was overcome by taking hostages and shooting them when necessary in order to force compliance. Williams, Beryl, ''The Russian Revolution 1917-1921'', Blackwell Publishing Ltd. (1987), ISBN 9780631150831: Typically, men of conscriptible age (17-40) in a village would vanish when Red Army draft units approached. The taking of hostages and a few exemplary executions usually brought the men back. Former Tsarist officers were utilized as "military specialists" (''voenspetsy''), Overy, R.J., ''The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia'', W.W. Norton & Company (2004), ISBN 9780393020304, p. 446: By the end of the civil war, one-third of all Red Army officers were ex-Tsarist ''voenspetsy''. sometimes taking their families hostage
musicals were influenced by black music, showing elements of early jazz, such as ''In Dahomey''; the Jewish composers of these works may have seen connections between the traditional African American blue notes and their own folk Jewish music. '''Aleksander Ford''' born '''Mosze Lifszyc''' (24 November 1908, Kiev, Russian Empire now Ukraine – 4 April 1980, Naples, Florida, United States) was a Polish (Poland) film director; and head of the Polish
March 1886, Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire – 3 October 1981, Warsaw, People's Republic of Poland), a pupil of Kazimierz Twardowski, was a Polish (Poles) philosopher, logician, one of the most representative figures of the Lwów-Warsaw School (Lwów–Warsaw School of Logic), and a member of the Polish Academy of Learning (PAU) as well as the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN). He created a philosophical theory called "reism" (
an early ability in music, and began private piano lessons with August Freyer Culture.pl Stanisław Moniuszko in 1827. In 1837, once his talent and interest justified it, Moniuszko began to formally study composition (musical composition) in Berlin with Karl Friedrich Rungenhagen, the director of the "Singakademie" Music Society, ref name "pmic">
for his early landscapes and seascapes, he went on to paint a series of portraits of Crimean coastal towns before travelling throughout Europe. In later life, his paintings of naval scenes earned him a long-standing commission from the Russian Navy stationed in the Black Sea. File:Louise Berliawsky Nevelson with her classmates, 1913.jpg thumb left Nevelson (fourth from left) posing for a class portrait with her classmates, 1913, unidentified photographer. Louise Nevelson papers, Archives
2011 While the differences had been evident for decades, World War I was to prove the issue that finally divided the revolutionary and reformist (reformism) wings of the workers' movement. The socialist movement had been historically antimilitarist and internationalist (proletarian internationalism), and was therefore opposed to being used as "cannon fodder" for the "bourgeois" governments at war. This especially since the Triple Alliance (1882) comprised
Moscow, Russian Federation (Moscow)) The '''Τreaty of Constantinople''' was the product of the Constantinople Conference which opened in February 1832 with the participation of the Great Powers (Great power) (Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), France (July Monarchy) and Russia (Russian Empire)) on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other. The factors which shaped the treaty included the refusal of Léopold (Léopold I of Belgium), King
lead ship engineer mentioning these colours as they were used by ships sailing under the flag of the Dutch Republic. This was in answer to a requested suggestion by the Tsar in 1668, who was to introduce the first flag of the Russian Empire that year. The other, probably romanticized and less accurate theory it is related to Peter the Great, who has first introduced these colours as the naval flag of the Russian Empire after a Dutch frigate was delivered to him from Amsterdam
religion Official Russian Orthodox (Russian Orthodox Church) header Minority content government_type Autocracy (Tsarist autocracy) title_leader Emperor (Emperor of Russia) leader1 Peter I (Peter the Great) year_leader1 leader2 Nicholas II (Nicholas II of Russia) year_leader2 title_deputy deputy1 Sergei Witte year_deputy1 deputy2 Nikolai Golitsyn year_deputy2 1917 legislature Emperor (Emperor of Russia) exercises legislative power in conjunction with the house1 State Council (State Council of Imperial Russia) house2 State Duma (State Duma of the Russian Empire) event_pre Accession of Peter I (Peter the Great) date_pre event_start Empire proclaimed date_start event1 Decembrist revolt date_event1 event2 date_event2 event3 1905 Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1905) date_event3 Jan–Dec 1905 event4 date_event4 event_end February Revolution date_end event_post October Revolution date_post stat_year1 1866 stat_area1 22800000 stat_year2 1916 stat_area2 21799825 stat_year3 1916 stat_area3 stat_pop3 181,537,800 currency Ruble (Russian ruble) p1 Tsardom of Russia flag_p1 Flag of Oryol (variant).svg s1 Russian Republic flag_s1 Flag of Russia.svg s2 Ober Ost flag_s2 Flag of the German Empire.svg s3 Karafuto Prefecture flag_s3 Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg s4 Department of Alaska flag_s4 US flag 48 stars.svg s5 Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus flag_s5 Flag of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.svg s6 State of Buryat-Mongolia flag_s6 Flag of Mongolia (1911-1921).svg today header content footnotes b. '''^ (#infob)''' Renamed Petrograd in 1914.
The '''Russian Empire''' (Pre-reform Russian orthography (Reforms of Russian orthography): Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian (Russian language): Российская империя, translit (Romanization of Russian): ''Rossiyskaya Imperiya'') was a state (Sovereign state) that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917 (February Revolution). . Swain says, "The first government to be formed after the February Revolution of 1917 had, with one exception, been composed of liberals." One of the largest empires (List of largest empires) in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British (British Empire) and Mongol (Mongol Empire) empires. It played a major role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe, and expanded to the west and south. It was often in conflict with the Ottoman Empire (which in turn was usually protected by the British).
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, and (until 1867) into Alaska in North America on the east. In pictures: Russian Empire in colour photos, BBC News Magazine, March 2012. With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census (Russian Empire Census), it had the third largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China (Qing Dynasty) and the British Empire. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, ethnicity, and religion. There were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts; they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire was heavily rural, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, until they were freed in 1861. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility called Boyars from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and then was ruled by an emperor called the "Tsar" (Emperor of All Russia). Tsar Ivan III (Ivan III of Russia) (1462–1505) laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged. He tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great (1682–1725) fought numerous wars and built a huge empire that became a major European power. He moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, and led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system.
Catherine the Great (1761–1796) presided over a golden age. She expanded the nation rapidly by conquest, colonization and diplomacy. She continued Peter the Great's policy of modernisation along West European lines. Tsar Alexander II (Alexander II of Russia) (1855–1881) promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe was to protect the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That involvement by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War (World War I) on the side of Serbia and the Allies, and against the German, Austrian and Ottoman empires. Russia was an absolute monarchy until the Revolution of 1905 and then became a constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 (February Revolution), the result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War.