of egalitarianism, (see e.g.: Everyman's right and universal suffrage) and the traditionally widespread ideal of self-sufficiency (see, e.g.: Summer cottage). Smith is best known for his novels featuring Russian investigator Arkady Renko who Smith introduced in ''Gorky Park (Gorky Park (novel))'' (1981). The novel, which was called the "thriller of the '80s" by ''Time (Time (magazine))'', became a bestseller and won a Gold
in 1983). January * January 2 – Russia begins to circulate new ruble (Russian ruble)s to stem inflation and promote confidence. * January 4 – Wilaya of Relizane massacres of 4 January 1998 in Algeria: Over 170 are killed in 3 remote villages. * March 3 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany becomes the first person to make a political recording of a document, using Thomas Edison's cylinder. * March 4 – Russo-Japanese War: Russian troops in Korea retreat toward Manchuria, followed by 100,000 Japanese troops. * March 26 – 80,000 demonstrators gather in Hyde Park, London, to protest against the importation of Chinese labourers to South Africa (Chinese South Africans) by the British government (Unionist Government 1895–1905). * October 19 – Polytechnic University of the Philippines is founded as Manila Business School through the superintendence of the American (United States) C.A. O'Reilley. * October 21 – Russo-Japanese War – Dogger Bank incident: The Russian Baltic Fleet fires on British trawlers it mistakes for Japanese torpedo boats in the North Sea. * October 27 – The first underground line of the New York City Subway opens. * March 24 – The Mayor of New York, Van Wyck, breaks ground for a new underground "Rapid Transit Railroad" that will link Manhattan with Brooklyn (Brooklyn, NY). * March 27 – The arrival of a Russian naval fleet in Korea causes concern to the Imperial Japanese government. * March 28 – Over 1,000 tonnes of waste are removed from demolished buildings in Sydney, Australia, in areas affected by an outbreak of the bubonic plague. * May 18 – The United Kingdom proclaims a protectorate over Tonga. * May 21 – Russia invades Manchuria. * May 23 – Sergeant William Harvey Carney is awarded the Medal of Honor for heroism in 1863, as the first African American to have been awarded this medal. Early in 1929, the Afghan leader King Amanullah lost power through revolution and civil war to Amir Habibullah II. Habibulah's rule, however, only lasted nine months. Nadir Shah (Mohammed Nadir Shah) replaced him in October, starting a line of monarchs which would last 40 years. pp. 41–44 ISBN 0813340195 In neighboring India, a general strike in Bombay continued throughout the year despite efforts by the British. Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan. ''Imperial Power and Popular Politics.'' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. pp. 170–178 ISBN 0521596920 On December 29, the All India Congress in Lahore declared Indian independence from Britain, something it had threatened to do if Britain did not grant India dominion status. Vohra, Ranbir. ''The Making of India.'' Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 2001. pp. 147–148 ISBN 0765607123 China and Russia engaged in a minor conflict (Sino-Soviet conflict (1929)) after China seized full control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway. Russia counterattacked and took the cities of Hailar (Hailar District) and Manchouli before issuing an ultimatum demanding joint control of the railway to be reinstated. The Chinese agreed to the terms on November 26. The Japanese would later see this defeat as a sign of Chinese weakness, leading to their taking control of Manchuria. Elleman, Bruce. ''Diplomacy and Deception.'' Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1997. pp. 282–283 ISBN 0765601435 The Far East began to experience economic problems late in the year as the effects of the Great Depression began to spread. Southeast Asia was especially hard hit as its exports (spice, rubber, and other commodities) were more sensitive to economic problems. Tarling, Nicholas. ''The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia.'' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. pp. 182–184 ISBN 0521663717 In the Pacific, on December 28 – "Black Saturday (Mau_movement#Black_Saturday)" in Samoa – New Zealand colonial police killed 11 unarmed demonstrators, an event which led the Mau movement to demand independence for Samoa. ** Polish Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak resigns from Parliament and is replaced by ex-communist Jozef Oleksy. ** In Moscow, Russian anti-corruption journalist Vladislav Listyev is killed by a gunman. * March 2 – Nick Leeson is arrested for his role in the collapse of Barings Bank. thumb 120px Vivian Stanshall (File:Towpath2.jpg) * March 1 – Vladislav Listyev, Russian journalist (b. 1956). * March 3 – Howard W. Hunter, American Mormon leader (b. 1907) ** ''STS-42'': Dr. Roberta Bondar becomes the first Canadian (Canada) woman in space, aboard Space Shuttle ''Discovery (Space Shuttle Discovery)''. * January 26 – Boris Yeltsin announces that Russia will stop targeting cities of the United States and her allies with Nuclear Weapon (Nuclear weapon)s. In return George H. W. Bush announces that the United States and her allies will stop targeting Russia and the remaining communist (Communism) states with Nuclear Weapons. May * May 5 – Russian leaders in Crimea declare their separation from Ukraine as a new republic. They withdraw the secession on May 10. * May 7 – Space Shuttle Endeavor makes its maiden flight, as a replacement for a lost Space Shuttle (Space Shuttle Challenger).(STS-49) * June 8 – The first World Ocean Day is celebrated, coinciding with the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. * June 17 – A 'Joint Understanding' agreement on arms reduction is signed by U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin (this is later codified in START II). * June 20 – In Estonia, the kroon (Estonian kroon) replaces the Soviet ruble. * July 1 – July 12: At least one shark mauls 5 swimmers along Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
. * In the 1973 Russian science-fiction movie ''Moscow-Cassiopeia'', a "Surprise Room" operated in the same way as the holodeck in ''Star Trek: The Next Generation''. * The 1974 Japanese TV series ''Space Battleship Yamato'' (''Star Blazers'' in English syndication) features a "resort room" which allowed the crew to combat homesickness by immersing themselves in simulated scenes of Earth. Extent It encompassed most of continental northern
from New Russia'' (2004) and ''Icebreaker II: Baltic Voices'' (2004); the planned ''Icebreaker III'' (2006) will feature music from the countries of the Caucasus. They have travelled twice to Eastern Europe, scoring critical successes in Moscow, St. Petersburg (Saint Petersburg), and Tallinn, and are scheduled to tour Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Ecuador in spring 2005. The earliest chariots known are from chariot burials of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in modern Russia, clustering along the upper Tobol river, southeast of Magnitogorsk, from around 2000 BC, containing spoke-wheeled chariots drawn by teams of two horses. This culture is at least partially derived from the earlier Yamna culture, where some wagon-burials are found, and is generally accepted as an early Proto-Indo-Iranian culture. The Krivoye Ozero chariot grave contained a horse skull, three pots, two bridle cheek pieces, and points of spears and arrows. David S. Anthony, ''The Horse, The Wheel and Language: How bronze age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world'' (2007), pp. 397-405. In 2003, the record was issued on CD in Russia, Belarus and Lithuania, formerly being available only as a bootleg (Bootleg recording) LP in the Soviet Union and Uzbekistan. These 2003 Eastern European releases came with the bonus tracks "Faith Healer" and "Edie (Ciao Baby)" (acoustic) as tracks 13 and 14, and the word acoustic is misspelled as " Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
; '''Alūksne''' ( ) in its 15th-century
RUB20-30 (USD0.80-1.10) for 2L, but watch out for refilled bottles being sold. thumb A fairly typical country church in wintry Staraya Ladoga (Image:The Church of the Nativity of St John the Baptist.jpg) Besides local doctors (generally good quality but often working in poor facilities) there are several Western-run medical centres in major Russian cities. These all have different policies for payment (some take credit cards, some require payment in cash up front, even if you have insurance) so make sure you know what you are paying for (and when and how) before you agree to any services. Be careful not to buy fake vodka, which can be dangerous (seriously here, 'dangerous' doesn't mean 'strong'; it can contain methanol). Only buy vodka in large stores or specialized ones like Aromatnyi Mir in Moscow, with the sticker over the cap and or the region's barcode on the side. Significant number of food stores, including some food goods chains, standalone food shops, kiosks and food markets are famous for selling food of bad quality, including out-of-date or even out-of-date with expire date reprinted with a later date. Although most of them are quite good, when possible, check the quality of the food with visual observation, don't especially trust expire date labels, that are added in a replaceable way. Also you can take note of what others are buying, sometimes you can even ask other buyers which product is better, it's considered normal. That could help you make a good choice. Examples of usually bad quality food sold are most of fish products, including smoked and spicy salted (be especially care), pre-made salads, fresh vegetables and fruits, when you can't handpick them (at markets check them after shop-women picked them for you, you can usually change those you don't like, at shops they usually don't allow to change, and use to add some bad ones into bag), vegetables conservatives sold with discount (and with older production date usually), cheaper dairy products, though less consistent, checking what others buy may help you here. Since 2008, producers of juices can not mark their production as ''juice'' (rus: сок) if it isn't 100% juice. Today, all low quality juices marked as nectar (rus: нектар) are up to 50-70% of water and "fruit drinks" (rus: фруктовый напиток) can contain anything! Russia's '''HIV''' prevalence is steadily rising, mainly for prostitutes, young adults and drug users. Be safe. Respect thumbnail Orthodox Christianity is the religion with most followers in Russia (File:Icon Kazan cathedral.JPG) Russians are reserved and well-mannered people. Gestures Smiling in Russia is traditionally reserved for friends, and smiling at a stranger may make them self-conscious. Smile at a Russian in the street and most likely they will not respond in kind. An automatic Western smile is widely regarded as insincere. While that tradition is slowly changing as Russia smiling is still very rare in customer service. Sales assistants, public servants and the like are expected to look serious and businesslike. Hence the very common misconception about Russians that they are a very grim folk and never smile — they do, once they get to know you, and become very welcoming and kind. When approaching a stranger with a question, attempt to use Russian at first and ask if they speak English, Russians are very proud of their language and people will be noticeably more aloof if you approach them speaking English. Even just using the Russian equivalents of 'please' and 'thank you' will make a noticeable difference to people. Women are traditionally treated with chivalry. Female travellers should not act surprised or indignant when their Russian male friends pay their bills at restaurants, open every door in front of them, offer their hand to help them climb down that little step or help them carry anything heavier than a handbag — this is not intended as condescending. Male travellers should understand that this will be expected of them by Russian women too. The "OK" gesture is okay. Inside voices thumb 350px Fortress Oreshek on Lake Ladoga - no longer necessary for defense against the Swedish navy. (Image:Fortress Oreshek.jpg) Russians have a marvelously and intimately quiet way of speaking with one another in public. It's best to try and follow suit to avoid standing out like a sore thumb and generally making everyone around you really uncomfortable—stand a little closer to your interlocutor and ease up on the volume. Sensitive Issues A lot of respect is required when it comes to talking about World War II and the Soviet Union. That conflict was a major tragedy for Soviets and every family has at least one relative among the 25-30 million people who died—way above all of Western Europe and America combined—and the scars of that conflict are still felt today. Avoid discussing relations with the Georgians. Talking about this subject can lead to hostility and maybe even fierce debates. Tense relations between the two countries have led to many conflicts, most notably the 2008 South Ossetia war. Antipathy towards Georgians is still high. Homosexuality. Political Issues Likewise, '''keep your political opinions to yourself'''. Ask as many questions as you like, but avoid making statements or comments about its past and current political situation. Russia and the Soviet Union had an often violent history and most Russian people are tired of hearing "how bad the Soviet Union was" from western people. They lived it, are proud of both its triumphs and tragedies, and they probably know much more about it than you. Also avoid criticising the conflict in Chechnya. The war in the Chechen republic was horrific for both sides. The separatist forces are regarded as Islamist terrorists after mass terrorist attacks in 2000-2005. Political opinions in Russia are very polarized and political discussion is always very tough. Better to avoid it? Home Etiquette *'''If you're invited into someone's home, bring them a small gift as a form of respect'''. However, most will end up protesting when offered a gift. Reply that it is a little something and offer the gift again and it will generally be accepted, hopefully. It is reasonable to bring a bottle of alcohol if you expect to spend the evening in a less formal way. * '''If you bring flowers, do not give yellow ones''' — in Russia, this color is considered as a sign of cheating in love and separation and especially never used for wedding bouquets. The other superstition is related to the number of flowers. This quantity must always be odd that is 3, 5, 7 and so on. An even number of flowers is always brought to funerals. *''' Do not give a baby gift until after the baby is born to a particular family.''' It is bad luck to do so sooner. Verbal congratulations before a person's birthday is often thought as a bad sign. thumb 350px Church on the Blood, Yekaterinburg (File:Church on Blood.jpg), on the spot where Tsar Nicholas II and his family were executed by the Bolsheviks, ending the Romanov Dynasty * '''When arriving at someone's house, remove your outdoor shoes.''' You may be given slippers to wear. * '''In someone's house''', Dress in formal clothes. Dressing well shows respect for your hosts. However, this rule may not work among young people. Dining Etiquette *'''When having food with hosts, Do not get up until you are invited to leave the table.''' This is not considered polite. *'''The hosts might get quite persistent when offering an alcoholic drink.''' You will often have to be very firm if you want to reject that 2nd (or the 3rd, 4th, 10th...) shot. Claiming problems with medicine or pregnancy is always an imperfect option. Simply and grimly stating that you are an alcoholic can do the job too, but will depress your hosts. * '''You will often be urged to take second helpings ad infinitum.''' If so, take it as a form of respect. Moreover, they really will love you if you keep eating. * '''Do not rest your elbows on the table.''' This is considered rude (for kids). Other etiquette *When traveling by train, you should share your food with others near by, since then you will be viewed as polite. Connect Internet As of 2014, the Russian government is moving to restrict access to public wi-fi on the grounds that the Internet is "a CIA project" and laws requiring identity documents from anyone attempting to access the network are needed to fight "extremism" and "terrorism." This appears to be part of a larger crackdown on Russia's Internet and free expression in general. Phones The country code for Russia (and Kazakhstan as a former member of the former Soviet Union), is '''7'''. Russian phone numbers have an area code with three, four or five digits (according to their province), followed by an individual number with, respectively, 7, 6 or 5 digits, always yielding 10 digits in total. The three digit code 800 is used for toll-free calls. Mobile phones always have three-digit "area" codes and seven-digit numbers. Calls within any one area code may omit the area code (except in Moscow). Inter-area code calls within Russia: '''8''' (wait for tone) '''full Russian number including area code'''. The international access code for dialling ''out from'' Russia is the sequence of '''8''' (wait for secondary tone and then) '''10''' International calls ''to'' Russia, as always, replace the plus sign (+) in the international phone format with the local international access code for the country you're calling from, followed by Russia's country code of 7 followed by the individual Russian phone number including area code. Cope Russia had a three-year experiment with Daylight Saving Time which ended in 2014. At that time, they also switched to spanning eleven time zones. Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
with experimental work on television in the basement of Rosing's private lab at the School of Artillery of Saint Petersburg. Rosing had filed his first patent on a television system in 1907, featuring a very early cathode ray tube as a receiver, and a mechanical device as a transmitter. Its demonstration in 1911, based on an improved design, was among the first demonstrations of TV of any kind.
stage of newly advanced economic development. It is typically rendered as "the '''BRICs'''" or "the '''BRIC''' countries" or "the '''BRIC''' economies" or alternatively as the "Big Four". As a DJ Nightingale has travelled all over the world and made music-documentaries during visits to Russia, Romania, Iraq, Chile, The Philippines and Cuba. While in Havana in 1996 she was injured during a mugging, resulting in multiple injuries
as universalist, artist scholar studying philosophie, empirical social research and organizational sociology as a post-graduate in 1990-1998. 1991 he visited Argentina, Buenos Aires and the Andes and Chile and made Music with Los Chalchaleros and Bocha Martinez in Cafajate Salta Tucuman (San Miguel de Tucumán). Later on he visited Iceland and made Music in Reykjavík and Bolungarvik together with Hrolfur Vagnsson, his friend for the 4 Beads studio
. These destinations are attractive because they are low-cost, have skilled labor forces, and a less stringent regulatory environment, but crucially they allow for more day to day physical oversight. They also have strong cultural ties to the major economic centers in Europe. , ''Bol'shoy Teatr'', meaning ''Large'', ''Great'' or ''Grand Theatre'', also spelled ''Bolshoy'') is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia
("The Last Will of a Russian fascist"). Under Judith, her management and breeding decisions improved upon the "desert conditions" theories of Wilfrid. Her addition of non-desertbred Arabian stock, such as the Polish-bred Arabian stallion Skowronek, created controversy, but the stud survived and prospered for almost fifty years until 1971, when the property itself was bisected by a motorway. Judith sold Crabbet horses all over
'''Russia''' ( Extending across the entirety of northern Asia (North Asia) and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans nine time zones (Time in Russia) and incorporates a wide range of environments (Environment of Russia) and landforms.
The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. ", ''Journal of World-Systems Research'' Vol. 12 (no. 2), pp. 219–229 (2006).
Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower, Rozhnov, Konstantin, "Who won World War II?". BBC. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements (Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records) of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite (Sputnik), and the first man in space (Yuri Gagarin). Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality (the sole successor state (Succession of states)) of the Union state (Government of the Soviet Union).
The Russian economy ranks as the ninth largest (List of countries by GDP (nominal)) by nominal GDP and sixth largest (List of countries by GDP (PPP)) by purchasing power parity in 2014. GDP, PPP (current international $) Data Table Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources, the largest reserves in the world, have made it one of the largest producers of oil (oil producer) and natural gas (natural gas producer) globally. The country is one of the five recognized (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction (Russia and weapons of mass destruction). Russia is a great power and a permanent member (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council) of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States.