the special effects sequences in ''The Dam Busters''. In addition, the sequence was partially inspired by the climax of the film ''633 Squadron'' (1964) directed by Walter Grauman,
to attack German targets east of the Rhine on May 15, 1940; the Air Ministry authorized Air Marshal Charles Portal to attack targets in the Ruhr, including oil plants and other civilian industrial (Industry) targets which aided the German war effort, such as blast furnaces (which at night were self-illuminating). Hastings 1979, p. 6 Taylor References (#References) Chapter "Call Me Meier", Page 111 The first attack took place on the night of 15 16 May, with 96 bombers setting off to attack targets east of the Rhine, 78 of which were against oil targets. Of these, only 24 claimed to have found their targets. Richards 1953, p.124. Bomber Command's strategic bombing campaign on Germany had thus begun. Hinchliffe, 2000. p. 44 Infrastructure before 1945 The Neumark region long featured agriculture and forestry. The medium-sized towns were mostly ''Ackerbürgerstädte'', or farmer-citizen-towns. The textile industry became prominent in the 19th century. With the construction of modern roadways, of the ''Fernverkehrstraße 1'' (an arterial road from Berlin to Königsberg), and of the Prussian Eastern Railway, the Neumark also began to develop industrially. Such development was primarily geared toward agricultural needs and was concentrated near the cities of Landsberg and Küstrin, and the Neumark did not become nearly as industrialized or densely-populated as other German areas such as the Ruhr, Saxony, or Upper Silesia. This caused an eruption of mass strikes in the Ruhr District, the Rhineland and in Saxony. Members of the USPD, the KPD and even the SPD called for a general strike which started on 4 March. Against the will of the strike leadership the strikes escalated into street fighting in Berlin. The Prussian state government, which in the meantime had declared a state of siege, called the Imperial government for help. Again Noske employed the Gardekavallerie-Schützendivision commanded by Pabst against the strikers in Berlin. By the end of the fighting on 16 March they had killed approximately 1,200 people, many of them unarmed and uninvolved. Amongst others 29 members of the Peoples Navy Division, who had surrendered, were arbitrarily executed as Noske had ordered anybody found armed to be shot on the spot. During Operation Barbarossa the Luftwaffe again achieved air supremacy for some time over the Soviet Union. As the war dragged on, the USA joined the fight and the combined Allied air forces gained air superiority in the West, eventually gaining ''air supremacy''. Russia did the same on the Eastern front, such that the Luftwaffe could not effectively interfere with Allied land operations. Achieving total air superiority later allowed the Allies to carry out ever-greater strategic bombing raids on Germany's industrial and civilian centers, most notably the Ruhr and Dresden (Bombing of Dresden), and to prosecute the land war successfully on both the Eastern and Western fronts. Mülheim was the first city in the Ruhr Area to become totally free of coal mines, when its last coal mine "Rosenblumendelle" was closed. The former leather and coal city had successfully made a complete transformation to a diversified economic centre. With more than 50% covered by greenery and forest, the city is regarded as an attractive place to live between Düsseldorf and the Ruhr. It is the home of two Max Planck Institutes (Max Planck Society) and, since 2009, the technical college Ruhr West. It has a station (Mülheim (Ruhr) Hauptbahnhof) on the important railway between Dortmund and Duisburg (Witten Dortmund–Oberhausen Duisburg Railway) and is served by Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn lines S1 (S1 (Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn)) and S3 (S3 (Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn)). * March 5 – In the North Atlantic Ocean, the first U.S. Navy antisubmarine hunter-killer group (Hunter-killer Group) begins combat operations, centered around the escort aircraft carrier
. In the latter part of the 1930s, high speed trains like the "Flying Hamburger" and streamlined steam engines with matching cars were developed. The Class 05 streamlined express engine (DRG Class 05) reached a speed of . Before the Second World War the most important rail lines ran east and west. The most modern high speed lines were the Prussian Ostbahn (Prussian Eastern Railway) which ran through the Polish corridor, the line from Berlin
;Arthur, Max; pp. 419–422 The Battle of the Mediterranean was fought throughout the war and included the Battle of Taranto and Battle of Matapan, as well as protecting convoys including the Malta convoys. In total, 23 servicemen from the Royal Navy were awarded the Victoria Cross including one Royal Marine. Aerial warfare (Aerial warfare#World_War_II) came into its own in World War II with several distinct roles emerging. The role of fighter planes developed during the Battle of Britain, where the Royal Air Force fought for air superiority against the ''Luftwaffe.'' The Battle of Britain was the first major campaign to be fought entirely by air forces. It was the largest and most sustained bombing campaign up until that date. Initially, RAF airfields were attacked, however as the battle progressed, operations were extended to the strategic level (strategic bombing) with The Blitz. Britain also conducted controversial strategic bombing campaigns (Strategic bombing during World War II) in Europe and Asia; they involved hundreds of aircraft dropping tens of thousands of tons of munitions over a single city. Tactical strikes were also carried out by the RAF including Operation Chastise, where No. 617 Squadron RAF attacked German dams in the Ruhr valley using "bouncing bombs"; Guy Gibson was awarded the Victoria Cross for this action. thumb German Wehrmacht (Image:Deutschesoldatenvordemarcdetriomphe1940.jpg) soldiers in front of the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel (Place du Carrousel#The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel), occupied Paris, 1940 The desire for revenge (''esprit de revanche'') against Germany, and in particular for the recovery of the “lost provinces” of Alsace and Lorraine (whose importance was summed up by the French politician Gambetta (Léon Gambetta) in the phrase: “Never speak of them; never forget them!” remained strong in France over the next 50 years and was the key French war aim in World War I. The Allied victory saw France regain Alsace-Lorraine and briefly resume its old position as the leading land power on the European continent. France was the leading proponent of harsh peace terms against Germany at the Paris Peace Conference (Paris Peace Conference, 1919). Since the war had been fought on French soil, it had destroyed much of French infrastructure and industry, and France had suffered the highest number of casualties proportionate to population. Much French opinion wanted the Rhineland, the section of Germany adjoining France and the old focus of French ambition, to be detached from Germany as an independent country; in the end they settled for a promise that the Rhineland would be demilitarized, and heavy German reparation payments. On the remote Eastern end of the German Empire, the Memel territory was separated from the rest of East Prussia and occupied by France before being annexed by Lithuania. To alleged German failure to pay reparations under the Treaty of Versailles in 1923 (Germany being accused of not having delivered telephone poles on time), France responded with the occupation of the Rhineland and the industrial Ruhr area of Germany, the center of German coal and steel production, until 1925. Also, the French-dominated International Olympic Committee banned Germany from the Olympic Games of 1920 and 1924, which illustrates French desire to isolate Germany. thumb upright 1 alt A prototype bouncing bomb A prototype bouncing bomb on display in Herne Bay Museum and Gallery (File:Bouncing bomb 006.jpg). Reculver towers can be seen in the background of the accompanying artist's impression. During the Second World War, the Reculver coastline was one location used to test Barnes Wallis's "bouncing bomb" prototypes. Flower, S. (2002), ''A Hell Of A Bomb'', Stroud: Tempus, p. 21. Reculver was chosen for its seclusion, Flower, S. (2002), ''A Hell Of A Bomb'', Stroud: Tempus, p. 29. though the presence of the church towers as a clear marker for the bombers, and the potential to recover prototypes owing to the shallow water, probably were also factors. Anon. (1997), "The Dam-Busters bombs found at Reculver", ''Kent Archaeological Review'' (130), p. 240. Different, inert (wikt:inert) versions of the bomb were tested at Reculver, leading to the development of the operational version known as "Upkeep (Bouncing bomb#Upkeep)". "Media". (2007). The Dambusters (617 Squadron). Retrieved 16 July 2010. "Upkeep test drop 1" & "Upkeep test drop 2". It was this bomb which was used by the RAF (Royal Air Force)'s 617 Squadron (No. 617 Squadron RAF) in Operation Chastise, otherwise known as the "Dambuster raids", in which dams in the Ruhr district of Germany were attacked on the night of 16–17 May 1943 by formations of Lancaster (Avro Lancaster) bombers. The operation was led by Wing Commander Guy Gibson, for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross. On 17 May 2003, a Lancaster bomber overflew the Reculver testing site to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the exploit. "Anniversary tribute to Dambusters". (2003). BBC News Online. Retrieved 16 July 2010. Life Born in Gelsenkirchen, Westphalia, Zaisser studied to become a teacher from 1910 to 1913 in Essen (Essen, Germany). When World War I began a year later, Zaisser joined the army (German Army (German Empire)). Upon leaving the service in 1918, Zaisser joined the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD) and in 1919 returned to Essen, where he became a school teacher. During this time period, Zaisser became an active Communist. During the Kapp Putsch in 1920, he was a military leader of the fledgling Red Ruhr Army. Zaisser’s activities in the Red Ruhr Army led to his arrest and dismissal as a teacher in 1921. After his release, Zaisser worked for the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) as a propagandist. From 1921 to 1922, Zaisser edited the “Ruhr Echo” and the “Bergischen Voice of the People.” In 1923, Zaisser entered the KPD intelligence service and worked actively against the French (France) occupation forces in the Ruhr. Zaisser’s efficient work caused him to be sent to Moscow a year later, where he received political and military training. Paramilitary groups were quite active in the ill-fated Republic, sometimes used to seize power and other times to quell disturbances. Freikorps were used in the Baltic region in 1919 by General Rüdiger von der Goltz to protect German interests against Russia. Other Freikorps members engaged in sabotage acts against French and Belgian occupying forces in the Ruhr in 1923 by blowing up bridges. Yet other Freikorps orchestrated the Kapp Putsch and the Beer Hall Putsch. The Communists (Communist Party of Germany) used their groups to seize power in several places in the Weimar Republic at different times, forming ''Räterepubliken''. Other paramilitary groups were used to quell these uprisings. Freikorps events are displayed in the Weimar Timeline. During the 1920s, Hitler’s thinking on foreign policy went through a dramatic change. At the beginning of his political career, Hitler was hostile to Britain as one enemies of the ''Reich'', but strongly influenced by the British opposition to the French occupation of the Ruhr in 1923, Hitler came to rank Britain as a potential ally. Jäckel, Eberhard ''Hitler's World View'' page 31 In ''Mein Kampf'', and even more in its sequel, ''Zweites Buch'', Hitler strongly criticized the pre-1914 German government for embarking on a naval and colonial challenge to the British Empire, and in Hitler’s view, needlessly antagonizing the British. Jäckel, Eberhard ''Hitler's World View'' page 20 In Hitler’s view, Britain was a fellow “Aryan” power, whose friendship could be won by a German “renunciation” of naval and colonial ambitions against Britain. In return for such a “renunciation”, Hitler expected an Anglo-German alliance directed at France and the Soviet Union, and British support for the German efforts to acquire ''Lebensraum'' in Eastern Europe. As the first step towards the Anglo-German alliance, Hitler had written in ''Mein Kampf'' of his intention to seek a “sea pact”, by which Germany would “renounce” any naval challenge against Britain. Maiolo, Joseph ''The Royal Navy and Nazi Germany'' page 22 After the end of World War I, he joined different Freikorps volunteer militias and fought in Ruhr; Saxony; and Upper Silesia. Between his militant employment, he studied at the university in Frankfurt and obtained a degree in political science in 1922. Wistrich, Robert S. (2001). ''Who's Who of Nazi Germany''. Routledge, p. 44. ISBN 0415260388. The following year, he joined the NSDAP (Nazi Party). His party number was #1,098,716 and, later, SS #357,267. Dillenburg station is on the Dill line (Dill Railway), part of the original Cologne-Gießen Railway (Deutz–Gießen railway). It runs from Gießen (Gießen station) to Siegen (Siegen station) and connects central Hesse with the Rhineland and the Ruhr. The Heller Valley Railway, runs from Betzdorf (Betzdorf, Germany) via Burbach (Burbach, North Rhine-Westphalia) to Dillenburg. The Dillenburg station was once a major freight terminal for iron mining in the Schelderwald. Preceding events By early 1945, Poland had fallen to the advancing Soviet (Soviet Union) forces and they were massing to cross the Oder River between Küstrin and Frankfurt (Frankfurt (Oder)) with Berlin,
distinct character. The social and economic trends which affected the province in recent decades generated a process of change and renewal which has enabled Limburg to transform its national peripheral location into a highly globalized regional nexus, linking the Netherlands to the Ruhr metro area and the southern part of the Benelux region. A less appreciated consequence of this international gateway location is rising international crime, often drugs-related, especially in the southernmost
tributary of the lower Rhine." The use of the term "Ruhr" for the industrial region started in Britain only after World War I, when French and Belgian troops had occupied the Ruhr district and seized its prime industrial assets in lieu of unpaid reparations in 1923. In 1920, the International Labour Office published a report entitled ''Coal Production in the Ruhr District''. In 1923, the ''Canadian Commercial Intelligence Journal'', Volume 28, Issue 1013, includes the article
at a depth of 600 to 800 metres (2,000 to 2,600 feet). The thickness of the coal layers ranges from one to three metres (three to ten feet). This geological feature played a decisive role in the development of coal mining in the Ruhr. According to the Regionalverband Ruhr (RVR, Ruhr Regional Association), 37.6% of the region's area is built up. A total of 40.7% of the region's land remains in agricultural use. Forests account for 17.6%, and bodies of water and other types of land use occupy the rest
" . (2003). BBC News Online. Retrieved 16 July 2010. Life Born in Gelsenkirchen, Westphalia, Zaisser studied to become a teacher from 1910 to 1913 in Essen (Essen, Germany). When World War I began a year later, Zaisser joined the army (German Army (German Empire)). Upon leaving the service in 1918, Zaisser joined the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD) and in 1919 returned to Essen, where he became a school teacher. During
Regiment , were attached to a secretive unit known as T-Force. Their role was to locate Nazi scientists and military research facilities. The creation of T-Force had been inspired by James Bond author Ian Fleming who had created 30 Assault Unit, which worked alongside T-Force in Germany. They carried out investigations in Hanover, Bremen and Hamburg. Post-war, elements of the Bucks who had been attached to T-Force were absorbed into No.1 T Force which continued to search for military secrets in the Ruhr. T Force, The Race for Nazi War Secrets'', 1945 by Sean Longden Published by Constable & Robinson September 2009 thumb right 250px French soldiers in the Ruhr in 1923 (Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R09876, Ruhrbesetzung.jpg) The '''Occupation of the Ruhr''' between 1923 and 1925, by troops from France and Belgium, was a response to the failure of the German Weimar Republic (Weimar Republic) under Chancellor Cuno (Wilhelm Cuno) to pay reparations (World War I reparations) in the aftermath of World War I. U.S. Army The first operation of the campaign was the Allied Operation Market Garden that sought to allow the Second British Army (Second Army (United Kingdom)) to advance past the northern flank of the Siegfried Line and enter the Ruhr industrial area. After the failure of that operation for five months, from September 1944 until February 1945, the First United States Army fought a costly battle to capture the Hürtgen Forest (Battle of Hurtgen Forest). The heavily forested and ravined terrain of the Hürtgen negated Allied combined arms advantages (close air support, armor, artillery) and favoured German defenders. The U.S. Army lost 24,000 troops. The military necessity of their sacrifice has been debated by military historians. Damodar Valley contains a variety of mineral deposits, including very large deposits of coal and refractory materials. The largest (almost the only) reserves of coking coal in the country are found in the Jharia coalfields in the valley. The valley also generates 60% of India’s medium grade coal. Coal India Limited operates in the valley in a big way. Several dams have been constructed in the valley, for the generation of hydroelectric power. The valley is called “the Ruhr of India”. '''Damodar Valley Corporation''', popularly known as DVC, came into being on July 7, 1948 by an Act of the Constituent Assembly of India (Act No. XIV of 1948) as the first multipurpose river valley project of independent India.
of capacity. It is untrue to say that the contrary is the case. The damaged sections have not even been rebuilt in other parts of Germany; the process of shifting the industry is only in its initial stages. Whoever has the courage to think must realize even without special technical knowledge that buildings must first be found, then adapted, then machinery must be procured, most of it new, and then coal and labour must be obtained. In Elberfeld even undamaged factories in the Vohwinkel area are only
The '''Ruhr''' ( ), or the '''Ruhr district''', '''Ruhr region''' or '''Ruhr valley''', is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. With a population density of 2,800 km² and a population of eight and a half million, it is the largest urban agglomeration in Germany. It consists of several large, industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr (Ruhr (river)) to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe (Lippe River) to the north. In the southwest it borders the Bergisches Land. It is considered part of the larger Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region (metropolitan regions in Germany) of more than 12 million people.
From west to east, the region includes the cities of Duisburg, Oberhausen, Bottrop, Mülheim an der Ruhr (Mülheim), Essen, Gelsenkirchen, Bochum, Herne (Herne, Germany), Hagen, Dortmund, and Hamm, as well as parts of the more "rural" districts of Wesel, Recklinghausen, Unna and Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis. The most populous cities are Dortmund (approx. 572,000), Essen (approx. 566,000) and Duisburg (approx. 486,000). The Ruhr area doesn't have an administrative center; each city in the area has its own administration, although there exists the supracommunal "Regionalverband Ruhr" institution in Essen. Historically, the western Ruhr towns, such as Duisburg and Essen, belonged to the historic region of the Rhineland, whereas the eastern part of the Ruhr, including Gelsenkirchen, Bochum, Dortmund and Hamm, were part of the region of Westphalia. Since the 19th century, these districts have grown together into a large complex with a vast industrial landscape, inhabited by some 7.3 million people (including Düsseldorf and Wuppertal). This agglomeration is the fifth-largest urban area in Europe after Istanbul, Moscow, London and Paris.
For 2010, the Ruhr region was one of the European Capitals of Culture (European Capital of Culture).