, killing more than 25 people, and wounding more than 100 others. *2005 – Lebanese self-made billionaire and business tycoon Rafik Hariri is killed (Assassination of Rafic Hariri), along with 21 others, when explosives, equivalent of around 1,000 kg of TNT (Trinitrotoluene), are detonated as his motorcade drove near the St. George Hotel in Beirut. ''Classical fencing'' derives most directly from the 19th and early&ndash;20th century national fencing
(usually with breakfast prepared by your host), and the accommodations will certainly be very clean and proper if not modern. When it comes to home family life, Russian culture is very warm and inviting. Another useful option is short-term apartment rental offered by small companies or individuals. This means that certain flats in regular living buildings are permanently rented out on a daily basis. The flats may differ in their location and quality (from old-fashioned to recently renovated
in 1983). January * January 2 – Russia begins to circulate new ruble (Russian ruble)s to stem inflation and promote confidence. * January 4 – Wilaya of Relizane massacres of 4 January 1998 in Algeria: Over 170 are killed in 3 remote villages. * March 3 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany becomes the first person to make a political recording of a document, using Thomas Edison's cylinder. * March 4 – Russo-Japanese War: Russian troops in Korea retreat toward Manchuria, followed by 100,000 Japanese troops. * March 26 – 80,000 demonstrators gather in Hyde Park, London, to protest against the importation of Chinese labourers to South Africa (Chinese South Africans) by the British government (Unionist Government 1895–1905). * October 19 – Polytechnic University of the Philippines is founded as Manila Business School through the superintendence of the American (United States) C.A. O'Reilley. * October 21 – Russo-Japanese War – Dogger Bank incident: The Russian Baltic Fleet fires on British trawlers it mistakes for Japanese torpedo boats in the North Sea. * October 27 – The first underground line of the New York City Subway opens. * March 24 – The Mayor of New York, Van Wyck, breaks ground for a new underground "Rapid Transit Railroad" that will link Manhattan with Brooklyn (Brooklyn, NY). * March 27 – The arrival of a Russian naval fleet in Korea causes concern to the Imperial Japanese government. * March 28 – Over 1,000 tonnes of waste are removed from demolished buildings in Sydney, Australia, in areas affected by an outbreak of the bubonic plague. * May 18 – The United Kingdom proclaims a protectorate over Tonga. * May 21 – Russia invades Manchuria. * May 23 – Sergeant William Harvey Carney is awarded the Medal of Honor for heroism in 1863, as the first African American to have been awarded this medal. Early in 1929, the Afghan leader King Amanullah lost power through revolution and civil war to Amir Habibullah II. Habibulah's rule, however, only lasted nine months. Nadir Shah (Mohammed Nadir Shah) replaced him in October, starting a line of monarchs which would last 40 years. pp. 41–44 ISBN 0813340195 In neighboring India, a general strike in Bombay continued throughout the year despite efforts by the British. Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan. ''Imperial Power and Popular Politics.'' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. pp. 170–178 ISBN 0521596920 On December 29, the All India Congress in Lahore declared Indian independence from Britain, something it had threatened to do if Britain did not grant India dominion status. Vohra, Ranbir. ''The Making of India.'' Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 2001. pp. 147–148 ISBN 0765607123 China and Russia engaged in a minor conflict (Sino-Soviet conflict (1929)) after China seized full control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway. Russia counterattacked and took the cities of Hailar (Hailar District) and Manchouli before issuing an ultimatum demanding joint control of the railway to be reinstated. The Chinese agreed to the terms on November 26. The Japanese would later see this defeat as a sign of Chinese weakness, leading to their taking control of Manchuria. Elleman, Bruce. ''Diplomacy and Deception.'' Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1997. pp. 282–283 ISBN 0765601435 The Far East began to experience economic problems late in the year as the effects of the Great Depression began to spread. Southeast Asia was especially hard hit as its exports (spice, rubber, and other commodities) were more sensitive to economic problems. Tarling, Nicholas. ''The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia.'' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. pp. 182–184 ISBN 0521663717 In the Pacific, on December 28 – "Black Saturday (Mau_movement#Black_Saturday)" in Samoa – New Zealand colonial police killed 11 unarmed demonstrators, an event which led the Mau movement to demand independence for Samoa. ** Polish Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak resigns from Parliament and is replaced by ex-communist Jozef Oleksy. ** In Moscow, Russian anti-corruption journalist Vladislav Listyev is killed by a gunman. * March 2 – Nick Leeson is arrested for his role in the collapse of Barings Bank. thumb 120px Vivian Stanshall (File:Towpath2.jpg) * March 1 – Vladislav Listyev, Russian journalist (b. 1956). * March 3 – Howard W. Hunter, American Mormon leader (b. 1907) ** ''STS-42'': Dr. Roberta Bondar becomes the first Canadian (Canada) woman in space, aboard Space Shuttle ''Discovery (Space Shuttle Discovery)''. * January 26 – Boris Yeltsin announces that Russia will stop targeting cities of the United States and her allies with Nuclear Weapon (Nuclear weapon)s. In return George H. W. Bush announces that the United States and her allies will stop targeting Russia and the remaining communist (Communism) states with Nuclear Weapons. May * May 5 – Russian leaders in Crimea declare their separation from Ukraine as a new republic. They withdraw the secession on May 10. * May 7 – Space Shuttle Endeavor makes its maiden flight, as a replacement for a lost Space Shuttle (Space Shuttle Challenger).(STS-49) * June 8 – The first World Ocean Day is celebrated, coinciding with the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. * June 17 – A 'Joint Understanding' agreement on arms reduction is signed by U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin (this is later codified in START II). * June 20 – In Estonia, the kroon (Estonian kroon) replaces the Soviet ruble. * July 1 – July 12: At least one shark mauls 5 swimmers along Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
artist and designer known by the pseudonym '''Erté''', the French pronunciation of his initials, ''R.T.'' He was a diversely talented 20th-century artist and designer who flourished in an array of fields, including fashion (fashion design), jewellery (jewelry design), graphic arts, costume (costume design) and set design (scenic design) for film, theatre, and opera, and interior decor (interior design). The red deer can produce Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
radar systems is of growing interest throughout the world, with various open source publications showing active research and development in the United States (including work at the Air Force Research Labs, Lockheed-Martin Mission Systems, Raytheon, University of Washington, Georgia Tech (Georgia Institute of Technology) Georgia Tech Research Institute and the University of Illinois), in the NATO C3 Agency in The Netherlands, in the United Kingdom
(at Roke Manor Research (Roke Manor Research Limited), QinetiQ, University of Birmingham, University College London and BAE Systems, France (including the government labs of ONERA), Germany (including the labs at FGAN-FHR), Poland (including Warsaw University of Technology). There is also active research on this technology in several government or university laboratories in China, Iran, Russia and South Africa. The low cost nature of the system makes the technology particularly attractive to university laboratories and other agencies with limited budgets, as the key requirements are less hardware and more algorithmic sophistication and computational power. **# Jan Eliasson, Sweden (2005–2006) **Security Council members (United Nations Security Council) - China (People's Republic of China), France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States (permanent members); Algeria, Benin, Brazil, Philippines, Romania (elected for 2004–2005); Argentina, Denmark, Greece, Japan, Tanzania (elected for 2005–2006) *'''United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)''' 2008 Russian-Georgian Conflict Regarding 2008 conflict between Russia and Georgia (Republic of Georgia), Chiesa stated that "Russia did precisely what had to be done." He also stated that "I think Europe is partly responsible for this war: by unconditionally supporting Georgia’s president Mikheil Saakashvili and his claims in South Ossetia and Abkhazia." Regarding media coverage of the war, Chiesa stated that "the information given by the media is a shame for the west. Western news channels broadcasted images and titles that were politically biased. Some claimed Russia wanted to conquer Georgia, although no evidence whatsoever backs up that argument. Mikheil Saakashvili was portrayed as the unfortunate victim of Big Bad Putin, and very often, images of Tskhinvali razed by bombs were not shown. It is the worst coverage I have seen since the war in Iraq." Giulietto Chiesa on Russia-Georgia war: "Europe is responsible too" by Viola Fiore, Cafebabel.com - The European Magazine, 20 August 2008. right thumb A 25 cents on 25 kopecks stamp of 1917. (Image:Stamp Russia offices China 1917 25c.jpg) The '''Russian post offices in China''' were a collection of post offices established by Imperial Russia in various cities of China beginning in 1870. right thumb A one grosion green stamp with stars. (Image:Stamp Russia offices Crete 1899 1gr.jpg) The '''Russian post offices in Crete''' were established by Russia in the area of Crete it occupied as part of the joint occupying force that arrived in 1898. Some stories, such as New York detectives tracking kidnappers of a rich heiress or the creation of a powerful company that would compete with the equally powerful Colorado Fuel and Iron Company were ruled out, as stories set in the United States were more likely to be checked and verified. The reporters then began running through countries such as Germany, Russia and Japan until one of the reporters suggested China. John Lewis grew excited and exclaimed, "That's it, the Great Wall of China! Must be 50 years since that old pile's been in the news. Let's build our story around it. Let's do the Chinese a real favor. Let's tear the old pile down!" Adjara under Russian rule The Ottomans (Ottoman Empire) ceded Adjara (called Adjaristan under Turkish rule) to the Russian Empire on March 3, 1878. Under the Russian oppression of Islam, thousands of Muslims fled the region in search of refuge in Turkey in an immigration process called Muhajiroba (see Muhajir (Caucasus)). Financed by the Ottomans, a terrorist organization known as The Avengers attempted to kill Russian officers and officials, along with Adjarians who collaborated with the imperial presence. Nevertheless, many Adjarians were loyal to Russia as they found the best opportunity to be reunited with other Georgians (Georgia (country)). On November 23, 2003, immediately after Shevardnadze's fall, Aslan Abashidze declared a state of emergency in the region. Nevertheless, Adjara took part in the Georgian presidential elections of January 4, 2004, won by Mikheil Saakashvili. Saakashvili ordered the Adjarian leader to comply with the Georgian constitution and start disarming. In May 2004, Abashidze claimed that Georgian forces were preparing to invade. His forces blew up bridges connecting the region with the rest of Georgia. The state of emergency was followed by the dispersal of local oppositional demonstrations as of May 4. This proved a catalyst for even larger demonstrations later on the same day. Tens of thousands from all Adjara headed for Batumi to demand Abashidze's resignation. On May 6, Abashidze's position became untenable when local protesters took control over the central Batumi and Georgian Special Forces entered the region and started to disarm pro-Abashidze groups. After the overnight talks with the Russian official Igor Ivanov Mr. Abashidze stepped down and left for Moscow. thumb Bridge over the Choloki destroyed by Abashidze's loyalists in April 2004 (File:Bridge over Choloki Adzharia.jpg) On May 4, a large opposition protest rally was attacked by the local security forces in Batumi. Dozens of protesters were reportedly injured. However, the violent break up of peaceful demonstration proved a catalyst for even larger protests later on the same day. Tens of thousands from all Adjara headed to Batumi demanding Abashidze’s resignation. Georgian (Georgia (country)) Prime Minister Zurab Zhvania and Interior Minister Giorgi Baramidze crossed the Choloki River on May 5 and held talks with Adjaran Interior Minister Jemal Gogitidze. The latter agreed to withdraw his forces and paramilitary groups from the administrative border provided he would be guaranteed with security. Abashidze's position became untenable when local protesters took control of the central part of the city of Batumi and Georgian Special Forces entered the region and started to disarm pro-Abashizde militants. Later on the same day, Secretary of the Russian Security Council Igor Ivanov arrived in the Adjaran capital Batumi. Abashidze stepped down after overnight talks with Ivanov and left for Moscow. He was a substitute for the Committee on Development and the Committee on International Trade. He was also a member of the Delegations for relations with the Korean Peninsula, Russia, and Israel. In Russia it was Ivan III of Russia who first assumed the two-headed eagle (Coat of arms of Russia), when, in 1472, he married Sophia (Sophia Paleologue), daughter of Thomas Palæologus (Thomas Palaiologos), and niece of Constantine XI, the last Emperor of Byzantium. The two heads symbolised the Eastern or Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire) and the Western or Roman Empire (Western Roman Empire). *Romania (see Coat of arms of Romania) *Russia (see Coat of arms of Russia) *Serbia (see Coat of arms of Serbia) Count '''Vladimir Nikolayevich Lamsdorf''' (Russian: Владимир Николаевич Ламсдорф, ''Lamsdorf'', Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
in Ukraine are much cheaper in comparison with Western and Russian clinics. A lot of tourists from USA, European Union and Russia provide a sort of dental tourism. Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
in the Hermitage (Hermitage Museum). In the following year he died in Denmark. He was a Huguenot, and was said to possess secret colors in enamel, especially a blue, which were not known to his Petitot relations. His work in England is of great rarity, Lord Dartrey possessing the finest example, and there are two remarkable works in the Pierpont Morgan collection and one at Windsor Castle. Two in the Propert collection have been lost sight of. Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
programs, and a lasting legacy of ethnic tensions and environmental problems. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, five Central Asian countries gained independence, although none of the new republics could be considered a functional democracy. ('''more... (history of Central Asia)''') The '''AK-47''' is a gas-operated assault rifle designed by Mikhail Kalashnikov, produced by Russian manufacturer Izhevsk Mechanical Works and used in many Eastern
not share Crowley's increasing interest in the esoteric. Sutin 2000 (#Sut00). pp. 41–47. Churton 2011 (#Chu11). pp. 33–24. Crowley himself later stated that "I told him frankly that I had given my life to religion and that he did not fit into the scheme. I see now how imbecile I was, how hideously wrong and weak it is to reject any part of one's personality." Sutin 2000 (#Sut00). p. 47. In October
countries used rifles such as the relatively expensive M14 (M14 rifle), FN FAL, and H&K G3 (Heckler & Koch G3) battle rifles and M16 (M16 rifle) assault rifle during this time, the low production and materials costs of the AK-47 meant that the Russia USSR could produce and supply its allies at a very low cost. Because of its low cost, it was also duplicated or used as the basis (List of weapons influenced by the Kalashnikov design) for many other rifles
'''Russia''' ( Extending across the entirety of northern Asia (North Asia) and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans nine time zones (Time in Russia) and incorporates a wide range of environments (Environment of Russia) and landforms.
The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. ", ''Journal of World-Systems Research'' Vol. 12 (no. 2), pp. 219–229 (2006).
Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower, Rozhnov, Konstantin, "Who won World War II?". BBC. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements (Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records) of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite (Sputnik), and the first man in space (Yuri Gagarin). Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality (the sole successor state (Succession of states)) of the Union state (Government of the Soviet Union).
The Russian economy ranks as the ninth largest (List of countries by GDP (nominal)) by nominal GDP and sixth largest (List of countries by GDP (PPP)) by purchasing power parity in 2014. GDP, PPP (current international $) Data Table Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources, the largest reserves in the world, have made it one of the largest producers of oil (oil producer) and natural gas (natural gas producer) globally. The country is one of the five recognized (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction (Russia and weapons of mass destruction). Russia is a great power and a permanent member (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council) of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States.