as a liberal-cultural movement in the 1880s.''
in Ukraine , the factory was put to work designing and building tractors, then tanks after 1927. The Bolshevik Factory in Leningrad and the KhPZ were the first two Soviet tank factories, modernized in 1929 with German (Germany) assistance under the Treaty of Rapallo, 1922. nickname allegiance Russian Empire, Soviet Union serviceyears 1912 - 1958 The host was made up of several Cossack groups who were re-settled there. The most numerous were the former
might find itself fighting on two fronts (front (military)): France (French Third Republic) to the west and Russia (Russian Empire) to the east. The First World War (World War I) later became such a war, with both a Western Front (Western Front (World War I)) and an Eastern Front (Eastern Front (World War I)). Russia The expansion of the Grand Duchy of Moscow and later of the Russian Empire throughout 15th to 20th centuries created a unique melting pot. Though
, Bessarabia is occupied by the USSR. In 1991 as a result of the proclamation of Independence of Moldova, part and residence of the Orhei County (1991–2003), and in 2003 became administrative unit of Moldova. The earliest attestations of human presence within today's Soroca district is located near the village Rudi (Rudi) here and discovered traces of prehistoric man with old 35-50.000 years. Like ancient defensive walls or found (IV-3rd century BC), two cities from the ground
in Latvia. He belonged to an ancient family of Baltic German nobility and was a cousin of the philosopher Hermann Keyserling. He died in Munich, Bavaria. Name The town had a large Jewish (Jews) population prior to World War II. In 1900 (when part of the Russian Empire) the town's Jewish population numbered 1,174. The Yiddish name for the city was סרעדניק (''Srednik''), corresponding to the Polish (Polish language) and Russian
in the East, which were controlled by the Bolsheviks at the time of the elections, while the National Democrats' electoral support lay in central and western Poland. The peace negotiations were of a political nature. National Democrats, like Stanisław Grabski, who earlier had resigned his post to protest the Polish–Ukrainian alliance ref name "Snyder" >
Antonovych acknowledged the fact that during Russo-Polish wars "Ukraine" had only a geographical meaning of borderlands of both states but "Little Russia" was an ethnic name of Little (Southern) Russian people. In his prominent work "Two Russian nationalities" Kostomarov uses Southern Russia and Little Russia interchangeably. Костомаров М. Две русские народности Основа. — СПб., 1861. — Март. ref>
response against the policy of Russian integration since 1899. Background The main factor behind the Finnish Civil War was World War I. The conflict caused a collapse of the Russian Empire and the February Revolution and the October Revolution during 1917. This led to a formation of a large power vacuum, which led to a power struggle. The autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, as a part
Flying Machine". Metal Finishing News 8. thumb 350px Gustave Whitehead and his 1901 monoplane taken near Whitehead's Pine Street shop. His infant daughter, Rose, sits on her father's lap, and the engine that powers the front landing-gear wheels is on the ground in front of the others. (File:Plane rear w crew.jpg) The war's end triggered the abdication of aging monarchies (monarchy) and the collapse of the last modern empires of Russia (Russian Empire), German Empire
Derivatives''," dealt with the derivatization of caffeine and was an extension of Prescott's work. Gomberg, ''American Chemical Journal'' (1892) '''14''' 611-19. Appointed an instructor in 1893, Gomberg worked at the University of Michigan for the duration of his professional academic career, becoming chair of the Department of Chemistry from 1927 until his retirement in 1936. Dr. Gomberg served as President of the American Chemical Society in 1931. He never
religion Official Russian Orthodox (Russian Orthodox Church) header Minority content government_type Autocracy (Tsarist autocracy) title_leader Emperor (Emperor of Russia) leader1 Peter I (Peter the Great) year_leader1 leader2 Nicholas II (Nicholas II of Russia) year_leader2 title_deputy deputy1 Sergei Witte year_deputy1 deputy2 Nikolai Golitsyn year_deputy2 1917 legislature Emperor (Emperor of Russia) exercises legislative power in conjunction with the house1 State Council (State Council of Imperial Russia) house2 State Duma (State Duma of the Russian Empire) event_pre Accession of Peter I (Peter the Great) date_pre event_start Empire proclaimed date_start event1 Decembrist revolt date_event1 event2 date_event2 event3 1905 Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1905) date_event3 Jan–Dec 1905 event4 date_event4 event_end February Revolution date_end event_post October Revolution date_post stat_year1 1866 stat_area1 22800000 stat_year2 1916 stat_area2 21799825 stat_year3 1916 stat_area3 stat_pop3 181,537,800 currency Ruble (Russian ruble) p1 Tsardom of Russia flag_p1 Flag of Oryol (variant).svg s1 Russian Republic flag_s1 Flag of Russia.svg s2 Ober Ost flag_s2 Flag of the German Empire.svg s3 Karafuto Prefecture flag_s3 Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg s4 Department of Alaska flag_s4 US flag 48 stars.svg s5 Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus flag_s5 Flag of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.svg s6 State of Buryat-Mongolia flag_s6 Flag of Mongolia (1911-1921).svg today header content footnotes b. '''^ (#infob)''' Renamed Petrograd in 1914.
The '''Russian Empire''' (Pre-reform Russian orthography (Reforms of Russian orthography): Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian (Russian language): Российская империя, translit (Romanization of Russian): ''Rossiyskaya Imperiya'') was a state (Sovereign state) that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917 (February Revolution). . Swain says, "The first government to be formed after the February Revolution of 1917 had, with one exception, been composed of liberals." One of the largest empires (List of largest empires) in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British (British Empire) and Mongol (Mongol Empire) empires. It played a major role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe, and expanded to the west and south. It was often in conflict with the Ottoman Empire (which in turn was usually protected by the British).
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, and (until 1867) into Alaska in North America on the east. In pictures: Russian Empire in colour photos, BBC News Magazine, March 2012. With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census (Russian Empire Census), it had the third largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China (Qing Dynasty) and the British Empire. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, ethnicity, and religion. There were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts; they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire was heavily rural, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, until they were freed in 1861. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility called Boyars from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and then was ruled by an emperor called the "Tsar" (Emperor of All Russia). Tsar Ivan III (Ivan III of Russia) (1462–1505) laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged. He tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great (1682–1725) fought numerous wars and built a huge empire that became a major European power. He moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, and led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system.
Catherine the Great (1761–1796) presided over a golden age. She expanded the nation rapidly by conquest, colonization and diplomacy. She continued Peter the Great's policy of modernisation along West European lines. Tsar Alexander II (Alexander II of Russia) (1855–1881) promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe was to protect the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That involvement by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War (World War I) on the side of Serbia and the Allies, and against the German, Austrian and Ottoman empires. Russia was an absolute monarchy until the Revolution of 1905 and then became a constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 (February Revolution), the result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War.