Roussillon

What is Roussillon known for?


quot defensive

engineer, serving with distinction in the Keelung Campaign during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885). He returned to France and was made commander-in-chief of the French Army (1911), after Joseph Gallieni declined the post. With the revival of the army and a purge of "defensive-minded" officers ''First World War'' – Willmott, H.P., Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 52 he adopted the strategy devised by Ferdinand Foch


speaking creating

sense historically speaking, creating a region roughly corresponding to the old county of Toulouse. There also seems to be less economic competition between Toulouse and the cities of Languedoc-Roussillon. However, political leaders of Montpellier (capital of Languedoc-Roussillon) may disagree with the merger, opposed to losing their status of regional capital in favor of Toulouse, and loath to have Toulouse dominate the Mediterranean coast after it has dominated Midi-Pyrénées for more than 30


pepin

, on his defeat by Clovis in 531 retired to Hispania, leaving a governor in Septimania. In 719, the Saracens crossed the Pyrenees and maintained political hegemony of Septimania until their final defeat by Pepin the Short in 759, who went on to occupy Roussillon after conquering Narbonne (Siege of Narbonne (752-759)). On the invasion of Hispania in 778, Charlemagne found the Marca Hispanica wasted by war and the inhabitants settled in the mountains. He granted some

of Narbonne, Gaucelm of Roussillon, Odilo (Odilo, Count of Girona) of Girona, Guiscafred of Carcassonne, Ermengar of Empúries, Laibulf of Provence, and Erlin of Béziers. Several Visigoth (''hispani'') nobles had accused the Counts of Frankish Paternity and of imposing unjust tributes and excises on their lands. The Magnates defence was unsuccessful and Charlemagne decided in favour of the claimants Civil war of 831–832 In November 831 Pepin

of Aquitaine revolted against his father. While Berengar the Wise, Count of Toulouse, advised him against such a course of action, Bernard encouraged it. In early 832 Louis the Pious began the campaign against his rebellious son. Berengar, loyal to the Emperor, invaded the Bernard's ''honores'' and took Roussillon (with Vallespir) and probably also Rasez and Conflent. By 2 February, Berenguer was already in Elna. In November 831, Pepin revolted against his father


wine

''région (regions of France)'' of Languedoc-Roussillon. See also * Counts of Roussillon * History of Catalonia * History of France * History of Spain * Northern Catalonia * Catalonia * Roussillon wine References * History of Roussillon site

) of the great Italian banking-houses, who settled in the city as money-changers, as intermediaries between the Apostolic Chamber and its debtors, living in the most prosperous quarters of the city, which was known as the Exchange. A crowd of traders of all kinds brought to market the produce necessary for maintaining the numerous court and for the visitors who flocked to it; grain and wine from Provence, from the south of France, the Roussillon and the country around Lyon. Fish

of the Coat of arms of Andorra. Dozens of municipalities belonging to these territories base their local flags on the Senyera as well. Grenache is the dominant variety in most Southern Rhône wines, especially in Châteauneuf-du-Pape (Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC) where it is typically over 80% of the blend. In Australia (Australia (wine)) it is typically blended in "GSM (GSM (wine))" blends with Syrah and Mourvèdre. Grenache is also used to make rosé wines in France and Spain


188

by massacres and atrocities: constant guerrilla attacks by the armed populace were met by draconian reprisals. Childs: ''Warfare in the Seventeenth Century,'' 188 In 1690 Saint-Ruth (Marquis de St Ruth) took most of the Victor Amadeus II's exposed Duchy of Savoy, routing the Savoyard army in the process until only the great fortress of Montmélian remained in ducal hands; while to the south in Piedmont, Nicolas Catinat led 12,000 men and soundly defeated Victor Amadeus

;Saunders pg 55" P. Saunders ''Wine Label Language'' pg 55 Firefly Books 2004 ISBN 1552977200 The boundaries of the AOC are identical with the Banyuls AOC as many of the grapes grown in Collioure destined for use in the fortified (fortified (wine)) ''Vins doux naturels'' of the region. The grapes that do not get used for Banyuls are then produced as non-fortified still wines under the Collioure AOC. J. Robinson (ed) ''"

;The Oxford Companion to Wine"'' Third Edition pg 188 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0198609906 '''Maury''' is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for wines made in the Roussillon wine region of France. Almost all wines are red, made from at least 75% Grenache Noir grapes. Other permitted grapes are Grenache Blanc, Grenache Gris, and (rarely used) Macabeu, Malvoisie and Muscat grape Muscat


paintings show

-Mer , Roussillon. He decided at an early age to become a painter, and moved to Paris in 1881 to study art. After several applications, his enrollment in the École des Beaux-Arts was accepted in 1885, and he studied there under Jean-Léon Gérôme and Alexandre Cabanel. His early paintings show the influence of his contemporaries Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and Paul Gauguin. '''Catalan''' ( , or


modern+natural

, such as Capcir and Conflent. Thus, the county of Cerdanya was actually quite an important county. The counts of Cerdanya were great patrons of abbeys, most famously Saint-Michel de Cuxa (Catalan: ''Sant Miquel de Cuixà''), dating back to the 10th century and located in Conflent, and Saint-Martin-du-Canigou (Catalan: ''Sant Martí del Canigó''), dedicated by Count Guifred of Cerdanya in 1009. right 300px thumb The modern natural comarca of Cerdanya in Catalonia and Pyrénées-Orientales. (File:Transnational_Cerdanya.svg) Cerdanya proper was split between Spain and France by the Treaty of the Pyrenees of 1659, with the north of Cerdanya becoming French, while the south of Cerdanya remained Spanish. The counties of Rosselló (Roussillon), Capcir and Conflent also became French at that time. In 1659, the Treaty of the Pyrenees ceded the ''comarques'' of Roussillon, Conflent, Capcir, Vallespir, and northern Cerdanya (French Cerdagne) ("Cerdagne") to the French crown. Llívia did not become part of the French kingdom as the treaty stipulated that only villages were to be ceded to France, and Llívia was considered a city and not a village due to its status as the ancient capital of Cerdanya. Capdevila i Subirana, Joan: ''Historia del deslinde de la frontera Hispano-Francesa. Del tratado de los Pirineos (1659) a los tratados de Bayona (1856-1868)'', Ed. Ministerio de Fomento, Centro Nacional de Información Geográfica, Madrid, 2009, pp. 146-149. ISBN 978-84-416-1480-2 (Spanish) Biography John was the eldest son of Peter IV (Peter IV of Aragon) and his third wife, Eleanor (Eleanor of Sicily), who was the daughter of Peter II of Sicily. He was born in Perpignan, in the province of Roussillon, which at that time belonged to Aragon, and died during a hunt in forests near Foixà (Girona (province)) by a fall from his horse, like his namesake, cousin, and contemporary, John I of Castile. He was a man of character, with a taste for verse. There followed the long Navarrese Civil War (Navarrese Civil War (1451–1455)), with alternations of success and defeat, ending only with the death of the prince of Viana, perhaps by poison given him by his stepmother, in 1461. The Catalans (Cataluña), who had adopted the cause of Charles and who had grievances of their own, called in a succession of foreign pretenders in a War against John II. John spent his last years contending with these. He was forced to pawn Roussillon, his possession on the north-east of the Pyrenees, to King Louis XI of France, who refused to part with it. Biography Joffre was born in Rivesaltes, Roussillon, the son of a family of vineyard owners. He entered the École Polytechnique in 1870 and became a career officer. He first saw active service during the Siege of Paris in the Franco-Prussian War, but spent much of his career in the colonies as a military engineer, serving with distinction in the Keelung Campaign during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885). He returned to France and was made commander-in-chief of the French Army (1911), after Joseph Gallieni declined the post. With the revival of the army and a purge of "defensive-minded" officers ''First World War'' – Willmott, H.P., Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 52 he adopted the strategy devised by Ferdinand Foch, the offensive known as Plan XVII. Joffre was selected to command despite never having commanded an Army, even on paper, and "having no knowledge whatever of General Staff work." Fuller, J.F.C. (J. F. C. Fuller), ''Military History of the Western World'', 1957, p. 190. History The Benedictine abbey of Vézelay was founded, The primary source for the history of Vézelay is a codex compiled in the twelfth century, containing the abbey's annals, a cartulary, a history of the early counts of Nevers (Counts and Dukes of Nevers), and much besides, in the Bibliothèque municipal, Auxerre, MS 227; it was edited by R. B. C. Huygens, in his magisterial ''Monumenta Vizeliacensia: Textes relatifs à l'histoire de l'abbaye de Vézelay'' (Corpus Christianorum) Turnhout, Belgium, 1976. as many abbeys were, on land that had been a late Roman villa, of Vercellus (''Vercelle'' becoming ''Vézelay''). The villa had passed into the hands of the Carolingians and devolved to a Carolingian count, Girart, of Roussillon. The two convents he founded there were looted and dispersed by Moorish raiding parties in the 8th century, and a hilltop convent was burnt by Norman (Normans) raiders. In the 9th century, the abbey was refounded under the guidance of Badilo, who became an affiliate of the reformed Benedictine order of Cluny (Abbey of Cluny). Vézelay also stood at the beginning of one of the four major routes (World Heritage Sites of the Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France) through France for pilgrims going to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, in the north-western corner of Spain. Policies as chief minister Mazarin continued Richelieu's anti-Habsburg policy and laid the foundation for Louis XIV's expansionist policies. The victories of Condé (Louis II, Prince of Condé) and Turenne (Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne) brought the French party to the bargaining table at the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War with the Peace of Westphalia, in which Mazarin's policies were French rather than Catholic and brought Alsace (though not Strasbourg) to France; he settled Protestant princes in secularized bishoprics and abbacies in reward for their political opposition to Austria. In 1658 he formed the League of the Rhine, which was designed to check the House of Austria in central Germany. In 1659 he made peace with Habsburg Spain in the Peace of the Pyrenees, which added to French territory Roussillon and northern Cerdanya—as French Cerdagne—in the far south as well as part of the Low Countries. * ''P. v. viridis'', which breeds in Europe south to France (except south Roussillon), the Alps, northern Yugoslavia and Romania * ''P. v. karelini'', which breeds in Italy, south-east Europe south from southern Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Asia Minor, northern Iran and south-west Turkmenistan. It has duller green upperparts, cheeks and underparts than ''viridis'' * On the other hand, there are those who stress the past of Toulouse, referring to the former County of Toulouse which extended to the Mediterranean Coast, and who would like to merge Midi-Pyrénées with Languedoc-Roussillon in order to create a large Languedoc region. This indeed would reunify the old province of Languedoc, which was split between Midi-Pyrénées and Languedoc-Roussillon, and it would also make sense historically speaking, creating a region roughly corresponding to the old county of Toulouse. There also seems to be less economic competition between Toulouse and the cities of Languedoc-Roussillon. However, political leaders of Montpellier (capital of Languedoc-Roussillon) may disagree with the merger, opposed to losing their status of regional capital in favor of Toulouse, and loath to have Toulouse dominate the Mediterranean coast after it has dominated Midi-Pyrénées for more than 30 years already. Also, people in Roussillon, with their distinct Catalan (Catalonia) culture, might object to being incorporated into a very large Languedoc region where their identity could become diluted. In 1642 he served as second-in-command of the French troops which conquered Roussillon. At this time Richelieu discovered the conspiracy of Cinq Mars (Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis of Cinq-Mars) in which Turenne's elder brother, the duc de Bouillon (Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, duc de Bouillon), had become implicated. ! scope "row" Rousillon Rupes Roussillon, France (''All's Well That Ends Well'') Rupes The smallest front of the war was in Catalonia. In 1689 the Duke of Noailles (Anne Jules de Noailles) had led French forces there aimed at bringing further pressure to bear on the Spanish by re-igniting a peasant rising (Revolt of the Barretinas) against Charles II, which initially broke out in 1687. Exploiting the situation, Noailles captured Camprodon on 22 May, but a larger Spanish army under the Duke of Villahermosa (Carlos de Gurrea, 9th Duke of Villahermosa) forced him to withdraw back to Roussillon in August. Childs: ''Warfare in the Seventeenth Century,'' 187 The Catalan campaign settled down in 1690, but a new front in Piedmont-Savoy proved more eventful. A ferment of religious animosities and Savoyard hatred of the French produced a theatre characterised by massacres and atrocities: constant guerrilla attacks by the armed populace were met by draconian reprisals. Childs: ''Warfare in the Seventeenth Century,'' 188 In 1690 Saint-Ruth (Marquis de St Ruth) took most of the Victor Amadeus II's exposed Duchy of Savoy, routing the Savoyard army in the process until only the great fortress of Montmélian remained in ducal hands; while to the south in Piedmont, Nicolas Catinat led 12,000 men and soundly defeated Victor Amadeus at the Battle of Staffarda on 18 August. Catinat immediately took Saluzzo, followed by Savigliano, Fossano, and Susa (Susa (Italy)), but lacking sufficient troops, and with sickness rife within his army, Catinat was obliged to withdraw back across the Alps for the winter. Lynn: ''The Wars of Louis XIV: 1667–1714,'' 213 Spain had promised not to interfere with France's adventures in Italy in return for Roussillon and Cerdagne, which were ceded to Spain under the Treaty of Barcelona of 1492. To have his hands free in Italy, Charles made ruinous pacts with all his neighbours, so they would not interfere. Henry VII (Henry VII of England) was given cash, Ferdinand II of Aragon was given Roussillon and Maximillian (Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor) was given Artois and Franche-Comté. This handing out of territory is symptomatic of Charles' lack of foresight. However, Charles was willing to do this in his attempt to establish his Neapolitan base for his crusade. Gothia in Carolingian times The region of Roussillon was taken by the Franks in 760. In 767, after waging a war against Waifer of Aquitaine, Albi, Rouergue, Gévaudan and the city of Toulouse were conquered. In 777 the wali of Barcelona, Sulayman al-Arabi, and the wali of Huesca Abu Taur (Abu Taur of Huesca), offered their submission to Charlemagne and also the submission of Husayn (Husayn of Zaragoza), wali of Zaragoza. When Charlemagne invaded the Upper Mark in 778, Husayn refused allegiance and he had to retire. In the Pyrenees, the Basques defeated his forces in Roncesvalles (August 15, 778). Septimania became known as '''Gothia''' after the reign of Charlemagne. It retained these two names while it was ruled by the counts of Toulouse (Count of Toulouse) during early part of the Middle Ages, but the southern part became more familiar as Roussillon and the west became known as Foix, and the name "Gothia" (along with the older name "Septimania") faded away during the 10th century, except as a traditional designation as the region fractured into smaller feudal entities, which sometimes retained Carolingian titles, but lost their Carolingian character, as the culture of Septimania evolved into the culture of Languedoc. thumb 250px Meeting of Philip IV of Spain and Louis XIV of France on 7 July 1660 at Pheasant Island. (Image:Traite-Pyrenees.jpg) War with France continued for eleven more years. Although France suffered from a civil war from 1648–1652 (''see Wars of the Fronde (Fronde)'') the Spanish economy was so exhausted that it was unable to effectively cope with war on so many fronts. Yet the decline of Spanish power in this period has often been overstated. Spain retook Naples in 1648 and Catalonia in 1652, but the war came to an end at the Battle of the Dunes (1658) where the French army under Viscount Turenne (Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne) defeated the remnants of the Spanish army of the Netherlands. Spain agreed to the Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659 that ceded to France Roussillon and Artois. By the Treaty of Anagni in 1295, he returned the Balearic Islands to his uncle James II of Majorca. Aragon retained control over the continental territories of the Majorca kingdom — Montpellier and Roussillon — throughout James's reign. In 1298, by the Treaty of Argilers, James of Majorca recognised the suzerainty of James of Aragon. #the ''Pays de petites gabelles'', in which the salt came from the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) and the tax was about half the rate of the former: between 22 and 30 livre (French livre)s for a ''minot'' (Minot (unit)); #the ''Pays de quart-bouillon'', such as the coast of Normandy, Provence or Roussillon, in which salt came from boiling sea-salt impregnated sand, a fourth of which production went to the king, and prices ranged from 13 to 27 livre (French livre)s for a ''minot'' (Minot (unit)); #the ''Pays de salines'' (Franche-Comté, Alsace and Lorraine (Lorraine (province))), in which the tax was levied on the salt extracted from the salt marshes, and prices for a ''minot'' (Minot (unit)) varying from 15 livre (French livre)s (Franche-Comté) to between 12 and 36 livre (French livre)s in the numerous fiscal divisions of the Alsace-Lorraine; Guérisse was serving mainly as a conducting officer, escorting agents ashore in small boats through the surf, whilst the large vessel lay some distance offshore. This was skilled work, exposed to physical dangers from the sea-conditions and operational dangers from the Vichy security services. On 25 April 1941, during a mission to place SOE (Special Operations Executive) agents in Collioure, on Roussillon coast in southern France, Guérisse was in the skiff on its way back to the ship when it turned over and he had to swim ashore. To the Vichy French (Vichy France) coast guards, Guérisse claimed he was a Canadian airman named Pat O'Leary. The 'Canadian' identity attempted to explain his not-quite British accent in English, and his not-quite French accent in French, without compromising his relatives in occupied Belgium. ;Old Mrs McGlome This character is based on Miss Beamish, an eccentric novelist from Connacht whom Beckett had met in Roussillon, while hiding during World War II. "Whether the real Miss Beamish did actually sing regularly every evening is … debatable. Beckett did not remember this." Interview with James Knowlson, July 1989, cited in James Knowlson, ''Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett'' (London: Bloomsbury, 1996) 330, 331. France gained Roussillon and Perpignan, Montmédy and other parts of Luxembourg, Artois and other towns in Flanders, including Arras, Béthune, Gravelines and Thionville, and a new border with Spain was fixed at the Pyrenees. '''Gausfred I''' (died 991) was the count of Empúries and Rosselló (counts of Rosselló) from 931 until his death. He was the son and successor of Gausbert. He spent his whole life consolidating his authority in his counties, but he divided the realm amongst his sons. By his testament of 989, Empúries and Perelada went to Hugh (Hug I of Empúries) and Roussillon went to Giselbert (Giselbert I). Cornut initially worked as an architect for military fortifications in Roussillon. He then entered the service of the English Crown (United Kingdom), and participated to the Seven Years War. Later, based in Gibraltar, he was invited by Sidi Mohamed ben Abdallah (Mohammed ben Abdallah), an Alaouite Sultan, to build the city of Mogador (modern Essaouira) in 1766. The village produces Côtes du Luberon AOC wines - AOC stands for ''Appellation d'origine contrôlée'' (controlled designation of origin). Wines which are not AOC can be labelled, after approval, ''vin de pays d'Aigues''. The label ''vin de pays d'Aigues'' relates to the following village and towns in the Vaucluse department: Ansouis, Apt (Apt, Vaucluse), Auribeau, La Bastide-des-Jourdans, La Bastidonne, Beaumettes, Beaumont-de-Pertuis, Bonnieux, Buoux, Cabrières-d'Aigues, Cabrières-d'Avignon, Cadenet, Caseneuve, Castellet, Cavaillon, Cheval-Blanc, Cucuron, Gargas (Gargas, Vaucluse), Gignac (Gignac, Vaucluse), Gordes, Goult, Grambois, L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue, Joucas, Lacoste, Lagarde-d'Apt, Lagnes, Lauris, Lioux, Lourmarin, Maubec (Maubec, Vaucluse), Ménerbes, Mérindol, Mirabeau (Mirabeau, Vaucluse), La Motte-d'Aigues, Murs (Murs, Vaucluse), Oppède, Pertuis, Peypin-d'Aigues, Puget, Puyvert, Robion, Roussillon, Rustrel, Saignon, Saint-Martin-de-Castillon, Saint-Martin-de-la-Brasque, Saint-Pantaléon (Saint-Pantaléon, Vaucluse), Saint-Saturnin-lès-Apt, Sannes, Saumane (Saumane-de-Vaucluse), Sivergues, Taillades, La Tour-d'Aigues, Vaugines, Viens (Viens, Vaucluse), Villars (Villars, Vaucluse), Villelaure, Vitrolles-en-Luberon. right 300px thumb A vineyard in Villeneuve-lès-Maguelone (File:Languedoc vineyard.jpg) bordering the Gulf of Lion. The history of Languedoc wines can be traced to the first vineyards planted along the coast near Narbonne by the early Greeks in the fifth century BC. Along with parts of Provence, these are the oldest planted vineyards in France. The region of Languedoc has belonged to France since the thirteenth century and the Roussillon was acquired from Spain in the mid-seventeenth century. The two regions were joined as one administrative region in the late 1980s.


early paintings

-Mer , Roussillon. He decided at an early age to become a painter, and moved to Paris in 1881 to study art. After several applications, his enrollment in the École des Beaux-Arts was accepted in 1885, and he studied there under Jean-Léon Gérôme and Alexandre Cabanel. His early paintings show the influence of his contemporaries Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and Paul Gauguin. '''Catalan''' ( '''Gausfred I''' (died 991) was the count of Empúries and Rosselló (counts of Rosselló) from 931 until his death. He was the son and successor of Gausbert. He spent his whole life consolidating his authority in his counties, but he divided the realm amongst his sons. By his testament of 989, Empúries and Perelada went to Hugh (Hug I of Empúries) and Roussillon went to Giselbert (Giselbert I). Cornut initially worked as an architect for military fortifications in Roussillon. He then entered the service of the English Crown (United Kingdom), and participated to the Seven Years War. Later, based in Gibraltar, he was invited by Sidi Mohamed ben Abdallah (Mohammed ben Abdallah), an Alaouite Sultan, to build the city of Mogador (modern Essaouira) in 1766. The village produces Côtes du Luberon AOC wines - AOC stands for ''Appellation d'origine contrôlée'' (controlled designation of origin). Wines which are not AOC can be labelled, after approval, ''vin de pays d'Aigues''. The label ''vin de pays d'Aigues'' relates to the following village and towns in the Vaucluse department: Ansouis, Apt (Apt, Vaucluse), Auribeau, La Bastide-des-Jourdans, La Bastidonne, Beaumettes, Beaumont-de-Pertuis, Bonnieux, Buoux, Cabrières-d'Aigues, Cabrières-d'Avignon, Cadenet, Caseneuve, Castellet, Cavaillon, Cheval-Blanc, Cucuron, Gargas (Gargas, Vaucluse), Gignac (Gignac, Vaucluse), Gordes, Goult, Grambois, L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue, Joucas, Lacoste, Lagarde-d'Apt, Lagnes, Lauris, Lioux, Lourmarin, Maubec (Maubec, Vaucluse), Ménerbes, Mérindol, Mirabeau (Mirabeau, Vaucluse), La Motte-d'Aigues, Murs (Murs, Vaucluse), Oppède, Pertuis, Peypin-d'Aigues, Puget, Puyvert, Robion, Roussillon, Rustrel, Saignon, Saint-Martin-de-Castillon, Saint-Martin-de-la-Brasque, Saint-Pantaléon (Saint-Pantaléon, Vaucluse), Saint-Saturnin-lès-Apt, Sannes, Saumane (Saumane-de-Vaucluse), Sivergues, Taillades, La Tour-d'Aigues, Vaugines, Viens (Viens, Vaucluse), Villars (Villars, Vaucluse), Villelaure, Vitrolles-en-Luberon. right 300px thumb A vineyard in Villeneuve-lès-Maguelone (File:Languedoc vineyard.jpg) bordering the Gulf of Lion. The history of Languedoc wines can be traced to the first vineyards planted along the coast near Narbonne by the early Greeks in the fifth century BC. Along with parts of Provence, these are the oldest planted vineyards in France. The region of Languedoc has belonged to France since the thirteenth century and the Roussillon was acquired from Spain in the mid-seventeenth century. The two regions were joined as one administrative region in the late 1980s.


centuries long

of Roussillon. But his rule only extended over the eastern part of what became the later province. The western part, the Cerdanya (French, Cerdagne), was ruled in 900 by Miró as first count, and one of his grandsons, Bernat, became the first hereditary count of the middle portion, or Besalú. The Counts of Roussillon were allied to their cousins the Counts of Empúries in a centuries-long conflict with the surrounding great nobles. Count Girard I participated in the First Crusade in the following of Raymond IV of Toulouse, and was one of the first to set foot in Jerusalem when it was stormed by the Crusaders in 1099. At the beginning of the 12th century, the prestige of the Counts of Barcelona began to rise to such a height that the Counts of Roussillon had no choice but to swear fealty to them. In 1111, Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, inherited the fief of Besalú, to which was added in 1117 Cerdanya. The possession of Roussillon by its last count, Girard II (Girard II of Roussillon), was challenged by his illegitimate brothers. To ensure that his brothers would not inherit his territories, in his will Girard II left all his lands to Alfonso II of Aragon, who took possession in 1172. Under the Aragonese monarchs (Crown of Aragon), economic and demographic growth of the region continued, and Collioure ( '''Gausfred I''' (died 991) was the count of Empúries and Rosselló (counts of Rosselló) from 931 until his death. He was the son and successor of Gausbert. He spent his whole life consolidating his authority in his counties, but he divided the realm amongst his sons. By his testament of 989, Empúries and Perelada went to Hugh (Hug I of Empúries) and Roussillon went to Giselbert (Giselbert I). Cornut initially worked as an architect for military fortifications in Roussillon. He then entered the service of the English Crown (United Kingdom), and participated to the Seven Years War. Later, based in Gibraltar, he was invited by Sidi Mohamed ben Abdallah (Mohammed ben Abdallah), an Alaouite Sultan, to build the city of Mogador (modern Essaouira) in 1766. The village produces Côtes du Luberon AOC wines - AOC stands for ''Appellation d'origine contrôlée'' (controlled designation of origin). Wines which are not AOC can be labelled, after approval, ''vin de pays d'Aigues''. The label ''vin de pays d'Aigues'' relates to the following village and towns in the Vaucluse department: Ansouis, Apt (Apt, Vaucluse), Auribeau, La Bastide-des-Jourdans, La Bastidonne, Beaumettes, Beaumont-de-Pertuis, Bonnieux, Buoux, Cabrières-d'Aigues, Cabrières-d'Avignon, Cadenet, Caseneuve, Castellet, Cavaillon, Cheval-Blanc, Cucuron, Gargas (Gargas, Vaucluse), Gignac (Gignac, Vaucluse), Gordes, Goult, Grambois, L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue, Joucas, Lacoste, Lagarde-d'Apt, Lagnes, Lauris, Lioux, Lourmarin, Maubec (Maubec, Vaucluse), Ménerbes, Mérindol, Mirabeau (Mirabeau, Vaucluse), La Motte-d'Aigues, Murs (Murs, Vaucluse), Oppède, Pertuis, Peypin-d'Aigues, Puget, Puyvert, Robion, Roussillon, Rustrel, Saignon, Saint-Martin-de-Castillon, Saint-Martin-de-la-Brasque, Saint-Pantaléon (Saint-Pantaléon, Vaucluse), Saint-Saturnin-lès-Apt, Sannes, Saumane (Saumane-de-Vaucluse), Sivergues, Taillades, La Tour-d'Aigues, Vaugines, Viens (Viens, Vaucluse), Villars (Villars, Vaucluse), Villelaure, Vitrolles-en-Luberon. right 300px thumb A vineyard in Villeneuve-lès-Maguelone (File:Languedoc vineyard.jpg) bordering the Gulf of Lion. The history of Languedoc wines can be traced to the first vineyards planted along the coast near Narbonne by the early Greeks in the fifth century BC. Along with parts of Provence, these are the oldest planted vineyards in France. The region of Languedoc has belonged to France since the thirteenth century and the Roussillon was acquired from Spain in the mid-seventeenth century. The two regions were joined as one administrative region in the late 1980s.


study art

) is a commune (Communes of France) and the capital of the Pyrénées-Orientales department (Departments of France) in southern France. Perpignan was the capital of the former province (provinces of France) and county of Roussillon (''Rosselló'' in Catalan) and continental capital of the Kingdom of Majorca in the 13th and 14th centuries. History Though settlement in the area goes back to Roman times (Roman Empire), the medieval town of Perpignan seems to have been founded around the beginning of the 10th century (first mentioned in a document as ''villa Perpiniarum'' in 927). Soon Perpignan became the capital of the counts of Roussillon. In 1172 Count Girard II (Girard II of Roussillon) bequeathed his lands to the Counts of Barcelona (List of Counts of Barcelona). Perpignan acquired the institutions of a partly self-governing commune (Medieval commune) in 1197. French feudal rights (Feudalism) over Roussillon were given up by Louis IX (Louis IX of France) in the Treaty of Corbeil (1258). Hyacinthe Rigaud was born in Perpignan (Pyrénées-Orientales), the grandson of painter-gilders from Roussillon and the elder brother of another painter (Gaspard (Gaspard Rigaud)). He was trained in tailoring in his father's workshop and perfected his skills under Antoine Ranc at Montpellier from 1671 onwards, before moving to Lyon four years later. It was in these cities that he became familiar with Flemish, Dutch and Italian painting, particularly that of Rubens (Peter Paul Rubens), Van Dyck, Rembrandt and Titian, whose works he later collected. Arriving in Paris in 1681, he won the prix de Rome in 1682, but on the advice of Charles Le Brun did not make the trip to Rome to which this entitled him. Received into the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture in 1700, he rose to the top of this institution before retiring from it in 1735. In his will, James divided his states between his sons by Yolanda of Hungary (Violant of Hungary): the aforementioned Peter received the Hispanic possessions on the mainland and James (James II of Majorca), the Kingdom of Majorca (including the Balearic Islands and the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya) and the Lordship of Montpellier. The division inevitably produced fratricidal conflicts. In 1276, the king fell very ill at Alzira (Alzira, Valencia) and resigned his crown, intending to retire to the monastery of Poblet (Poblet Monastery), but he died at Valencia on 27 July. The latter became a new state, the third kingdom associated with the Crown of Aragon (or, as some historians now call it, the Catalan-Aragonese empire), with its own court and a new ''fuero (fueros)'' (code of laws): the ''Furs de Valencia''. In contrast, the Majorcan territory together with that of the counts of Cerdanya and Roussillon and the city of Montpellier were left as a kingdom for his son James II of Majorca as the Kingdom of Majorca. This division began a period of struggle that ended with the annexation of that kingdom by the Crown of Aragon in 1344 by Peter IV "the Ceremonious". On James' death, the lands of the Crown of Aragon were divided, with Aragon and Valencia, along with the Catalan counties, going to the eldest son, Peter, while the Balearic Islands (constituted as the Kingdom of Majorca), alongside the territories in the Languedoc (Montpellier and Roussillon), went to the second son, James (James II of Majorca). Peter and Constance were crowned in Zaragoza (the capital of Aragon) in November by the archbishop of Tarragona. At this ceremony, Peter renounced all feudal obligations to the papacy which his grandfather Peter II (Peter II of Aragon) had incurred. In 1873 he published ''Passió de Nostre Senyor Jesucrist'' (Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ). He left Vinyoles d'Orís for health reasons and went to Vic. He went on a trip to Roussillon and saw the Canigou, maybe for the first time. In December, he joined the Companyia Transatlàntica as a chaplain because he was prescribed sea air for his health; he embarked in Cádiz bound for Havana. During his reign Aragonese influence north of the Pyrenees reached its zenith, a natural tendency given the affinity between the Occitan and Catalan dominions of the Crown of Aragon. His realms incorporated not only Provence (from 1166 or just before), Víctor Balaguer. § "Muerte del Conde de Provenza. Guerras entre el Rey de Aragón y el Conde de Tolosa. Don Alfonso se apodera de la Provenza. (De 1166 a 1168)", in ''Historia de Cataluña y de la Corona de Aragon''. Barcelona: Salvador Manero, 1861, vol. II, book V chap. 2, pp. 11–18. but also the counties of Cerdanya (1168) and Roussillon (inherited in 1172). Gerardo II of Rosellon (1164–1174) willed in his testament that "the entire Rosellon I give to my lord the king of Aragón" for the loyalty that he had in his sovereing Alphonso II who was immediately recognized as king in Perpignan. See José Ángel Sesma Muñoz (2000). ''La Corona de Aragón''. Zaragoza: CAI (Colección Mariano de Pano y Ruata, 18), pp. 59–60. Béarn and Bigorre paid homage to him in 1187. Alfonso's involvement in the affairs of Languedoc, which would cost the life of his successor, Peter II of Aragon, for the moment proved highly beneficial, strengthening Aragonese trade and stimulating emigration from the north to colonise the newly reconquered lands in Aragon. thumb ''Pa amb tomàquet'' (bread and tomato with olive oil). (Image:Pa amb tomàquet - 001.jpg) '''Catalan cuisine''' is a Mediterranean cuisine from Catalonia. It may also refer to the shared cuisine of Roussillon and Andorra, which has a similar cuisine to the Alt Urgell and Cerdanya ''comarques (comarca)'', often referred to as "Catalan mountain cuisine". Sen, Miquel, et al, 2005, ''La Cuina comarca a comarca: Andorra-Cerdanya'', Ciro DL. Barcelona. It is considered a part of western Mediterranean cuisine. Treaty of Barcelona France cedes Roussillon and Cerdagne to Spain in return for Spanish neutrality during its war with Italy. - #Artois (Arras (Arras, France)) #Roussillon ('''Perpignan''') #Flanders (French Flanders) and Hainaut (French Hainaut) (Lille parlement in '''Douai''') In 1659, the Treaty of the Pyrenees transferred the border province of Roussillon to France, and Carcassonne's military significance was reduced. Fortifications were abandoned, and the city became mainly an economic centre that concentrated on the woollen textile industry, for which a 1723 source quoted by Fernand Braudel found it "the manufacturing centre of Languedoc". Fernand Braudel, ''The Wheels of Commerce'' 1982, vol. II of ''Civilization and Capitalism'', Brian Anderson. *13.4% of Languedoc-Roussillon, located in the southernmost part of the region, is a collection of five historical Catalan (Catalonia) ''pays (Pays (France))'': Roussillon (Rosselló), Vallespir, Conflent, Capcir, and Cerdagne (French Cerdagne), all of which are in turn included -east to west- in the Pyrénées-Orientales ''département''. These ''pays'' were part of the Ancient Regime province of Roussillon (Roussillon), owning its name to the largest and most populous of the five ''pays'', Roussillon. "Province of Roussillon and adjacent lands of Cerdagne" was indeed the name that was officially used after the area became French in 1659, based on the historical division of the five ''pays'' between the county of Roussillon (Roussillon and Vallespir) and the county of Cerdagne (Cerdanya) (Cerdagne, Capcir, and Conflent). Catalan nationalists (Catalan nationalism) in Roussillon would like the Pyrénées-Orientales department to secede from Languedoc-Roussillon and become a region in its own right, under the proposed name of "Catalunya Nord" (Northern Catalonia), as part of the Països Catalans (Catalan Countries), a new country that never existed before. This idea has no popular support. The sovereign county of Cerdanya bordered the county of Urgell (counts of Urgel), the county of Barcelona (List of Counts of Barcelona), the county of Besalú (Besalú), the county of Roussillon (Roussillon), and the county of Razès (Razès). The county of Cerdanya was made up of Cerdanya proper with the addition of other areas which it managed to acquire over time through inheritance, such as Capcir and Conflent. Thus, the county of Cerdanya was actually quite an important county. The counts of Cerdanya were great patrons of abbeys, most famously Saint-Michel de Cuxa (Catalan: ''Sant Miquel de Cuixà''), dating back to the 10th century and located in Conflent, and Saint-Martin-du-Canigou (Catalan: ''Sant Martí del Canigó''), dedicated by Count Guifred of Cerdanya in 1009. right 300px thumb The modern natural comarca of Cerdanya in Catalonia and Pyrénées-Orientales. (File:Transnational_Cerdanya.svg) Cerdanya proper was split between Spain and France by the Treaty of the Pyrenees of 1659, with the north of Cerdanya becoming French, while the south of Cerdanya remained Spanish. The counties of Rosselló (Roussillon), Capcir and Conflent also became French at that time. In 1659, the Treaty of the Pyrenees ceded the ''comarques'' of Roussillon, Conflent, Capcir, Vallespir, and northern Cerdanya (French Cerdagne) ("Cerdagne") to the French crown. Llívia did not become part of the French kingdom as the treaty stipulated that only villages were to be ceded to France, and Llívia was considered a city and not a village due to its status as the ancient capital of Cerdanya. Capdevila i Subirana, Joan: ''Historia del deslinde de la frontera Hispano-Francesa. Del tratado de los Pirineos (1659) a los tratados de Bayona (1856-1868)'', Ed. Ministerio de Fomento, Centro Nacional de Información Geográfica, Madrid, 2009, pp. 146-149. ISBN 978-84-416-1480-2 (Spanish) Biography John was the eldest son of Peter IV (Peter IV of Aragon) and his third wife, Eleanor (Eleanor of Sicily), who was the daughter of Peter II of Sicily. He was born in Perpignan, in the province of Roussillon, which at that time belonged to Aragon, and died during a hunt in forests near Foixà (Girona (province)) by a fall from his horse, like his namesake, cousin, and contemporary, John I of Castile. He was a man of character, with a taste for verse. There followed the long Navarrese Civil War (Navarrese Civil War (1451–1455)), with alternations of success and defeat, ending only with the death of the prince of Viana, perhaps by poison given him by his stepmother, in 1461. The Catalans (Cataluña), who had adopted the cause of Charles and who had grievances of their own, called in a succession of foreign pretenders in a War against John II. John spent his last years contending with these. He was forced to pawn Roussillon, his possession on the north-east of the Pyrenees, to King Louis XI of France, who refused to part with it. Biography Joffre was born in Rivesaltes, Roussillon, the son of a family of vineyard owners. He entered the École Polytechnique in 1870 and became a career officer. He first saw active service during the Siege of Paris in the Franco-Prussian War, but spent much of his career in the colonies as a military engineer, serving with distinction in the Keelung Campaign during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885). He returned to France and was made commander-in-chief of the French Army (1911), after Joseph Gallieni declined the post. With the revival of the army and a purge of "defensive-minded" officers ''First World War'' – Willmott, H.P., Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 52 he adopted the strategy devised by Ferdinand Foch, the offensive known as Plan XVII. Joffre was selected to command despite never having commanded an Army, even on paper, and "having no knowledge whatever of General Staff work." Fuller, J.F.C. (J. F. C. Fuller), ''Military History of the Western World'', 1957, p. 190. History The Benedictine abbey of Vézelay was founded, The primary source for the history of Vézelay is a codex compiled in the twelfth century, containing the abbey's annals, a cartulary, a history of the early counts of Nevers (Counts and Dukes of Nevers), and much besides, in the Bibliothèque municipal, Auxerre, MS 227; it was edited by R. B. C. Huygens, in his magisterial ''Monumenta Vizeliacensia: Textes relatifs à l'histoire de l'abbaye de Vézelay'' (Corpus Christianorum) Turnhout, Belgium, 1976. as many abbeys were, on land that had been a late Roman villa, of Vercellus (''Vercelle'' becoming ''Vézelay''). The villa had passed into the hands of the Carolingians and devolved to a Carolingian count, Girart, of Roussillon. The two convents he founded there were looted and dispersed by Moorish raiding parties in the 8th century, and a hilltop convent was burnt by Norman (Normans) raiders. In the 9th century, the abbey was refounded under the guidance of Badilo, who became an affiliate of the reformed Benedictine order of Cluny (Abbey of Cluny). Vézelay also stood at the beginning of one of the four major routes (World Heritage Sites of the Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France) through France for pilgrims going to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, in the north-western corner of Spain. Policies as chief minister Mazarin continued Richelieu's anti-Habsburg policy and laid the foundation for Louis XIV's expansionist policies. The victories of Condé (Louis II, Prince of Condé) and Turenne (Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne) brought the French party to the bargaining table at the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War with the Peace of Westphalia, in which Mazarin's policies were French rather than Catholic and brought Alsace (though not Strasbourg) to France; he settled Protestant princes in secularized bishoprics and abbacies in reward for their political opposition to Austria. In 1658 he formed the League of the Rhine, which was designed to check the House of Austria in central Germany. In 1659 he made peace with Habsburg Spain in the Peace of the Pyrenees, which added to French territory Roussillon and northern Cerdanya—as French Cerdagne—in the far south as well as part of the Low Countries. * ''P. v. viridis'', which breeds in Europe south to France (except south Roussillon), the Alps, northern Yugoslavia and Romania * ''P. v. karelini'', which breeds in Italy, south-east Europe south from southern Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Asia Minor, northern Iran and south-west Turkmenistan. It has duller green upperparts, cheeks and underparts than ''viridis'' * On the other hand, there are those who stress the past of Toulouse, referring to the former County of Toulouse which extended to the Mediterranean Coast, and who would like to merge Midi-Pyrénées with Languedoc-Roussillon in order to create a large Languedoc region. This indeed would reunify the old province of Languedoc, which was split between Midi-Pyrénées and Languedoc-Roussillon, and it would also make sense historically speaking, creating a region roughly corresponding to the old county of Toulouse. There also seems to be less economic competition between Toulouse and the cities of Languedoc-Roussillon. However, political leaders of Montpellier (capital of Languedoc-Roussillon) may disagree with the merger, opposed to losing their status of regional capital in favor of Toulouse, and loath to have Toulouse dominate the Mediterranean coast after it has dominated Midi-Pyrénées for more than 30 years already. Also, people in Roussillon, with their distinct Catalan (Catalonia) culture, might object to being incorporated into a very large Languedoc region where their identity could become diluted. In 1642 he served as second-in-command of the French troops which conquered Roussillon. At this time Richelieu discovered the conspiracy of Cinq Mars (Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis of Cinq-Mars) in which Turenne's elder brother, the duc de Bouillon (Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, duc de Bouillon), had become implicated. ! scope "row" Rousillon Rupes Roussillon, France (''All's Well That Ends Well'') Rupes The smallest front of the war was in Catalonia. In 1689 the Duke of Noailles (Anne Jules de Noailles) had led French forces there aimed at bringing further pressure to bear on the Spanish by re-igniting a peasant rising (Revolt of the Barretinas) against Charles II, which initially broke out in 1687. Exploiting the situation, Noailles captured Camprodon on 22 May, but a larger Spanish army under the Duke of Villahermosa (Carlos de Gurrea, 9th Duke of Villahermosa) forced him to withdraw back to Roussillon in August. Childs: ''Warfare in the Seventeenth Century,'' 187 The Catalan campaign settled down in 1690, but a new front in Piedmont-Savoy proved more eventful. A ferment of religious animosities and Savoyard hatred of the French produced a theatre characterised by massacres and atrocities: constant guerrilla attacks by the armed populace were met by draconian reprisals. Childs: ''Warfare in the Seventeenth Century,'' 188 In 1690 Saint-Ruth (Marquis de St Ruth) took most of the Victor Amadeus II's exposed Duchy of Savoy, routing the Savoyard army in the process until only the great fortress of Montmélian remained in ducal hands; while to the south in Piedmont, Nicolas Catinat led 12,000 men and soundly defeated Victor Amadeus at the Battle of Staffarda on 18 August. Catinat immediately took Saluzzo, followed by Savigliano, Fossano, and Susa (Susa (Italy)), but lacking sufficient troops, and with sickness rife within his army, Catinat was obliged to withdraw back across the Alps for the winter. Lynn: ''The Wars of Louis XIV: 1667–1714,'' 213 Spain had promised not to interfere with France's adventures in Italy in return for Roussillon and Cerdagne, which were ceded to Spain under the Treaty of Barcelona of 1492. To have his hands free in Italy, Charles made ruinous pacts with all his neighbours, so they would not interfere. Henry VII (Henry VII of England) was given cash, Ferdinand II of Aragon was given Roussillon and Maximillian (Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor) was given Artois and Franche-Comté. This handing out of territory is symptomatic of Charles' lack of foresight. However, Charles was willing to do this in his attempt to establish his Neapolitan base for his crusade. Gothia in Carolingian times The region of Roussillon was taken by the Franks in 760. In 767, after waging a war against Waifer of Aquitaine, Albi, Rouergue, Gévaudan

Roussillon

thumb 200px right Roussillon coast. (File:roussillon-catalane.jpg) thumb 200px right Grape pickers near Maury, Pyrénées-Orientales Maury (File:wine600.jpg). right 200px thumb A snow-capped Mount Canigó (File:Canigó.jpeg) ( Canigou) (2785m) across the Roussillon plain.

'''Roussillon''' ( ) is one of the historical counties (county) of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French ''département'' of Pyrénées-Orientales (Eastern Pyrenees). It may also refer to ''French Catalonia'' or ''Northern Catalonia'', the latter used by Catalan-speakers. A 1998 survey found that 34% of respondents stated they speak Catalan, and a further 21% understand it.

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