astronauts. Citizens of other nations flew in space, beginning with the flight of Vladimir Remek, a Czech (Czech Republic), on a Soviet spacecraft on March 2, 1978. , citizens from 38 nations (including space tourists (space tourism)) have flown in space aboard Soviet, American, Russian, and Chinese spacecraft. File:Gagarin PropovedMagometGRM.jpg thumb left upright A 19th century depiction titled ''"Muhammad preaching"
and composer known today primarily for his work promoting musical nationalism and his encouragement of more famous Russian composers, notably Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. He began his career as a pivotal figure, extending the fusion of traditional folk music and experimental classical music practices begun by composer Mikhail Glinka. In the process, Balakirev developed musical patterns that could express overt nationalistic feeling. After a nervous breakdown and consequent sabbatical
to Turkey, causing the plane to crash, killing all 50 on board, and resulting in the grounding of all An-24s. * March 21 * May 11 – IBM (International Business Machines)'s Deep Blue (IBM Deep Blue) defeats Garry Kasparov in the last game (Deep Blue – Kasparov, 1997, Game 6) of the rematch, the first time a computer beats a chess World champion in a match. * May 12 – The Russian-Chechen (Chechnya) Peace Treaty is signed. * May 14
Ware cord zone impressions , and frequently by a perforated stone battle-axe (Battle_Axe culture). This cultural package was characteristic of belief systems which extended across the North European Plain and into Russia. The arrival of the Maritime Bell Beaker from the west a century or two later initiated a period of borrowing and experimentation in what has been called the Primary Bell Beaker Corded Ware contact zone
-17 issue-1 articles cover-story big-dams.html HydroWorld – Big Dams right thumbnail 200px Tomb of N. Kazantzakis in Heraklion (Image:Kazantzakisgrave.jpg). Kazantzakis married Galatea Alexiou in 1911; they divorced in 1926. He married Eleni Samiou in 1945. Between 1922 and his death in 1957, he sojourned in Paris and Berlin (from 1922 to 1924), Italy, Russia (in 1925), Spain (in 1932), and then later in Cyprus, Aegina, Egypt, Mount Sinai
on a seasonal basis. Their voyages included heading east from Ireland to Russia, west to Iceland and Greenland and reached Newfoundland (Newfoundland (island)) before Christopher Columbus discovered the "New World". They created fast and seaworthy long-boards. The Vikings had a tailored way of succeeding all their attacks. They did not just hit and run, they colonized all the lands they occupied. This allowed them to grow and govern large areas of Ireland, England
nominated for the Nobel Prize for literature in 1965. thumb right Konstantin Aksakov 200px (Image:KonstantinAksakov.jpg) '''Konstantin Sergeyevich Aksakov''' ( Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
is based on the T-80 tank hull, but is powered by the T-72's diesel engine. Islam in Russia has had a long presence, extending at least as far back as the conquest of the Khanate of Kazan (Russo-Kazan Wars) in 1552, which brought the Tatars and Bashkirs on the Middle Volga into Russia. The period from the conquest of Kazan in 1552 to the ascension of Catherine the Great in 1762 was marked by systematic repression of Muslims through policies of exclusion and discrimination as well as the destruction of Muslim culture by elimination of outward manifestations of Islam such as mosques. The Russians initially demonstrated a willingness in allowing Islam to flourish as Muslim clerics were invited into the various region to preach to the Muslims, particularly the Kazakhs whom the Russians viewed as "savages" and "ignorant" of morals and ethics. Khodarkovsky, Michael. ''Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making of a Colonial Empire, 1500-1800'', pg. 39. Ember, Carol R. and Melvin Ember. ''Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Men and Women in the World's Cultures'', pg. 572 However, Russian policy shifted toward weakening Islam by introducing pre-Islamic elements of collective consciousness. Hunter, Shireen. "Islam in Russia: The Politics of Identity and Security", pg. 14 Such attempts included methods of eulogizing pre-Islamic historical figures and imposing a sense of inferiority by sending Kazakhs to highly elite Russian military institutions. In response, Kazakh religious leaders attempted to bring religious fervor by espousing pan-Turkism, though many were persecuted as a result. Farah, Caesar E. ''Islam: Beliefs and Observances'', pg. 304 Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
r.y., 1995, p. 79. * In Denmark: '''Tiger (Tiger (Danish store))''', which means tiger as well as being a pun on the word for the Danish ten-krone (Danish krone) coin. The chain is owned by the company "Zebra" and recently began releasing original music, after a campaign on the company's website found them several artists. * In Russia: Fixprice (36 rubles) The '''National Anthem of the Russian Federation''' (
plays. She is an alcoholic, gets very drunk and passes out shortly after arriving at the Sycamore's home. The real Tony Kirby arrives, and Alice is nervous that her eccentric family will scare him away, so she attempts to leave with him on their date. As they attempt to leave, '''Mr. Boris Kolenkhov''', Essie's extremely Russian ballet instructor, arrives and makes chitchat with the family, complaining about the Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution). During this discussion, Alice and Tony
'''Russia''' ( Extending across the entirety of northern Asia (North Asia) and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans nine time zones (Time in Russia) and incorporates a wide range of environments (Environment of Russia) and landforms.
The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. ", ''Journal of World-Systems Research'' Vol. 12 (no. 2), pp. 219–229 (2006).
Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower, Rozhnov, Konstantin, "Who won World War II?". BBC. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements (Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records) of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite (Sputnik), and the first man in space (Yuri Gagarin). Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality (the sole successor state (Succession of states)) of the Union state (Government of the Soviet Union).
The Russian economy ranks as the ninth largest (List of countries by GDP (nominal)) by nominal GDP and sixth largest (List of countries by GDP (PPP)) by purchasing power parity in 2014. GDP, PPP (current international $) Data Table Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources, the largest reserves in the world, have made it one of the largest producers of oil (oil producer) and natural gas (natural gas producer) globally. The country is one of the five recognized (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction (Russia and weapons of mass destruction). Russia is a great power and a permanent member (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council) of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States.