Qing dynasty

What is Qing dynasty known for?


painting traditional

School and the Lingnan School "The Lingnan School of Painting," which used the technical skills of tradition to set the stage for modern painting. Traditional learning flourished, especially among Ming loyalists such as Dai Zhen and Gu Yanwu, but scholars in the school of evidential learning (Kaozheng) made innovations in skeptical textual scholarship. Scholar-bureaucrats, including Lin Zexu and Wei Yuan


style+legal

warlords and had no government strong enough to establish a legal code to replace the Qing code. Finally, in 1927, Chiang Kai-shek's Guomindang forces were able to suppress the warlords and gain control of most of the country (see Republican China). Established in Nanjing, the Guomindang government attempted to develop Western-style legal and penal systems. Few of the Guomindang codes, however, were implemented nationwide. Although government leaders were striving for a Western


literary+collection

poetry poetry of the Ming dynasty ) for its association with Chinese opera, developmental trends of Classical Chinese poetry, the transition to a greater role for vernacular language (Written vernacular Chinese), and for poetry by women in Chinese culture. The Qing dynasty was a period of much literary collection and criticism, and many of the modern popular versions of Classical Chinese poems were transmitted through Qing dynasty anthologies, such as the '' Quantangshi


painting early

who considered the Four Arts part of their cultural identity and social standing. “Qing Dynasty, Painting,” Metropolitan Museum of Art The painting of the early years of the dynasty (Chinese art#Early Qing painting) included such painters as the orthodox Four Wangs and the individualists Bada Shanren (1626–1705) and Shitao (1641–1707). The nineteenth century saw such innovations as the Shanghai School and the Lingnan School "The Lingnan School of Painting," which used the technical skills of tradition to set the stage for modern painting. Traditional learning flourished, especially among Ming loyalists such as Dai Zhen and Gu Yanwu, but scholars in the school of evidential learning (Kaozheng) made innovations in skeptical textual scholarship. Scholar-bureaucrats, including Lin Zexu and Wei Yuan, developed a school of practical statecraft (He Changling) which rooted bureaucratic reform and restructuring in classical philosophy. Literature (Chinese literature) grew to new heights in the Qing period. Poetry (Qing poetry) continued as a mark of the cultivated gentleman, but women wrote in larger and larger numbers and poets (:Category:Qing dynasty poets) came from all walks of life. The poetry of the Qing dynasty is a lively field of research, being studied (along with the poetry of the Ming dynasty (Ming poetry)) for its association with Chinese opera, developmental trends of Classical Chinese poetry, the transition to a greater role for vernacular language (Written vernacular Chinese), and for poetry by women in Chinese culture. The Qing dynasty was a period of much literary collection and criticism, and many of the modern popular versions of Classical Chinese poems were transmitted through Qing dynasty anthologies, such as the ''Quantangshi'' and the ''Three Hundred Tang Poems''. Pu Songling brought the short story form to a new level in his ''Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio'', published in the mid-18th century, and Shen Fu demonstrated the charm of the informal memoir in ''Six Chapters of a Floating Life (Six Records of a Floating Life)'', written in the early 19th century but published only in 1877. The art of the novel reached a pinnacle in Cao Xueqin's ''Dream of the Red Chamber'', but its combination of social commentary and psychological insight were echoed in highly skilled novels such as Wu Jingzi's ''The Scholars (The Scholars (novel))'' (1750) and Li Ruzhen's ''Flowers in the Mirror'' (1827). "Ming and Qing Novels," ''Berkshire Encyclopedia'' In drama, Kong Shangren's Kunqu opera ''The Peach Blossom Fan'', completed in 1699, portrayed the tragic downfall of the Ming dynasty in romantic terms. The most prestigious form became the so-called Peking opera, though local and folk opera were also widely popular. Cuisine (History of Chinese cuisine#History) aroused a cultural pride in the accumulated richness of a long and varied past. The gentleman gourmet, such as Yuan Mei (Yuan Mei#Yuan as a gastronome), applied aesthetic standards to the art of cooking, eating, and appreciation of tea (Chinese tea culture) at a time when New World crops and products (Columbian Exchange) entered everyday life. The Manchu Han Imperial Feast originated at the court. Although this banquet was probably never common, it reflected an appreciation by Han Chinese for Manchu culinary customs. Jonathan Spence, "Ch'ing," in Kwang-chih Chang, ed., ''Food in Chinese Culture: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977): 260–294, reprinted in Jonathan Spence, ''Chinese Roundabout: Essays in History and Culture'' (New York: W.W. Norton, 1992). By the end of the nineteenth century, all elements of national artistic and cultural life had recognized and begun to come to terms with world culture as found in the West and Japan. Whether to stay within old forms or welcome Western models was now a conscious choice rather than an unchallenged acceptance of tradition. Classically trained Confucian scholars such as Liang Qichao and Wang Guowei broke ground later cultivated in the New Culture Movement. See also ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.


cultural projects

personally led military campaigns near Xinjiang and Mongolia, putting down revolts and uprisings in Sichuan and parts of southern China while expanding control over Tibet. thumb left 250px "The reception of the Diplomatique ( George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney Macartney (File:The Reception.JPG)) and his suite, at the Court of Pekin". Drawn and engraved by James Gillray, published in September 1792. Qianlong's reign saw the launch of several ambitious cultural

projects, including the compilation of the ''Siku Quanshu'', or ''Complete Repository of the Four Branches of Literature''. With a total of over 3,400 books, 79,000 chapters, and 36,304 volumes, the ''Siku Quanshu'' is the largest collection of books in Chinese history. Nevertheless, Qianlong used Literary Inquisition to silence opposition. The accusation of individuals began with the emperor's own interpretation of the true meaning of the corresponding words. If the emperor decided these were derogatory or cynical towards the dynasty, persecution would begin. Literary inquisition began with isolated cases at the time of Shunzhi and Kangxi, but became a pattern under Qianlong's rule, during which there were 53 cases of literary persecution. ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.


song series

Map of China * 30,000,000–60,000,000 - Mongol Conquests (Mongol Empire) (13th century) (see Mongol invasions (Mongol Conquests) and Tatar invasions) Ping-ti Ho, "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in ''Études Song'', Series 1, No 1, (1970) pp. 33-53. ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.


long service

, the Shunzhi Emperor, on his deathbed, hastily appointed four senior cabinet ministers to govern on behalf of his young son. The four ministers — Sonin, Ebilun, Suksaha, and Oboi — were chosen for their long service, but also to counteract each other's influences. Most important, the four were not closely related to the imperial family and laid no claim to the throne. However as time passed, through chance and machination, Oboi, the most junior of the four, achieved such political


time social

god (Shing Wong) for all major cities in mainland China to govern and look after their land. Hong Kong had no appointed magistrate and therefore no protection of a Shing Wong. In Mongolia's time under the Qing dynasty, a number of Chinese novels were translated into Mongolian (Mongolian language). At the same time, social discontent and an awakening Mongol nationalism lead to the creation of works like Injanash (Vanchinbalyn Injinash)'s historical novel ''Blue Chronicle'' or the stories about "Crazy" Shagdar. Walther Heissig, ''Mongolische Literatur'', in Michael Weiers (editor), ''Die Mongolen, Beiträge zu ihrer Geschichte und Kultur'', Darmstadt 1986, p. 70-85 Da Sheng Men Da Sheng Men, or "Great Sage" Kung Fu, was developed near the end of the Qing dynasty (1911) by a fighter named Kou Si (Kau Sei) from a small village in Northern China (Northern and southern China). Legend states that while serving a sentence in prison, he observed a group of monkeys from his cell. As he studied their movements and mannerisms, he found that they combined well with his own Di Tang style. While exact circumstances of Kou Si's inspiration remain legend, upon his release he developed his new style of fighting and dubbed it 'Da Sheng Men' (Great Sage Style) in honor of the Monkey King Sun Wukong in the Buddhist tale ''Journey to the West''. Chinese history is not as neat as is quite often described and it was rare for one dynasty to change peacefully into the next. Dynasties were often established before the overthrow of an existing regime, or continued for a time after they had been defeated. For example, the conventional date 1644 marks the year in which the Manchu Qing dynasty armies occupied Beijing and brought Qing rule to China proper, succeeding the Ming dynasty. However, the Qing dynasty itself was established in 1636 (or even 1616, albeit under a different name), while the last Ming dynasty pretender was not deposed until 1662. This change of ruling houses was a messy and prolonged affair, and the Qing took almost twenty years to extend their control over the whole of China. It is therefore inaccurate to assume China changed suddenly and all at once in the year 1644. Amid heightening tensions, the Soviet Union and China began border talks. The Chinese position was that the 19th-century border treaties, concluded by the Qing dynasty China and the Tsarist Russia, were "unequal (Unequal Treaties)", and amounted to unfair annexation of the Chinese territory. Moscow could not accept this interpretation. By 1964 the two sides were able to reach a preliminary agreement on the eastern section of the border, including Zhenbao Island, which, it was agreed, would be handed over to the Chinese side. thumb right Heshen (File:Heshen.jpg), a powerful official of the ''Qianlong'' era was of the Niohuru clan The '''Niohuru''' or '''Niuhuru''' Clan (鈕祜祿氏; meaning "wolf" in the Manchu language) were a powerful Manchu clan belonging to the Plain Red Banner (Eight Banners) during the Qing dynasty in China. A shortened version of this surname of "Niu" can be commonly found in the modern day province of Jiangxi (in south central China) after the partial migration of this clan to that province in the early 19th century. thumb upright 1.5 Convention of retrocession of the Liaotung peninsula (File:Convention of retrocession of the Liatung Peninsula 8 November 1895.jpg), 8 November 1895. The ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.


history years

category Qing dynasty * Section on the Ming and Qing dynasties of "China's Population: Readings and Maps." Retrieved on 2008-11-10. Category:Qing dynasty


period population

also began suffering from mounting overpopulation during this period. Population growth was stagnant for the first half of the 17th century due to civil wars and epidemics, but prosperity and internal stability gradually reversed this trend. The introduction of new crops by Europeans such as the potato and peanut allowed an improved food supply as well, so that the total population of China during the 18th century ballooned from 100 million to 300 million people. Soon all available farmland was used up, forcing peasants to work ever-smaller and more intensely worked plots. Emperor Qianlong once bemoaned the country's situation by remarking "The population continues to grow, but the land does not." The only remaining part of the empire that had arable farmland was Manchuria, where the provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang had been walled off as a Manchu homeland. The emperor decreed for the first time that Han Chinese civilians were forbidden to settle. ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.

Qing dynasty

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The '''Qing dynasty''' ( ), also '''Empire of the Great Qing''', '''Great Qing''' or '''Manchu dynasty''', was the last imperial dynasty (Dynasties in Chinese history) of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration (Manchu Restoration) in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China (Republic of China (1912–49)). The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state.

The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen (Jurchen people) Aisin Gioro clan in Northeastern China. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing Jurchen clans into "Banners (Eight Banners)", military-social units. Nurhaci formed them into a Manchu people, a term used, especially by foreigners, to call Northeast China Manchuria. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of Liaodong and declared a new dynasty, the Qing. In 1644, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital Beijing. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels (Battle of Shanhai Pass) and seized Beijing. The conquest of China proper (Manchu conquest of China) was not completed until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Central Asia. While the early rulers maintained Manchu culture, they governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government. They retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work in parallel with Manchus. They also adopted the ideals of the tributary system (Imperial Chinese tributary system) in international relations.

The reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1735–1796) saw the apogee and initial decline of prosperity and imperial control. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, virtually guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis. Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, and ruling elites did not change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium War (First Opium War), European powers imposed unequal treaties (Unequal treaty), free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1849–60) and Dungan Revolt (1862–77) in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people. In spite of these disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order and the Qing rulers. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back by Empress Dowager Cixi, a ruthless but capable leader. When, in response to the violently anti-foreign Yihetuan (Boxer Rebellion) ("Boxers"), foreign powers (Eight-Nation Alliance) invaded China, the Empress Dowager declared war on them, leading to disastrous defeat.

The government then initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with reformers such as Liang Qichao and monarchists such as Kang Youwei to transform the Qing empire into a modern nation. After the death of the Empress Dowager and the Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike. Local uprisings starting on October 11, 1911 led to the 1911 Revolution (Xinhai Revolution). The last emperor (Puyi) abdicated on February 12, 1912.

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