. The dry and windy conditions usually lend good support to the faster bowlers as well. Such pitches had virtually no grass, afforded little assistance for pace, bounce, or lateral air movement, but created very good turn (bowling (cricket)). In decades past, legendary offspinners such as Saqlain Mushtaq credited for the doosra, and legspinners such as Abdul Qadir (Abdul Qadir (cricketer)) and Mushtaq Ahmed, routinely toyed with visiting teams to plot dramatic victories for Pakistan
) and was a centre of international commercial activities. It was an important channel of communication with ancient Iran and Central Asia. According to one school of scholars, the Gandharas and Kambojas were cognate people. Revue des etudes grecques 1973, p 131, Ch-Em Ruelle, Association pour l'encouragement des etudes grecques en France. Early Indian Economic History, 1973, pp 237, 324, Rajaram Narayan Saletore. Myths of the Dog-man, 199, p 119, David Gordon White; Journal of the Oriental Institute, 1919, p 200; Journal of Indian Museums, 1973, p 2, Museums Association of India; The Pāradas: A Study in Their Coinage and History, 1972, p 52, Dr B. N. Mukherjee - Pāradas; Journal of the Department of Sanskrit, 1989, p 50, Rabindra Bharati University, Dept. of Sanskrit- Sanskrit literature; The Journal of Academy of Indian Numismatics & Sigillography, 1988, p 58, Academy of Indian Numismatics and Sigillography - Numismatics; Cf: Rivers of Life: Or Sources and Streams of the Faiths of Man in All Lands, 2002, p 114, J. G. R. Forlong. It is also contended that the Kurus, Kambojas, Gandharas and Bahlikas were cognate people and all had Iranian affinities. Journal of the Oriental Institute, 1919, p 265, Oriental Institute (Vadodara, India) - Oriental studies; For Kuru-Kamboja connections, see Dr Chandra Chakraberty's views in: Literary history of ancient India in relation to its racial and linguistic affiliations, pp 14,37, Vedas; The Racial History of India, 1944, p 153, Chandra Chakraberty - Ethnology; Paradise of Gods, 1966, p 330, Qamarud Din Ahmed - Pakistan. According to Dr T. L. Shah, the Gandhara and Kamboja were nothing but two provinces of one empire and were located coterminously, hence influencing each others language. Ancient India, History of India for 1000 years, four Volumes, Vol I, 1938, pp 38, 98 Dr T. L. Shah. Naturally, they may have once been a cognate people. IMPORTANT NOTE: The ancient Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya's list of Mahajanapadas includes the Gandhara and the Kamboja as the only two salient Mahajanapadas in the Uttarapatha. However, the ''Chulla-Niddesa'' list (5th c. BCE), which is one of the most ancient Buddhist commentaries, includes the Kamboja and Yona but no Gandhara (See: Chulla-Niddesa, (P.T.S.), p.37). This shows that when Chulla-Niddesa Commentary was written, the Kambojas in the Uttarapatha were a predominant people and that the Gandharans, in all probability, formed part of the Kamboja Mahajanapada around this time---thus making them one people. Kautiliya's Arthashastra (11.1.1-4) (4th c. BCE) refers only to clans of the Kurus, Panchalas, Madrakas, Kambojas etc but it does not mention the Gandharas as a people separate from the Kambojas. The Mudrarakshasa Drama by Visakhadatta also refers to the Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, Bahlikas and Kiratas but again it does not include the Gandharas in Chandragupta's army list. The well-known Puranic legend (told in numerous Puranas) of king Sagara's war with the invading tribes from the north-west includes the Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, and Paradas but again the Gandharas are not included in Haihayas's army (Harivamsa 14.1-19; e.g Vayu Purana 88.127-43; Brahma Purana (8.35-51); Brahmanda Purana (3.63.123-141); Shiva Purana (7.61.23); Vishnu Purana (5.3.15-21), Padma Purana (6.21.16-33) etc etc). Again, the Valmiki Ramayana --(a later list) includes the Janapadas of Andhras, Pundras, Cholas, Pandyas, Keralas, Mekhalas, Utkalas, Dasharnas, Abravantis, Avantis, Vidarbhas, Mlecchas, Pulindas, Surasenas, Prasthalas, Bharatas, Kurus, Madrakas, Kambojas, Daradas, Yavanas, Sakas (from Saka-dvipa), Rishikas, Tukharas, Chinas, Maha-Chinas, Kiratas, Barbaras, Tanganas, Niharas, Pasupalas etc (Ramayana 4.43). Yet at another place in the Ramayana (I.54.17; I.55.2 seq ), the north-western martial tribes of the Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, Kiratas, Haritas Tukharas, Barbaras and Mlechchas etc joined the army of sage Vasishtha during the battle of Kamdhenu against Aryan king Viswamitra of Kanauj. In both the references in the Ramayana, the Kambojas are conspicuously mentioned in the lists of north-western frontier peoples, but no reference is made to the Gandharas or the Daradas. Yaska in his Nirukta (II.2) refers to the Kambojas but not to the Gandharas. Among the several unrighteous barbaric hordes (opposed to Aryan king Vikarmaditya), Brhat Katha of Kshmendra (10.1.285-86) and Kathasaritsagara of Somadeva (18.1.76-78) each list the Sakas, Mlechchas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Neechas, Hunas, Tusharas, Parasikas etc but they do not mention the Gandharas. Vana Parva of Mahabharata states that the Andhhas, Pulindas, Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Valhikas, Aurnikas and Abhiras etc will become rulers in Kaliyuga and will rule the earth (India) un-righteously(MBH 3.187.28-30). Here there is no mention of Gandhara since it is included amongst the Kamboja. Sabha Parava of the Mahabharata enumerates numerous kings from the north-west paying tribute to Pandava king Yudhistra at the occasion of Rajasuya amongst whom it mentions the Kambojas, Vairamas, Paradas, Pulindas, Tungas, Kiratas, Pragjyotisha, Yavanas, Aushmikas, Nishadas, Romikas, Vrishnis, Harahunas, Chinas, Sakas, Sudras, Abhiras, Nipas, Valhikas, Tukharas, Kankas, etc etc (Mahabharata 2.50-1.seqq). The lists does not include the Gandharas since they are counted as the same people as the Kambojas. In the context of Krsna digvijay, the Mahabharata furnishes a key list of twenty-five ancient Janapadas viz: Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Magadha, Kasi, Kosala, Vatsa, Garga, Karusha, Pundra, Avanti, Dakshinatya, Parvartaka, Dasherka, Kashmira, Ursa, Pishacha, Mudgala, Kamboja, Vatadhana, Chola, Pandya, Trigarta, Malava, and Darada (MBH 7 11 15-17). Besides, there were Janapadas of Kurus and Panchalas also. Interestingly, no mention is made to Gandhara in this list. Again in another of its well-known shlokas, the Mahabharata (XIII, 33.20-23; XIII, 35, 17-18), lists the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Dravidas, Kalingas, Pulindas, Usinaras, Kolisarpas, Mekalas, Sudras, Mahishakas, Latas, Kiratas, Paundrakas, Daradas etc as the Vrishalas degraded Kshatriyas (See also: Comprehensive History of India, 1957, p 190, K. A. N. Sastri). It does not include the Gandharas in the list though in yet another similar shloka (MBH 12.207.43-44), the same epic now brands the Yavanas, Kambojas, Gandharas, Kiratas and Barbaras (''Yauna Kamboja Gandharah Kirata barbaraih'') etc as Mlechcha tribes living the lives of the Dasyus or the Barbarians. Thus in the first shlokas, the Gandharas and the Kambojas are definitely treated as one people. The Assalayana-Sutta of Majjima Nakaya says that in the frontier lands of the Yonas, Kambojas and other nations, there are only two classes of People - Arya and Dasa where an Arya could become Dasa and vice-varsa (Majjima Nakayya 43.1.3). Here again, the Gandharas are definitively included among the Kambojas as if the two people are same. Rajatarangini of Kalhana, a Sanskrit text from the north, furnishes a list of northern nations which king Lalitaditya Muktapida (Kashmir) (8th c. CE) undertakes to reduce in his dig-vijaya expedition. The list includes the Kambojas, Tukharas, Bhauttas (in Baltistan in western Tibet), Daradas, Valukambudhi, Strirajya, Uttarakurus and Pragjyotisha respectively, but no mention of Gandharas (Rajatarangini: 4.164- 4.175). Apparently the Gandharas are counted among the Kambojas. Sikanda Purana (Studies in the Geography, 1971, p 259-62, Sircar, Hist of Punjab, 1997, p 40, Dr L. M. Joshi and Dr Fauja Singh (Editors)), contains a list of 75 countries among which it includes Khorasahana, Kuru, Kosala, Bahlika, Yavana, Kamboja, Siva, Sindhu, Kashmira, Jalandhara (Jullundur), Hariala (Haryana), Bhadra (Madra), Kachcha, Saurashtra, Lada, Magadha, Kanyakubja, Vidarbha, Kirata, Gauda, Nepala etc but no mention of Gandhara in this list of 75 countries. Kavyamimasa of Rajasekhara (880-920 AD) also lists 21 north-western countries nations of the Saka, Kekaya, Vokkana, Huna, Vanayuja, Kamboja, Vahlika, Vahvala, Lampaka, Kuluta, Kira, Tangana, Tushara, Turushaka, Barbara, Hara-hurava, Huhuka, Sahuda, Hamsamarga (Hunza), Ramatha and Karakantha etc but no mention of Gandhara or Darada (See: Kavyamimasa, Rajashekhara, Chapter 17; also: Kavyamimasa Editor Kedarnath, trans. K. Minakshi, pp 226-227). Here in both the lists, the Daradas and Gandharas are also treated as the Kambojas. The Satapancasaddesavibhaga of Saktisagama Tantra (Book III, Ch VII, 1-55) lists Gurjara, Avanti, Malava, Vidarbha, Maru, Abhira, Virata, Pandu, Pancala, Kamboja, Bahlika, Kirata, Khurasana, Cina, Maha-Cina, Nepala, Gauda, Magadha, Utkala, Huna, Kaikeya, Surasena, Kuru Saindhava, Kachcha among the 56 countries but the list does not include the Gandharas and Daradas. Similarly, Sammoha Tantra list also contains 56 nations and lists Kashmira, Kamboja, Yavana, Sindhu, Bahlika, Parsika, Barbara, Saurashtra, Malava, Maharashtra, Konkana, Avanti, Chola, Kamarupa, Kerala, Simhala etc but no mention of Daradac and Gandhara (See quotes in: Studies in Geography, 1971, p 78, D. C. Sircar; Studies in the Tantra, pp 97-99, Dr P. C. Bagchi). Obviously, the Daradas and Gandharaa are included among the Kambojas. Raghu Vamsa by Kalidasa refers to numerous tribes nations of the east (including the Sushmas, Vangas, Utkalas, Kalingas and those on Mt Mahendra), then of the south (including Pandyas, Malaya, Dardura, and Kerals), then of the west (Aprantas), and then of the north-west (like the Yavanas, the Parasikas, the Hunas, the Kambojas) and finally those of the north Himalayan (like the Kirats, Utsavasketas, Kinnaras, Pragjyotishas) etc etc (See: Raghuvamsa IV.60 seq). Here again no mention of the Gandharas though Raghu does talk of the Kambojas. And last but not least, even the well known Manusmriti, the Hindu law book, refers to the Kambojas, Yavanas, Shakas, Paradas, Pahlavas, Chinas, Kiratas, Daradas and Khasha besides also the Paundrakas, Chodas, Dravidas but surprisingly enough, it does not make any mention of the Gandharas in this very elaborate list of the Vrishalah Ksatriyas (Manusamriti X.43-44). The above references amply demonstrate that the Gandharas were many times counted among the Kambojas themselves as if they were one and the same people. Thus, the Kambojas and the Gandhara do seem to have been a cognate people. There are also several instances in the ancient literature where the reference has been made only to the Gandharas and not to the Kambojas. In these cases, the Kambojas have obviously been counted among the Gandharas themselves. Kalimpur Inscriptions of Pala (Pala Empire) king Dharmapala of Bengal (770-810 AD) list the nations around his kingdom as the Bhoja (Gurjara), Matsya, Madra, Kuru, Avanti, Gandhara and the Kira (Kangra) which he boasts of as if they are his vassal states. From Monghyr inscriptions of king Devapala (810 - 850AD) the successor of king Dharmapala, we get the list of the nations as Utkala (Kalinga), Pragjyotisha (Assam), Dravida, Gurjara (Bhoja), Huna and the Kamboja. These are the nations which the cavalry of Pala king Devapala is said to have scoured during his war expeditions against these people. Obviously the Kamboja of the Monghyr inscriptions of king Devapala here is none other than the Gandhara of the Kalimpur inscription of king Dharamapala. Hence, the Gandhara and the Kamboja are used interchangeably in the records of the Pala kings of Bengal, thus indicating them to be same group of people. James Fergusson observes: ''"In a wider sense, name Gandhara implied all the countries west of Indus as far as Candhahar"''(The Tree and Serpent Worship, 2004, p 47, James Fergusson). Gandhara was often linked politically with the neighboring regions of Kashmir and Kamboja (Kambojas). ''Encyclopedia Americana'', 1994, p 277, Encyclopedias and Dictionaries. The train that rammed into the stopped train at the Ghotki station originated in Lahore and was headed for the city of Karachi. The third train involved in the accident was heading from Karachi to Rawalpindi near the country's capital city of Islamabad. He attended the 3rd Commonwealth and Empire Law Conference at Sydney in August–September 1965, as Leader of the Pakistan Delegation. He travelled widely in Europe, Canada and the United States. He was interested in academic and educational activities and had been a member of the Syndicates of the Punjab University (University of the Punjab), Engineering University, Lahore, Agricultural University, Lyallpur (Faisalabad) (now Faisalabad) and Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad. He had been President of the Himayat-i-Islam Law College, Lahore, and member of the University Law College, Lahore Committee for several years. He acted as Vice-Chancellor of the Punjab University (University of the Punjab) from time to time. He was appointed as Member of the 1971 War Inquiry Commission from January 1972 to November 1974 along with CJ Hamoodur Rahman. He was also appointed as Chairman of the National Pay Commission and Armed Forces Pay Commission in January 1976.He represented the Pakistan Supreme Court at the Centenary Celebrations of the Supreme Court of Ghana at Accra in October 1976. He was appointed Chairman of the Commission on Indus River System in September 1977. He was appointed Chairman of the Civil Services Commission in February 1978.He had been President of the British Universities Alumni Association, Lahore since 1962. He was a Guest Speaker at a large number of social, intellectual and cultural functions in Lahore, Rawalpindi and Karachi. He was born in Dhamal, Rawalpindi District, (now in Pakistan) to Mr. Jiwan Singh Duggal and Mrs. Satwant Kaur. He is married to Ayesha Duggal (formerly Ayesha Jaffri), a medical doctor. He received his M.A. Honours in English at Forman Christian College, Lahore. Military career Nicholson was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Royal Engineers on 21 March 1865. WikiPedia:Rawalpindi Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan Provinces Punjab Localities Rawalpindi commons:Rawalpindi
: www.nayatel.pk coverage_area.php publisher Nayatel.pk accessdate 22 November 2013 Nayatel and PTCL are the market-leaders in the 'triple-play' service. While another operator named DHA-Teleman also has a rapidly expanding network and currently serves all the military residential areas in addition to civil areas. PTCL currently has the largest optical fibre network (providing triple play services), DHA-Teleman has the second largest (providing Digital and Analogue Cable TV and HFC and FTTH based internet service), Nayatel has third largest network (providing triple play services). There is also a large number of Cable TV service providers in the city. The largest is DHA-Teleman followed by Unicom Cable and Ocean Cable. Others include Worldcall, WTN Haji Shahid, Pindi Plus Cable, 5-Star cable, Pasban Qazi Cable and SA cables. Parks thumb Artistic minarets on Peshawar Road (File:mallroadb.jpg) thumb A view of Rawal Dam (File:Rawal Dam View.jpg) * Ayub National Park formerly known as 'Topi Rakh' (keep the hat on) is by the old Presidency, between the Murree Brewery Co. and Grand Trunk Road. It covers an area of about WikiPedia:Rawalpindi Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan Provinces Punjab Localities Rawalpindi commons:Rawalpindi
Donald Bradman's Australian record set in 1930. In temperatures above 32 o C, Taylor survived two dropped catches before he had reached 25 and scored slowly on the first day. Piesse, p. 167. He shared a 206-run partnership with Justin Langer. The next day, he added 103 runs in a morning session extended from two to three hours. After the tea interval, he discarded his helmet in favour of a white sun hat, to deal with the extreme heat. He passed 311
. The '''economy of Rawalpindi''' and the surrounding district (Rawalpindi District) has a diverse industrial (Industry of Pakistan) base, but remains mainly service based. According to the general survey of industry conducted by Directorate of Industries and Mineral Development Punjab, there are 939 industrial units operating in the district. This district is not famous for industrial goods like other districts. The progress has been mostly in the private sector. The existing industrial units
, The Independent, and the founder-editor of The Pioneer (The Pioneer (Indian newspaper)) (Delhi edition). He was also editor of The Indian Post. '''Murree Brewery''' is the maker of Pakistan's beer brand http: www.parsinews.net murree
, Gujri, Hindko, Ladakhi, Hazargi, Tajik, Sindhi, Saraiki, Baluchi, Brahwi). Sports thumb right Rawalpindi Cricket Stadium (File:Rawalpindi cricket.jpg) The city has an array of stadiums and grounds to meet the needs of all the popular sports played in the country. Rawalpindi is home to some of the many recognized players in the history of Pakistani cricket and is known to produce high-quality fast-bowlers. The most notable of the lot is the maverick paceman Shoaib Akhtar, known as the ''Rawalpindi Express''. Mohammad Aamir is another aspiring fast-bowler from Rawalpindi. The Rawalpindi Cricket Stadium, built in 1992, has a grass pitch, floodlights, and an initial capacity to hold 20,000 spectators. In mid-2008 plans to increase its capacity were made but lack of adequate funds, and later the attack on Sri Lankan cricket team lead to abandoning of the project . The home team are the, one-time T20 champion, Rawalpindi Rams who enjoy fervent support and a considerable following for their swashbuckling brand of cricket. Apart from the RCS, there are many other cricket grounds in the city, including, Pindi Club Ground (home to the Pindi Club), KRL Stadium, CMTSD Cricket stadium as well as the Attock Oil Refinery cricket ground. There are stadiums for hockey such as the Army Hockey Stadium, Army Signals Hockey ground as well as the Noor Station Ground Dhoke Hassu. A full-fledged, international hockey stadium, to be named after the hockey great Shahnaz Sheikh, is under construction near Municipal Road and is expected to be completed in late 2012. There are stadiums for football including the Municipal Football stadium and the Army Football ground as well. The COD sports complex houses admirable facilities for indoor games. Education * Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Rawalpindi Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Rawalpindi established in 1978 to conduct SSC and HSSC examinations. thumb 200px Right Govt College for Women (File:Government college for Women Dhoke Kala Khan.JPG) thumb 200px Rawalpindi Medical College, Tipu Road (File:rmc.jpg) thumb 200px Fatima Jinnah Women University (File:Main building FJWU.JPG) * WikiPedia:Rawalpindi Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan Provinces Punjab Localities Rawalpindi commons:Rawalpindi
in the cantonment area of the city and also has a big parking area. Eating in these chains is more of a statement of status in Pakistan than anything else, and you will notice that there is usually quite a fashion parade in many of these establishments ! In rawalpindi, do as the pindites do! Grab a bag of the most yummy and juicy local sweet called "jalebee" from gratto on murree road, or the luxuriously garnished icecream from "Chaman" at saddar, or the famous 'samosas
, Nushki, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Sahiwal and Faisalabad. http: www.nation.com.pk pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online Sports 12-Aug-2010 PFF-approves-two-more-teams-in-Premier-League ''Homo erectus'' lived on the Pothohar Plateau, in upper Punjab (Punjab (Pakistan)), Pakistan along the Soan River (nearby Rawalpindi) during the Pleistocene Epoch. Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik Hills Sivalik
: www.nayatel.pk coverage_area.php publisher Nayatel.pk accessdate 22 November 2013 Nayatel and PTCL are the market-leaders in the 'triple-play' service. While another operator named DHA-Teleman also has a rapidly expanding network and currently serves all the military residential areas in addition to civil areas. PTCL currently has the largest optical fibre network (providing triple play services), DHA-Teleman has the second largest (providing Digital and Analogue Cable TV and HFC
'''Rawalpindi''' (Punjabi (Punjabi language), to the north-west of Lahore. It is the administrative seat of the Rawalpindi District. Also, Rawalpindi is the military headquarters GHQ of the Pakistani Armed Forces.
Many tourists use the city as a stop before traveling towards the northern areas. Numerous shopping bazaars, parks and a cosmopolitan population attract shoppers from all over Pakistan and abroad. The city is home to several industries and factories. Islamabad International Airport is located in Rawalpindi, which is also the Chaklala Airbase, and serves both cities and several neighboring districts for international flights.