. Children are told that "babay" is an old man with a bag or a monster, usually hiding under the bed, and that it will take them away if they misbehave (though he is sometimes depicted as having no set appearance). In the Netherlands, Zwarte Piet (Dutch (Dutch language) for "Black Pete") is a servant of Sinterklaas, who delivers bags of presents on the 5th of December and takes naugthy kids back in the now-empty bags. In some stories, the Zwarte Piets themselves were kidnapped as kids, and the kidnapped kids make up the next generation of Zwarte Piets. The early 19th century was a time of upheaval, which saw the 1808–1809 war (Finnish War) between Sweden and Russia, as well as a devastating fire in 1835 that destroyed approximately half of the city. Despite this, the economic progress continued, and a brewery, a matchstick factory and several banks were founded after 1850. In 1859, the merchant and shipowner Peter Malm started a steam powered sawmill, which was only the second such installation in Finland. The Crimean War was a major setback to shipping industry, as the British navy puts up an effective blockade and the shipping fleet in Jakobstad is reduced from 26 ships to 9. Early years Reznikoff was born in 1894 in a Jewish neighborhood in Brooklyn (Brooklyn, New York), New York of Russian parents (Russia). After a year studying journalism, he entered the law school of New York University in 1912 and graduated in 1916. He practiced law briefly and entered officer training school in 1918, but failed to see active service before the end of the war (World War I). Touring Europe and Russia Between October 1772 and June 1775, Jervis travelled extensively. He began in France where he studied the language and made observations about French life. Tucker. Vol. 1, p.39 He accompanied Captain Samuel Barrington to Russia where they spent time in Saint Petersburg and inspected the arsenal and dockyards at Kronstadt and took a tour of the yacht designed by Sir Charles Knowles (Sir Charles Knowles, 1st Baronet) for Catherine of Russia (Catherine II of Russia). Tucker. Vol. 1, p.40 The pair continued on to Sweden, Denmark and northern Germany. All the while Jervis made notes on defences, harbour charts and safe anchorages. They came home via the Netherlands, Tucker. Vol. 1, p.46 Jervis once again making extensive studies of the area and taking copious notes describing any useful information. He and Barrington then took a private cruise along the Channel coast calling at various harbours including Brest (Brest, France), making and improving their charts as they went. When Jervis later became the Commander-in-Chief of the Channel Fleet he was aided significantly in his blockade of Brest by these charts. In later years, he commented: "Had the young Captain Jervis not performed such a complete survey of this port then the Earl St Vincent would not have been able to effect such a thorough blockade of it." Tucker. Vol. 2, p.15 In 1816 he accompanied the explorer Henry Koster (Henry Koster (botanist)) to Brazil. Henry Koster had travelled to Brazil once before and became famous for his book ''Travels in Brazil''. Some Biogeographers, Evolutionists and Ecologists-Chrono-Biographical Sketches: Swainson, William (England-New Zealand 1789-1855) There he met Dr Grigori Ivanovitch Langsdorff (Grigori Ivanovitch Langsdorff), also an explorer of Brazil, and Consul General of Russia. They did not spend a long time on shore because of a revolution, but Swainson returned to England in 1818 in his words "a bee loaded with honey", with a collection of over 20,000 insects, 1,200 species of plants, drawings of 120 species of fish, and about 760 bird skins. Early variants included the Su-25UB two-seat trainer, the Su-25BM for target-towing, and the Su-25K for export customers. Upgraded variants developed by Sukhoi include the Su-25T and the further improved Su-25TM (also known as Su-39). By year 2007, the Su-25 is the only armoured fixed-wing aircraft in production except the Su-34 (Sukhoi Su-34) whose production had just started. Gordon and Dawes 2004. It is currently in service with Russia and various other CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) states as well as export customers. During its more than 25 years in service, the Su-25 has seen combat with several air forces. It was heavily involved in the Soviet war in Afghanistan, flying counter-insurgency missions against the Mujahideen. The Iraqi Air Force employed Su-25s against Iran during the 1980–89 Iran–Iraq War. Most of them were later destroyed or fled to Iran in the 1991 Persian Gulf War (Gulf War). In 1993, Abkhazian separatists used Su-25s against Georgians during the Abkhazian War (War in Abkhazia (1992–1993)). "Siege of Sukhumi." ''Time Magazine'', 4 October 1993. Eight years later, the Macedonian Air Force (Military of the Republic of Macedonia) employed Su-25s against Albanian insurgents in the 2001 Macedonia conflict, and in 2008, Georgia (Georgia (country)) and Russia both used Su-25s in the Russo-Georgian War. "N. Ossetia president: Georgian planes bomb out humanitarian aid convoy for S. Ossetia." Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
;http: www.pba.edu index.cfm?fuseaction news.details&ArticleId 2880 '''LOMO''' ( ) is a manufacturer of advanced optical instruments, medical equipment, consumer still and movie cameras, projectors, lenses, film editors, splicers, professional sound recorders for motion-picture production based in St. Petersburg, Russia
Republic of Dagestan, is Russia's most '''ancient city''', dating back 5,000 years. Home to the legendary Gates of Alexander, the walled fortress-city, alternately controlled by Caucasian Albania, Persian empires, and the Mongols (until its eighteenth century conquest by the Russian Empire) was for 1500 years the key to controlling trade between Western Russia and the Middle East. Other ancient peoples of Russia left less evidence of their civilization, but you can find traces of the Kurgan people of the Urals, in particular the ruined pagan shrines and burial mounds around the old capital of Tobolsk and throughout the Republic of Khakassia. Of '''early Russia''''s city states, one of the best preserved and most interesting include Staraya Ladoga, regarded as the nation's first capital, established by the Viking Rurik, to whom the first line of Tsars traced their lineage. Novgorod, founded in 859, was the most important city of Kievan Rus in modern Russia (with Kiev itself in modern day Ukraine), and home to Russia's first kremlin. '''Early Medieval Russia''' saw two major civilizations, that of the independent Novgorod Republic and the Mongol Empire, which dominated the Russian principalities of former Vladimir-Suzdal (whose initial capital of Vladimir retains an excellent collection of twelfth century monuments and kremlin) and Kievan Rus. While the Mongols left mostly devastation of historical sites in their wake, the wealthy trading nation to the north developed grand cities at the capital of Novgorod, as well as Staraya Ladoga, Pskov, and Oreshek (modern day Shlisselburg), all of which have extant medieval kremlins and a multitude of beautiful early Russian Orthodox churches filled with medieval ecclesiastical frescoes. As Mongol power waned, the '''Grand Duchy of Moscow''' rose to power, and particularly under the later reign of Ivan the Terrible, consolidated power in all of Western Russia, including the conquest of the Kazan Khanate (and establishing another grand citadel there) and concentrated power in Moscow, building its kremlin, St Basil's Cathedral, and several other of Russia's best known historical sites. The cities of the Golden Ring surrounding Moscow likewise saw significant construction during this period. A really neat off-the-beaten-path destination also rose to prominence in the extreme north of the country—the Solovetsky Monastery (Solovetsky Islands)-fortress on the islands of the White Sea, which served as a bulwark against Swedish naval incursions. Imperial history thumb 300px The Grand Cascade in Peterhof (Image:PeterhofGrandCascade.JPG) Ivan the Terrible's reign ended in tragedy, the Time of Troubles, which only saw destruction and ruin, and you will find little evidence of civilizational development until the establishment of the '''Romanov Dynasty''' in the early seventeenth century. Peter the Great, after having consolidated power, began the construction of his entirely new city of Saint Petersburg on the Gulf of Finland, the ''Window to the West''. Saint Petersburg from its foundation through the neoclassical period became one of the world's most magically beautiful cities, and the list of must-see attractions is far too long to be discussed here. The surrounding summer palaces at Peterhof, Pavlovsk, and Pushkin are also unbelievably opulent attractions. The '''Russian Revolution''' was one of the twentieth century's defining moments, and history buffs will find much to see in Saint Petersburg. The two best known sites are found at the Winter Palace, which the communists stormed to depose Tsar Nicolas II, and the beautiful Peter and Paul Fortress on the Neva River, which housed numerous revolutionary luminaries in its cold, hopeless prison. For those interested in the grisly end of the Romanov family of Nicholas II, perhaps inspired by the story of Anastasia, look no further than the Church on the Blood in Yekaterinburg, built on the spot of his family's execution. Moscow, on the other hand, has the most famous monument from the revolutionary period—Lenin's himself, with his embalmed body on display in Red Square. Soviet history The '''Soviet Era''' saw a drastic change in Russian history, and the development of a virtually brand new civilization. Mass industrialization programs came with a new aesthetic ethos which emphasized functionality (combined with grandiosity). The enormous constructivist buildings and statues of the twentieth century are often derided as ugly monstrosities, but they are hardly boring (whereas the industrial complexes polluting cities from the Belarussian border to the Pacific are genuine eyesores). Both '''World War II''' and Stalin's reign of terror made their presence felt greatly upon Russia's cultural heritage. The bombings involved in the former virtually wiped out anything of historical interest in Russia's extreme west (the Chernozemye region) and damaged much more throughout European Russia. It did, however, lead to the construction of monuments to the war throughout the entire country. For military buffs, a visit to Mamaev Kurgan, the museum complex at Volgograd (former Stalingrad) is an excellent destination. Kursk, for its enormous tank battle, and Saint Petersburg, site of the Siege of Leningrad, make interesting destinations. thumb 300px The Motherland Calls, looming over the Battlefield of Stalingrad, atop Volgograd#See Mamayev Kurgan (Image:Mamayev Kurgan, The Motherland Calls.jpeg) Maybe the saddest of the Soviet legacies is the network of prison camps known as the '''Gulag Archipelago'''. The term ''Archipelago'' really does not capture the scope of suffering across 10,000 kilometers of cold steppe. Perhaps the most interesting sites for those interested in this legacy are on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea, and the devastatingly bleak Kolyma gulag system of Magadan Oblast. If you were hoping to see where Alexandr Solzhenitsyn was imprisoned, you'll have to travel beyond the Russian borders to Ekibastuz in Kazakhstan. Cultural sights Russia has several of the world's greatest '''museums''', particularly in the field of the '''visual arts'''. The '''Hermitage Museum''' in Saint Petersburg is the true star, with an enormous collection amassed first by the wealthy tsars (particularly by its founder, Catherine the Great) and later by the Soviets and the Red Army (which seized enormous treasure from the Nazis, who in turn had seized their bounty from their wars around the globe). Equally impressive is the edifice housing the collection on display, the magnificent Winter Palace of the Romanov Dynasty. Saint Petersburg's often overlooked Russian Museum should also be a priority, as it has the country's second best collection of purely Russian art, from icons of the tenth century on through the modern movements, in all of which revolutionary Russia led the charge ahead of the rest of the world. Moscow's art museums, only slightly less well known, include the '''Tretyakov Gallery''' (the premiere collection of Russian art) and the Pushkin Museum of Western Art. Other museum exhibitions certainly worth seeking out are the collections of '''antiquities''' in Saint Petersburg and Moscow, particularly at the Hermitage Museum, and the Armory in the Moscow Kremlin. For military buffs, Russian '''military museums''' are often fantastic, truly best-in-the-world, regardless of whether you are at one of the main ones in the Moscow—the Central Armed Forces Museum, Kubinka Tank Museum, Central Air Force Museum, Museum of the Great Patriotic War (WWII), or way off in the provinces. The other category in which Russian museums outshine the rest of the world would be within the '''literary''' and '''musical''' spheres. Nary a town visited, if only for a day, by Alexander Pushkin is without some small museum dedicated to his life and works. The best of the big city museums include the Bulgakov Museum in Moscow and the Anna Akhmatova, Pushkin, and Dostoevsky museums in Saint Petersburg. Great adventures await in quieter parts of the country, at Dostoevsky's summer house in Staraya Russa, Tolstoy's "inaccessible literary stronghold" at Yasnaya Polyana, Chekhov's country estate at Melikhovo, Tchaikovsky's house in Klin or remote hometown of Votkinsk in Udmurtia, Rakhmaninov's summer home in Ivanovka, Pushkin's estate at Pushkinskie Gory, or Turgenev's country estate at Spasskoe-Lutovinovo near Mtsensk. The best museums are in the countryside. For classical music lovers, the apartment museums of various nineteenth and century composers in Saint Petersburg are worth more than just nostalgic wanderings—they often have small performances by incredible musicians. thumb 290px Kazan (File:Кул шариф 4.jpg)'s Qolşärif Mosque All tourists in Russia find themselves looking at a lot of churches. Ecclesiastical architecture is a significant source of pride among Russians, and the onion dome is without question a preeminent national symbol. The twentieth century, sadly, saw cultural vandalism in the destruction of said architecture on an unprecedented scale. But the immense number of beautiful old monasteries and churches ensured that an enormous collection remains. The best known, as usual, are in Saint Petersburg and Moscow, in particular the old baroque Church on the Spilled Blood, Alexander Nevsky Lavra, and the monumental Kazan and Saint Isaac's Cathedrals in the former, and Saint Basil's Cathedral and the massive Church of the Annunciation in the latter. The spiritual home of the Russian Orthodox Church is to be found at the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius in Sergiev Posad on the Golden Ring circuit (lavra is the designation given to the most important monasteries, of which there are only two in the country), although the physical headquarters of the Church is at Danilov Monastery in Moscow. Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery (Kirillo) in Vologda Oblast is often considered Russia's second most important (and is a neat way to get off the beaten track). Other particularly famous churches and monasteries are to be found at Saint Sophia's Cathedral in Novgorod, the Cathedral of the Assumption in Vladimir, the fascinating Old Cathedral of Königsberg (home to Immanuel Kant's tomb) in Kaliningrad, Novodevichy Convent in Moscow, Optina Putsin (the basis for Father Zossima's monastery in ''The Brothers Karamazov''), and Volokolamsk Monastery (Volokolamsk) in West Moscow Oblast. Kizhi Pogost (Kizhi) on Lake Onega and Valaam Monastery on Lake Ladoga are also popular sites, especially with those cruising between Saint Petersburg and Moscow. Ecclesiastical architecture does not, however, end with the Russian Orthodox Church—Russia also has a wealth of Islamic and Buddhist architecture. The nation's most important mosques are the Qolşärif Mosque in Kazan (the largest mosque in Europe) and the Blue Mosque in Saint Petersburg (originally the largest mosque in Europe!). Notably absent from that list is the Moscow Cathedral Mosque, which was formerly considered the principal mosque in the country, but was very controversially demolished in 2011. Russia's most prominent Buddhist temples are in both Kalmykia—Europe's lone Buddhist republic, and the areas closer to Mongolia, especially around Ulan Ude in Buryatia and Kyzyl, Tuva. Natural attractions While the distances are great between them, Russia's natural wonders are impressive and worth seeking out for nature lovers. The best known destinations are far to the east in Siberia, with Lake Baikal known as its "jewel." At the extreme eastern end of Russia, nearly all the way to Japan and Alaska, is wild Kamchatka, where you will find the Valley of the Geisers, lakes of acid, volcanoes, and grizzlies galore. thumb 320px Yugyd Va National Park, in the Komi Virgin Forests (File:Саблинский хребет.jpg) Other highlights of the '''Far East''' include the idyllic (if kind of cold) Kuril Islands to the south of Kamchatka, whale watching off the coast of arctic Wrangel Island, the remote Sikhote-Alin mountain range (Primorsky Krai), home to the Amur Tiger, and beautiful Sakhalin. The nature reserves throughout these parts are spectacular as well, but all will require permits in advance and specialized tours. The northern half of Russia stretching thousands of miles from the Komi Republic through Kamchatka is basically empty wilderness, mostly mountainous, and always beautiful. Getting to these areas is problematic, as most are not served by any roads, infrastructure, or really anything else. Russia's great north-south rivers are the main arteries for anyone moving through the area: the Pechora, Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Kolyma. Beyond that, expect to be in canoes, helicopters, and military issue jeeps will be the only way of getting around, and you'll likely want to go with a guide. Russia's ''other'' mountainous territory is in its extreme south, in the Northern Caucasus. There you will find Europe's tallest mountains, which tower in height over the Alps, including mighty Elbrus (Kabardino-Balkaria). Favorite Russian resorts in the area include those at Sochi (which will host the next Winter Olympic Games) and Dombai. As you go further east in the North Caucasus, the landscapes become ever more dramatic, from the lush forested gorges and snow capped peaks of Chechnya to the stark desert mountains of Dagestan, sloping downwards to the Caspian Sea. Throughout the entire country, there are over a hundred National Parks and Nature Reserves (''zapovedniki''). The former are open to the public, and considerably more wild and undeveloped than you would find in, say, the United States. The latter are preserved principally for scientific research and are often not possible to visit. Permits are issued for certain reserves, but only through licensed tour operators. If you have the opportunity, though, take it! Some of the most spectacular parks are in the aforementioned Kamchatka, but also in the Urals, particularly in the Altai Mountains (Altai Republic and Altai Krai). Itineraries *Circum-Baikal Railway is the road on the shore of Baikal Lake. *Golden Ring — the classic route around ancient cities and towns in Central Russia crowned with golden cupolas of its churches and convents. *Green Ring of Moscow — Natural Parks and Reserves in Moscow vicinities. *Silver Ring — the chain of Northern towns surrounding Saint Petersburg. *Trans-Siberian Railway — the endless train ride that needs no introduction. Do thumb 280px The lavish Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg (Image:Mariinsky Theatre interior.jpg) * '''Music''' — Russia has a long musical tradition and is well known for its composers and performers. There is no doubt you will find more orchestra performances the bigger the city. Classic music is played in various theaters, where domestic and guest concerts are scheduled for weeks ahead. Besides that, the state supports folk ensembles in smaller towns or even villages and singing babushkas gatherings are still a well-established tradition in many areas. In areas traditionally inhabited by non-Russian ethnic groups, you may encounter ethnic music of every possible sound, like throat singing in Tuva or rare instruments of ChukotkaSometimes only specialists can differ the Cossack songs of the Urals from the Cossack songs of Krasnodar. Professional jazz players meet at ''Jazz over Volga'' festival in Yaroslavl. Walking along the main street on a Sunday will definitely enable you to hear guitar, saxophone, harmonium or flute in any city. * '''Military Parade''' on the Victory Day, which is celebrated on the 9th of May is commonly all-Russia holiday with city squares getting full of uniformed men and military vehicles both dated to Great Patriotic War WWII and new ones. The '''Defender of Fatherland Day''' is a holiday when women in families or at work congratulate their men and co-workers. It happens on 23, February, just a couple of weeks before men return the favor to ladies on '''International Women's Day''', 8 March. * '''Dancing'''. Russian classic ballet is renowned in the world and some national troops exist even in such remote areas like Dagestan or Yakutia. Lezginka is a vibrant folk dance, always performed at big Caucasian (Caucasus) events. If you are interested in folk style then watching a concert of ''Igor Moiseyev Ensemble'' alive is simply a must. Out of big cities you may easily find Irish dance, belly and Ball clubs, not to mention hip-hop and all. * '''Cinema festivals'''. The major movie event in Russia is '''Moscow International Film Festival''' held at the end of June during 10 days and boasting first-class stars from all over the world. '''Kinotavr''' of Sochi, Moscow's '''Festival of Latin America''' and international film festival '''Zerkalo''', named after Andrei Tarkovsky, in Ivanovo are also of interest for film fans. Whitewater rafting * Team Gorky Lake at the Alexandrinsky Theatre.jpg thumb 300px Swan Lake, quite possibly performed weekly in Russia! The association between Russia and its two biggest metropolises, Moscow and St Petersburg, is strong in the minds of tourists, but given its vast expanses and low population density, Russia is a nature lovers paradise as well. Russia has a network of exceptional natural areas, comprising 35 National Parks and 100 Nature Reserves (''zapovednik'') covering a total land mass larger than Germany. List of Russian Nature Reserves (in Russian) one can find here Some Russian Nature Reserves on the internet: * Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
World Airlines locker at LaGuardia Airport, killing 11 people and injuring 75; it is the deadliest bomb explosion in New York City since the Wall Street bombing of 1920. No one ever claims credit for the bombing (LaGuardia Airport bombing), which remains unsolved. McCabe, Scott, "Crime History: "Bomb at LaGuardia Kills 11, Injures Another 75," ''The Washington Examiner'', December 29, 2011, Page 8. November * November 20 &ndash
at the premier. Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
AboutCunard NewsReleases.asp?Cat &View ViewArticle&Mode News&ContentID 6656&Active News title QE2 To Leave Cunard Fleet And Be Sold To Dubai World To Begin A New Life At The Palm accessdate 8 July 2011 archiveurl http: web.archive.org web 20110718222740 http: www.cunard.com AboutCunard NewsReleases.asp?Cat &View ViewArticle&Mode News&ContentID 6656&Active News archivedate 18 July 2011 deadurl yes
). Nikolai Gogol's "Nevsky Prospekt (Nevsky Prospekt (story))" (1835), "The Nose (The Nose (Gogol))" (1836) and "The Overcoat" (1842) are dark humorous tales about human misery. ''The Saint (The Saint (film))'' starring Val Kilmer was made in 1997 but diverged far from the Charteris books, although it did revive Templar's use of aliases. Kilmer's Saint is unable to defeat a Russian gangster in hand-to-hand combat and is forced to flee
'''Lapland (Sápmi (area))''' (which is not a country but the area inhabited by the Sami people), shows Santa Claus and a snowflake in place of the lion and the tiger, and is set in Lapland. As one cannot make a humorous pun out of the word ''Lapland'' as one can with ''Kenya'', the singer notes that there is "not much to do there, but still better than Norway" in the place of "Kenya Believe it". Despite this, the cartoon notes that Lapland is itself a better
without being fully certified as a cosmonaut, as his flight was hurried forward — several commercial international cosmonauts were already booked, but the flight of a Kazakh cosmonaut was part of the Baikonur rental agreement between Kazakhstan and Russia. The ''Transcaucasus'' is bordered on the north by Russia, on the west by the Black Sea and Turkey, on the east by the Caspian Sea, and on the south by Iran. It includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding
their own cultures and societies to inform the art. Ballet dance works (ballets) are choreographed (choreography) and performed by trained artists, include mime (Mime artist) and acting, and are set to music (ballet (music)) (usually orchestral but occasionally vocal (singing)). It is a poised style of dance that incorporates the foundational techniques for many other dance forms. This genre of dance is very hard to master and requires much practice. It is best known in the form of late Romantic ballet or Ballet Blanc, which preoccupies itself with the female dancer to the exclusion of almost all else, focusing on pointe work (en pointe), flowing, precise acrobatic movements, and often presenting the dancers in the conventional short white French tutu. Later developments include expressionist ballet (Expressionist dance), neoclassical ballet, and elements of modern dance. Perhaps most convincing of all is this quote: “In November 1974 Professor Durr reported on a study trip to Russia in the pages of ''The Reading Teacher''. . . . He found that first-graders are taught to read 46 of the 130 national languages of Russia. . . . All children in the USSR are given an ABC book and start to learn from it the day school begins. They learn at first about a letter a day and what it stands for, and gradually proceed to syllables and words. By December 15 of their first year all Russian children are through with their ABC books and start reading simple stories and poems. There is no further instruction in reading as such after the end of first grade.” '''Alix of Hesse and by Rhine''' later '''Alexandra Feodorovna Romanova''' ( Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
'''Russia''' ( Extending across the entirety of northern Asia (North Asia) and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans nine time zones (Time in Russia) and incorporates a wide range of environments (Environment of Russia) and landforms.
The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. ", ''Journal of World-Systems Research'' Vol. 12 (no. 2), pp. 219–229 (2006).
Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower, Rozhnov, Konstantin, "Who won World War II?". BBC. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements (Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records) of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite (Sputnik), and the first man in space (Yuri Gagarin). Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality (the sole successor state (Succession of states)) of the Union state (Government of the Soviet Union).
The Russian economy ranks as the ninth largest (List of countries by GDP (nominal)) by nominal GDP and sixth largest (List of countries by GDP (PPP)) by purchasing power parity in 2014. GDP, PPP (current international $) Data Table Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources, the largest reserves in the world, have made it one of the largest producers of oil (oil producer) and natural gas (natural gas producer) globally. The country is one of the five recognized (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction (Russia and weapons of mass destruction). Russia is a great power and a permanent member (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council) of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States.