in ''Cissy: The Extraordinary Life of Eleanor Medill Patterson'' by Ralph G. Martin, Simon and Schuster, 1979 '''La Manga Cup''' is a winter football (football (soccer)) tournament played in La Manga del Mar Menor (La Manga) (Murcia (Region of Murcia), Spain). Usual participants are clubs from countries with a summer football season: Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway (Football in Norway), Russia, Ukraine, and the Major League Soccer United States
matters at least as much as economics to the markets". In recent years, new terms have emerged to describe the largest developing countries such as BRIC that stands for Brazil, Russia, India, and China (People's Republic of China), Five Years of China’s WTO Membership. EU and US Perspectives on China’s Compliance with Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism, Legal Issues of Economic Integration, Kluwer Law International, Volume 33, Number 3, pp. 263-304, 2006. by Paolo Farah along with ''BRICET'' (BRIC + Eastern Europe and Turkey), ''BRICS'' (BRIC + South Africa), ''BRICM'' (BRIC + Mexico), ''BRICK'' (BRIC + South Korea), Next Eleven (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Turkey, and Vietnam) and CIVETS (Colombia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey and South Africa). "After BRICs, look to CIVETS for growth - HSBC CEO" These countries do not share any common agenda, but some experts believe that they are enjoying an increasing role in the world economy and on political platforms. The ''Big Emerging Market'' (BEM) economies are (alphabetically ordered): Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, South Africa, South Korea and Turkey. Yale University Library: Emerging Markets - The Big Ten Countries Columbia University EMGP List The Emerging Market Global Players (EMGP) project at Columbia University currently includes the following economies into the watch list: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China excluding Taiwan, Hungary, India, Israel, Korea, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, Taiwan, and Turkey. The B612 Foundation made estimates of Apophis' path if a 2036 Earth impact were to occur, as part of an effort to develop viable deflection strategies (Asteroid deflection strategies). Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
period working and training at the Moscow Art Theatre School (Moscow Art Theatre) in Russia. This program provides training for graduate-level actors, dramaturgs, and voice students. For a time, the Institute included a director-training program, which was discontinued in 2004; the dramaturgy program was simultaneously tripled in enrollment. This joint program has historically conferred an M.F.A. from the Moscow Art Theatre School and a certificate of completion from Harvard
Khashimovna Nikitina''' ( Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
Premier League Premier League side Lokomotiv Moscow. His outstanding skills and determination lead him to become one of the leaders of his side, and eventually he left his team for further challenge. In 1999 he became a player of Italian (Italy) Serie A side A.S. Roma, cost the club 10.58 billion Italian lire,
of Macedonia . (CNN) * The Terrafrica partnership, a US$4 billion, 12-year campaign supported by the African Union, World Bank, United Nations, European Commission, and regional African governments, and aimed at fighting current, and preventing future desertification in Africa, begins.
After MTV's original choice was revealed to have been released before 1 October 2008, breaking contest rules, it was decided that Zoltán Ádok would be Hungary's next Eurovision entrant, performing "Dance with Me (Dance with Me (Zoli Ádok song))", after MTV's second choice to represent Hungary declined.
and the music business in general. As of 2007, he has performed in more than 35 countries, including India. Gary Lucas biography page, own website: http: www.garylucas.com www bio Lucas recently returned from his fourth tour of Russia, where he performed his original solo guitar adaptation of the Lucas Horn score accompanying the silent classic German horror film ''The Golem (The Golem: How He Came Into the World)'' (1920) in Moscow and Saint Petersburg and appeared on national TV before an estimated 50 million viewers, as well as being feted in the Russian edition of ''Rolling Stone''. He's played with ''The Golem'' solo all over the world since the live debut of the duet score he and keyboardist Walter Horn wrote for the movie in 1989 at the BAM (Brooklyn Academy of Music) Next Wave Festival—including performing at the Venice Biennale, London's Royal Festival Hall, the New York Jewish Film Festival at Lincoln Center, as part of a week long artist-in-residency at the Quebec City Summer Festival, at the ''Alien'' artist H. R. Giger's Retrospective in Prague (home of the Golem) this spring, at Atlanta's Dragon Con, the largest science fiction festival in the world, and at this year's fifth annual Pop Montreal music and film festival. Based on distance calculations to the extreme points of Europe (Franz Josef Land in the Northeast, the border between the Russian Federation (Russia) and the states of Georgia (Georgia (country)) and Azerbaijan at the Caspian Sea in the Southeast, Crete in the South and the Azores in the Southwest) the centre of Europe will surprisingly be found in Southern Norway near Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
York) Group Theatre in New York City in the 1930s and subsequently advanced by Lee Strasberg and others at The Actors Studio in the 1940s and 50s (1950s). It was derived from the 'system' (Stanislavski's system) created by Constantin Stanislavski, who pioneered similar ideas in his quest for "theatrical truth." This was done through his friendships with Russia's leading actors, his collaborations with playwright Anton Chekhov, and his own teaching
, writing, and acting at the Moscow Art Theater (founded in 1897). The '''Russian people''' ( , ''russkiye'') are an East Slavic (East Slavs) ethnic group native to Russia, "Slav." Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 30 July 2011. speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe
, establishing an Afghan state. * May 30 – New York City's Gilmore's Garden is renamed Madison Square Garden (Madison Square Garden (1879)) by William Henry Vanderbilt, and is opened to the public at 26th Street and Madison Avenue. Date unknown * The Chinese (China) army of the Qing Dynasty attacks a Russian post at Albazin, during the reigns of the Kangxi Emperor and the dual Russian rulers Ivan V of Russia and Peter I of Russia. The events
lead to the Treaty of Nerchinsk. Roberts, J: ''History of the World'', Penguin, 1994. * Adam Baldridge finds a pirate base at Île Sainte-Marie in Madagascar. * January 4 – Britain declares war on Spain and Naples. * January 5 – Empress Elisabeth (Elisabeth of Russia) of Russia dies and is succeeded by her nephew Peter III (Peter III of Russia). Peter, an admirer of Frederick the Great, immediately opens peace negotiations with the Prussians. * February 5 – The Great Holocaust of the Sikhs is carried out by the forces of Ahmed Shah Abdali in Punjab (Punjab region). In all, over 500,000 men, women and children perish in this campaign of slaughter. * February 5 – The Great Holocaust of the Sikhs is carried out by the forces of Ahmed Shah Abdali in Punjab (Punjab region). In all, over 500,000 men, women and children perish in this campaign of slaughter. * May 15 – The Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1762) ends the war between Russia and Prussia. * May 22 – The Treaty of Hamburg (Treaty of Hamburg (1762)) takes Sweden out of the war against Prussia. *700 BC: The Songguk-ri Culture (Songguk-ri) begins in the southern Korean peninsula. *c. 601 BC: The Medes from Media (Medes) (western Iran) and the Scythians from modern Russia and Ukraine invade the northern and eastern parts of Assyria. *699 BC: Khallushu succeeds Shuttir-Nakhkhunte as king of the Elamite Empire. * November 15 – Maria II of Portugal is succeeded by her son Pedro (Pedro V of Portugal). * November 30 – Crimean War – Battle of Sinop: The Russian fleet destroys the Turkish (Turkey) fleet. * December 6 – Taiping Rebellion: French (France) minister (Minister (diplomacy)) de Bourboulon arrives at the Heavenly Capital aboard the ''Cassini''. July–September * July 6 – Greek War of Independence: The Treaty of London (Treaty of London, 1827) between France, Britain (United Kingdom), and Russia, demands that the Turks (Ottoman Empire) agree to an armistice in Greece. * July 14 – Kingdom of Hawaii: The Diocese of Honolulu (Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu) is founded. * October 1 – Russo-Persian War, 1826-1828: The Russians under Ivan Paskevich storm Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination in Eastern Armenia. * October 20 – Greek War of Independence – Battle of Navarino: British (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), French (France), and Russian naval forces destroy the Turko (Ottoman Empire)-Egyptian fleet in Greece. This is the last naval action to be fought under sail alone. 300px thumb right October 20 (File:Naval Battle of Navarino by Garneray.jpg): ''Naval Battle of Navarino'' by Ambroise Louis Garneray * October 12 – Peter I of Brazil is declared the constitutional emperor of Brazil (Empire of Brazil). * October–December – Congress of Verona: Russia, Austria and Prussia approve French (France) intervention in Spain. * November 13 – Greek War of Independence: Nafplion falls to the Greek (Greece) rebels. * November 7 – The Lewis and Clark Expedition arrives at the Pacific Ocean. * November 11 – Napoleonic Wars – Battle of Dürenstein: 8,000 French (France) troops attempt to slow the retreat of a vastly superior Russian and Austrian force. * November 16 – Napoleonic Wars – Battle of Schöngrabern: – Russian forces under Pyotr Bagration delay the pursuit by French troops under Murat. * November 11 – Napoleonic Wars – Battle of Dürenstein: 8,000 French (France) troops attempt to slow the retreat of a vastly superior Russian and Austrian force. * November 16 – Napoleonic Wars – Battle of Schöngrabern: – Russian forces under Pyotr Bagration delay the pursuit by French troops under Murat. * November 26 – The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is opened. * November 26 – The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is opened. * December 2 – Napoleonic Wars – Battle of Austerlitz: French (France) troops under Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) decisively defeat a joint Russo (Russia)-Austrian force. * December 26 – The Peace of Pressburg is signed between France and Austria. * May 27 – Francois Ravaillac is executed by being pulled apart by horses in the Place de Grève. * June 4 – A Polish–Lithuanian (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) army defeats a much larger Russian army at the Battle of Klushino. * June 7 – Jamestown (Jamestown, Virginia): Temporary Governor Gates (Thomas Gates (governor)) decides to abandon Jamestown. * Johannes Fabricius is the first to observe sunspots by telescope. * Poland captures Moscow, just to lose it again to Russian and Swedish (Sweden) troops. * In Jamestown (Jamestown, Virginia), Virginia, only 60 out of 500 settlers survive over winter. * January 20 – King James I of England successfully mediates the Treaty of Knäred between Denmark and Sweden. * February 7 – An assembly of the Russian Empire elects Mikhail Romanov (Mikhail I of Russia) to be Tsar of Russia, and establishes the Romanov Dynasty, ending the Time of Troubles. * February 14 – Elizabeth (Elizabeth of Bohemia), daughter of King James I of England, marries Frederick V, Elector Palatine. Date unknown * In Russia, it is the beginning of the Oprichnina under Ivan the Terrible. * The pencil is first documented by Conrad Gesner; it is becoming common in England. * November 13 – The Constitution (California Constitution) of California is ratified in a general election. * November 16 – A Russian court sentences Fyodor Dostoevsky to death for anti-government activities linked to a radical intellectual group, but his execution is cancelled at the last minute. January–June * January 2 – Russia and Prussia partition the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. * January 9 – Jean-Pierre Blanchard becomes the first to fly in a gas balloon in the United States. * July 25 – At Aboukir in Egypt, Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) defeats 10,000 Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Mamluk troops under Mustafa Pasha (Mustafa Pasha (Egypt)). * August 27 – The British (Great Britain) and Russians send an expedition to the Batavian Republic (now the Netherlands). * August 30 – British forces under Sir Ralph Abercromby and Admiral Sir Charles Mitchell capture the entire Dutch fleet. * October 9 – History of Ecuador: Guayaquil declares independence from Spain. * October 25–November 20 – The Congress of Troppau (Opava) is convened between the rulers of Russia, Austria and Prussia. * November 20 – After the sinking of the whaleship ''Essex'' (Essex (whaleship)) of Nantucket by a whale the survivors are left afloat in three small whaleboats. They eventually resort, by common consent, to cannibalism to allow some to survive. * August 22 – Armed robbers steal Edvard Munch's ''The Scream'', ''Madonna (Madonna (Edvard Munch))'', and other paintings from the Munch Museum in Oslo, Norway. * August 24 – Two airliners in Russia, carrying a total of 89 passengers, crash within minutes of each other after flying out of Domodedovo International Airport, leaving no survivors. Authorities suspect suicide attacks by rebels from Chechnya to be the cause of the crashes. * August 29 – Around 200,000 protesters demonstrate in New York City against U.S. President George W. Bush and his government, ahead of the 2004 Republican National Convention. ** Two suicide attacks on buses in Beer Sheva, Israel, kill at least 16 people and injure at least 60. Hamas claims responsibility for the attacks. ** A woman commits a suicide attack near a subway station in northern Moscow, Russia, killing at least 10 people and injuring at least 50. Authorities hold Chechen (Chechnya) rebels responsible. * September 3 ** Russian forces end the siege at a school in Beslan, Northern Ossetia. At least 335 people (among which are 32 of the approximately 40 hostage-takers) are killed and at least 700 people injured. ** Hurricane Frances makes landfall in Florida. After killing 2 people in the Bahamas, Hurricane Frances kills 10 people in Florida, 2 in Georgia, USA (Georgia (U.S. state)) and 1 in South Carolina. * May 16 – War of the Regulation: The Battle of Alamance commences after Regulators reject an appeal by Governor Tryon to peacefully disperse. Governor Tryon's forces crush the rebellion, causing many Regulators to move to frontier areas outside of North Carolina. * May 23 – Battle of Lanckorona: A force of 4,000 Russians under Alexander Suvorov defeat a Polish (Poland) formation of 1,300 men. * May – The Three battles of Sarbakusa: an alliance of three of the most powerful aristocrats of Ethiopia – Goshu of Amhara, Wand Bewossen, and Fasil of Damot – defeats ''Ras (Ras (title))'' Mikael Sehul and Emperor Tekle Haymanot I (Tekle Haymanot I of Ethiopia), taking control of Ethiopia. * March 10 – Treaty of Aynalıkavak between Ottoman Turkey (Ottoman Empire) and Russian Empire about Crimean Khanate. * May 13 – War of Bavarian Succession: Russian and French (France) mediators at the Congress of Teschen negotiate an end to the war. In the agreement Austria receives a part of the Bavarian territory (the Innviertel) and relinquishes the rest. * June 1 – American Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold is court-martialed for malfeasance in his treatment of government property. January–June * January 6 – The Turks (Turkey) agree to Russia's (Russia) annexation of the Crimea in the Treaty of Constantinople. * January 14 – The Congress of the United States ratifies the Treaty of Paris (Treaty of Paris (1783)) with Great Britain (Kingdom of Great Britain) to end the American Revolutionary War, with the signature of President of Congress (President of the Continental Congress) Thomas Mifflin. * August 16 – Britain (Kingdom of Great Britain) creates the colony of New Brunswick. * September 22 – Russia establishes a colony at Kodiak, Alaska. * November 26 – The Roman Catholic Apostolic Prefecture of the United States (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore) is established. * February 12 – The Virginia Assembly (Virginia General Assembly) amends an act to describe the punishments for the practice of gouging (Gouging (fighting style)). Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
'''Russia''' ( Extending across the entirety of northern Asia (North Asia) and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans nine time zones (Time in Russia) and incorporates a wide range of environments (Environment of Russia) and landforms.
The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. ", ''Journal of World-Systems Research'' Vol. 12 (no. 2), pp. 219–229 (2006).
Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower, Rozhnov, Konstantin, "Who won World War II?". BBC. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements (Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records) of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite (Sputnik), and the first man in space (Yuri Gagarin). Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality (the sole successor state (Succession of states)) of the Union state (Government of the Soviet Union).
The Russian economy ranks as the ninth largest (List of countries by GDP (nominal)) by nominal GDP and sixth largest (List of countries by GDP (PPP)) by purchasing power parity in 2014. GDP, PPP (current international $) Data Table Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources, the largest reserves in the world, have made it one of the largest producers of oil (oil producer) and natural gas (natural gas producer) globally. The country is one of the five recognized (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction (Russia and weapons of mass destruction). Russia is a great power and a permanent member (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council) of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States.