Qing dynasty

What is Qing dynasty known for?


including early

government. This institution was established to supervise the administration of Tibet and the Mongol lands. As the empire expanded, it took over administrative responsibility of all minority ethnic groups living in and around the empire, including early contacts with Russia — then seen as a tribute nation. The office had the status of a full ministry and was headed by officials of equal rank. However, appointees were at first restricted only to candidates of Manchu and Mongol ethnicity, until later open to Han Chinese as well. Even though the Board of Rites and Lifan Yuan performed some duties of a foreign office, they fell short of developing into a professional foreign service. It was not until 1861 — a year after losing the Second Opium War to the Anglo-French coalition — that the Qing government bowed to foreign pressure and created a proper foreign affairs office known as the Zongli Yamen. The office was originally intended to be temporary and was staffed by officials seconded from the Grand Council. However, as dealings with foreigners became increasingly complicated and frequent, the office grew in size and importance, aided by revenue from customs duties which came under its direct jurisdiction. There was also another government institution called Imperial Household Department which was unique to the Qing dynasty. It was established before the fall of the Ming, but it became mature only after 1661, following the death of the Shunzhi Emperor and the accession of his son, the Kangxi Emperor. ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.


rich sound

. The pronunciation of the borrowed Chinese characters in Japanese, Vietnamese and Korean also provide valuable insights. Old Chinese was not wholly uninflected. It possessed a rich sound system in which aspiration (Aspiration (phonetics)) or rough breathing differentiated the consonants, but probably was still without tones. Work on reconstructing Old Chinese started with Qīng dynasty (Qing dynasty) philologists. Some early Indo-European loan-words in Chinese have been proposed, notably 蜜 (:wikt:蜜) ''mì'' "honey", 獅 (:wikt:獅) ''shī'' "lion," and perhaps also 馬 (:wikt:馬) ''mǎ'' "horse", 豬 (:wikt:豬) ''zhū'' "pig", 犬 (:wikt:犬) ''quǎn'' "dog", and 鵝 (:wikt:鵝) ''é'' "goose". The source says the reconstructions of old Chinese are tentative, and not definitive so no conclusions should be drawn. The reconstruction of Old Chinese can not be perfect so this hypothesis may be called into question. Encyclopædia Britannica s.v. "Chinese languages": "Old Chinese vocabulary already contained many words not generally occurring in the other Sino-Tibetan languages. The words for ‘honey' and ‘lion,' and probably also ‘horse,' ‘dog,' and ‘goose,' are connected with Indo-European and were acquired through trade and early contacts. (The nearest known Indo-European languages were Tocharian and Sogdian, a middle Iranian language.) A number of words have Austroasiatic cognates and point to early contacts with the ancestral language of Muong–Vietnamese and Mon–Khmer"; Jan Ulenbrook, ''Einige Übereinstimmungen zwischen dem Chinesischen und dem Indogermanischen'' (1967) proposes 57 items; see also Tsung-tung Chang, 1988 Indo-European Vocabulary in Old Chinese;. The source also notes that southern dialects of Chinese have more monosyllabic words than the Mandarin Chinese dialects. With the introduction of European astronomy into China via the Jesuits (Society of Jesus), the motions of both the sun and moon began to be calculated with sinusoids (trigonometric function) in the 1645 Shíxiàn calendar ( ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.


published books

, salt, furs, etc.), managed textile factories in the Jiangnan region, and even published books. Relations with the Salt Superintendents and salt merchants (Salt in Chinese History#Prosperity, culture, corruption, reform in the Qing dynasty), such as those at Yangzhou, were particularly lucrative, especially since they were direct, and did not go through absorptive layers of bureaucracy. The department was manned by ''booi (Booi Aha)'',


century people

and control of a former Huai Army commander, General Yuan Shikai, who used his position to build networks of loyal officers and eventually become President of the Republic of China. ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.


painting shows

Ming and Qing (Qing dynasty) dynasties, the Dutch East India Company traded with the Papora and provide records of life among them. As can be seen from this text the Urga games (1778–1924) took place at the old central square which would have been located just to the north of present-day Sukhbaatar Square. The square can be seen on pre-revolutionary paintings of Urga. A 1967 Mongolian painting shows an old Urga wrestling match in detail, with the wrestlers wearing the same "


legal development

-inspired system of codified law, the traditional Chinese preference for collective social sanctions over impersonal legalism (Legalism (Chinese philosophy)) hindered constitutional and legal development. The spirit of the new laws never penetrated to the grass-roots level or provided hoped-for stability. Ideally, individuals were to be equal before the law, but this premise proved to be more rhetorical than substantive. In the end, most of the new laws were discarded


history+years

category Qing dynasty * Section on the Ming and Qing dynasties of "China's Population: Readings and Maps." Retrieved on 2008-11-10. Category:Qing dynasty


significant fact

and control of a former Huai Army commander, General Yuan Shikai, who used his position to build networks of loyal officers and eventually become President of the Republic of China. The most significant fact of early and mid-Qing social history was population growth. The population doubled during the 18th century. People in this period were also remarkably on the move. There is evidence suggesting


set called

, and have many customs peculiar to themselves. At Ningpo there is a degraded set called to min, amounting to nearly three thousand persons, with whom the people will not associate. The men are not allowed to enter the examinations or follow an honorable calling, but are play-actors, musicians, or sedan-bearers; the women are match-makers or female barbers and are obliged to wear a peculiar dress, and usually go abroad carrying a bundle wrapped in a checkered handkerchief. The tankia at Canton also


time social

god (Shing Wong) for all major cities in mainland China to govern and look after their land. Hong Kong had no appointed magistrate and therefore no protection of a Shing Wong. In Mongolia's time under the Qing dynasty, a number of Chinese novels were translated into Mongolian (Mongolian language). At the same time, social discontent and an awakening Mongol nationalism lead to the creation of works like Injanash (Vanchinbalyn Injinash)'s historical novel ''Blue Chronicle'' or the stories about "Crazy" Shagdar. Walther Heissig, ''Mongolische Literatur'', in Michael Weiers (editor), ''Die Mongolen, Beiträge zu ihrer Geschichte und Kultur'', Darmstadt 1986, p. 70-85 Da Sheng Men Da Sheng Men, or "Great Sage" Kung Fu, was developed near the end of the Qing dynasty (1911) by a fighter named Kou Si (Kau Sei) from a small village in Northern China (Northern and southern China). Legend states that while serving a sentence in prison, he observed a group of monkeys from his cell. As he studied their movements and mannerisms, he found that they combined well with his own Di Tang style. While exact circumstances of Kou Si's inspiration remain legend, upon his release he developed his new style of fighting and dubbed it 'Da Sheng Men' (Great Sage Style) in honor of the Monkey King Sun Wukong in the Buddhist tale ''Journey to the West''. Chinese history is not as neat as is quite often described and it was rare for one dynasty to change peacefully into the next. Dynasties were often established before the overthrow of an existing regime, or continued for a time after they had been defeated. For example, the conventional date 1644 marks the year in which the Manchu Qing dynasty armies occupied Beijing and brought Qing rule to China proper, succeeding the Ming dynasty. However, the Qing dynasty itself was established in 1636 (or even 1616, albeit under a different name), while the last Ming dynasty pretender was not deposed until 1662. This change of ruling houses was a messy and prolonged affair, and the Qing took almost twenty years to extend their control over the whole of China. It is therefore inaccurate to assume China changed suddenly and all at once in the year 1644. Amid heightening tensions, the Soviet Union and China began border talks. The Chinese position was that the 19th-century border treaties, concluded by the Qing dynasty China and the Tsarist Russia, were "unequal (Unequal Treaties)", and amounted to unfair annexation of the Chinese territory. Moscow could not accept this interpretation. By 1964 the two sides were able to reach a preliminary agreement on the eastern section of the border, including Zhenbao Island, which, it was agreed, would be handed over to the Chinese side. thumb right Heshen (File:Heshen.jpg), a powerful official of the ''Qianlong'' era was of the Niohuru clan The '''Niohuru''' or '''Niuhuru''' Clan (鈕祜祿氏; meaning "wolf" in the Manchu language) were a powerful Manchu clan belonging to the Plain Red Banner (Eight Banners) during the Qing dynasty in China. A shortened version of this surname of "Niu" can be commonly found in the modern day province of Jiangxi (in south central China) after the partial migration of this clan to that province in the early 19th century. thumb upright 1.5 Convention of retrocession of the Liaotung peninsula (File:Convention of retrocession of the Liatung Peninsula 8 November 1895.jpg), 8 November 1895. The ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.

Qing dynasty

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The '''Qing dynasty''' ( ), also '''Empire of the Great Qing''', '''Great Qing''' or '''Manchu dynasty''', was the last imperial dynasty (Dynasties in Chinese history) of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration (Manchu Restoration) in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China (Republic of China (1912–49)). The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state.

The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen (Jurchen people) Aisin Gioro clan in Northeastern China. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing Jurchen clans into "Banners (Eight Banners)", military-social units. Nurhaci formed them into a Manchu people, a term used, especially by foreigners, to call Northeast China Manchuria. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of Liaodong and declared a new dynasty, the Qing. In 1644, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital Beijing. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels (Battle of Shanhai Pass) and seized Beijing. The conquest of China proper (Manchu conquest of China) was not completed until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Central Asia. While the early rulers maintained Manchu culture, they governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government. They retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work in parallel with Manchus. They also adopted the ideals of the tributary system (Imperial Chinese tributary system) in international relations.

The reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1735–1796) saw the apogee and initial decline of prosperity and imperial control. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, virtually guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis. Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, and ruling elites did not change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium War (First Opium War), European powers imposed unequal treaties (Unequal treaty), free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1849–60) and Dungan Revolt (1862–77) in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people. In spite of these disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order and the Qing rulers. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back by Empress Dowager Cixi, a ruthless but capable leader. When, in response to the violently anti-foreign Yihetuan (Boxer Rebellion) ("Boxers"), foreign powers (Eight-Nation Alliance) invaded China, the Empress Dowager declared war on them, leading to disastrous defeat.

The government then initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with reformers such as Liang Qichao and monarchists such as Kang Youwei to transform the Qing empire into a modern nation. After the death of the Empress Dowager and the Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike. Local uprisings starting on October 11, 1911 led to the 1911 Revolution (Xinhai Revolution). The last emperor (Puyi) abdicated on February 12, 1912.

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