What is Pskov known for?

original play

, who died young around 1131. Deviations from the original play The original play was written by Bulgakov in 1935 (albeit not published until 1965) and, therefore, used a setting typical to the 1930s. The film, released in 1973, made changes to the setting to make it contemporary. For instance, Shpak's phonograph was replaced in the film with a tape recorder, and the time machine (Time travel) was envisioned as using more advanced technology such as transistors. In addition

social criticism

of pasture land might well have been the undoing of such a venture. * Russia was allowed free trade at normal trade tariffs, making sure Sweden could not cripple Russia completely * Russia was allowed to establish merchant houses in Stockholm, Reval (Tallinn) and Viborg (Vyborg) in exchange for Sweden being allowed to establish merchant houses in Novgorod, Pskov, and Moscow. Because of their social criticism and calls for various reforms, the New Current was viewed

largest stone

museum. * WikiPedia:Pskov commons:Pskov

great national

Dmitry took a more passive role in the coalition: he did not wage a direct war against Lithuania and did not defend his domain when it was attacked by Moscow's army in 1379. Dmitry and his family followed retreating Russian army into Moscow where Dmitri Donskoi granted him Pereslavl-Zalessky. In 1380 Dmitry led a Russian banner in the Battle of Kulikovo against the Golden Horde. Russian chronicles praise his and his brother's tactical skills

traditional role

some thirty-one attacks to storm the city, which was defended mainly by civilians. Even after one of the city walls was broken, the Pskovians managed to fill the gap and repel the attack. "It's amazing how the city reminds me of Paris", wrote one of the Frenchmen present at Báthory's siege. Modern history Peter the Great's conquest of Estonia and Latvia during the Great Northern War in the early 18th century spelled the end of Pskov's traditional role as a vital border fortress and a key to Russia's interior. As a consequence, the city's importance and well-being declined dramatically, although it has served as a seat of separate Pskov Governorate since 1777. During World War I, Pskov became the center of much activity behind the lines. (front line) It was at at a railroad siding in Pskov, aboard the imperial train, that Tsar Nicholas II signed the manifesto announcing his abdication in March 1917, and after the Russo-German Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference (December 22, 1917 – March 3, 1918), the Imperial German Army (German Army (German Empire)) invaded the area. Pskov was also occupied by the Estonian army between 25 May 1919 and 28 August 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence when Bułak-Bałachowicz became the military administrator of Pskov. He personally ceded most of his responsibilities to a democratically elected municipal duma and focused on both cultural and economical recovery of the war-impoverished city. He also put an end to censorship of press and allowed for creation of several socialist associations and newspapers. WikiPedia:Pskov commons:Pskov

film movie

thumb left The Teutonic knights in Pskov (Image:nevsky2.jpg) in 1240. Screenshot from Sergei Eisenstein's ''Alexander Nevsky (Alexander Nevsky (film))''. Early life St. Olga was born in c. 879. According to the Primary Chronicle, Olga was born in Pskov, into a family of Varyag (Varangians) origin. By some accounts, she was the daughter of Oleg of Novgorod. Prominent Russians: Princess Olga of Kiev Galicia-Volhynia was eventually assimilated by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and Novgorod Republic, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation. The Novgorod together with Pskov retained some degree of autonomy during the time of the Mongol yoke and were largely spared the atrocities that affected the rest of the country. Led by Prince Alexander Nevsky, Novgorodians repelled the invading Swedes in the Battle of the Neva in 1240, as well as the Germanic crusaders (Northern Crusades) in the Battle of the Ice in 1242, breaking their attempts to colonize the Northern Rus'. In external relations, Stephen sought peace through strong alliances. Though Stephen remained distrustful of the Habsburgs, he entered into a defensive alliance with Maximilian's successor, Rudolf II (Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor), fostered by the papal nuncio. The difficulties with the Ottoman Empire were temporarily adjusted by a truce signed on November 5, 1577. The Sejm gathered in Warsaw was persuaded to grant Stephen subsidies for the inevitable war against Muscovy (Tsardom of Russia). Two campaigns in which Báthory, although hampered by the Sejm, were successful. Báthory's diplomatic skills in the meantime ensured that there was no conflict with the Ottomans, nor with the emperor. thumb right 300px ''Batory at Pskov (Image:Jan Matejko-Batory pod Pskowem.jpg)'', by Matejko (Jan Matejko) Stephen, together with his chancellor Zamoyski, led the army of the Commonwealth in a decisive campaign (Livonian campaign of Stephen Báthory) during the Livonian War (which involved the Tsardom of Russia, Sweden, the Kingdom

successful military

, he was apparently fairly successful in expanding his borders. Following successful military campaigns, in 1267 he defeated his brother Mstislav in the battle of the Yaselda River and captured Turov (Turau) and Pinsk. He then campaigned against the Volga Tatars and defeated khan (Khan (title)) Balaklay in the battle of Kojdanow (modern Dzyarzhynsk, Belarus), which allowed Shvarn to capture the towns of Mozyr, Chernigov, Karachev and Starodub. The struggle for power within Lithuania however continued. Before a clear winner could emerge, Shvarm died in Kholm some time between 1269 and 1271. He was buried in an Orthodox Cathedral that once stood on a place now occupied by the Basilica of the Birth of the Virgin Mary (Basilica of the Birth of the Virgin Mary, Chełm). After his death most of his lands reverted back to Lithuania WikiPedia:Pskov commons:Pskov

political poems

to 1826. ''Images of Pushkin in the works of the black "pilgrims".'' Ahern, Kathleen M. The Mississippi Quarterly. Pg. 75(11) Vol. 55 No. 1 ISSN: 0026-637X. 22 December 2001. However, some of the authorities allowed him to visit Tsar Nicholas I (Nicholas I of Russia) to petition for his release, which he obtained. But some of the insurgents in the Decembrist Uprising (1825) in Saint Petersburg had kept some of his early political poems amongst their papers, and soon Pushkin found himself under the strict control of government censors and unable to travel or publish at will. He had written what became his most famous play, the drama ''Boris Godunov (Boris Godunov (play))'', while at his mother's estate but could not gain permission to publish it until five years later. The drama's original, uncensored version would not receive a premiere until 2007. The New Wave (New Wave music) band Fiction Factory had some success with their hit "(Feels Like) Heaven" in 1984. The song, which reached number six in the charts, would be their biggest hit, and Perth's biggest to date. The Perth Festival of the Arts is an annual collection of art, theatre, opera and classical music (european classical music) events in the city. The annual event lasts for a couple of weeks and is usually held in May. In recent years, the festival has broadened its appeal by adding comedy, rock (rock music) and popular music acts to the bill. Perth also has a number of twin cities around the world. These are: Aschaffenburg in Germany, Bydgoszcz in Poland, Haikou, Hainan in China, Perth (Ontario) (Perth, Ontario) in Canada, Pskov in Russia and Cognac in France. By the 15th century Moscow principality (or ''Muscovy'') established its sovereignty over a large portion of ancient Rus territory, including Novgorod, Pskov, and parts of Chernigov (Principality of Pereslavl) and Pereyaslavl (Principality of Pereyaslavl) principalities. Since 1547, it called itself the Tsardom of Rus (or ''Russia'') and claimed the sovereignty over "all the Rus' (All the Russias)". These laid the foundation of the modern Russian state (Russia). Muscovy population was Eastern Orthodox, and used the Greek transcription of Rus, "''Rossia''", rather than the Latin "Ruthenia". * WikiPedia:Pskov commons:Pskov

time biography

, conducted propaganda (agitprop) among workers and took part in several strikes in Petersburg in 1878-1879. It also influenced the development of the student movement by organizing or supporting demonstrations in Petersburg and other cities, including the so-called Kazan demonstration of 1876, where they would openly admit the organization’s existence for the first time. Biography Mniszech was a daughter of Polish (Poland) Voivode Jerzy Mniszech - one of the organizers of the Dimitriads (Polish-Muscovite War (1605-1618)), often viewed as a Polish invasion of Russia in the early 17th century. Marina Mniszech's marriage to the impostor False Dmitri I provided an opportunity for the Polish-Lithuanian magnates and Catholic (Roman Catholic Church) clergy to control their protégé. Mniszech met False Dmitri I around 1604 or 1605, at the court of one of the Commonwealth magnates, and agreed to marry him. In return for her hand Dmitri promised her Pskov and Novgorod, and her father Smolensk and Severia. After Dmitri captured Moscow in June 1605, in November he sent a diplomatic mission to Poland, asking for Marina's hand and proposing a military alliance to defeat the Ottomans. From 1894 to 1898 he attended the Faculty of Law of Tartu University, that he graduated as cand. jur. (Candidate of Law) After graduation, Päts served in the Russian (Imperial Russian Army) 96th Infantry Regiment of Omsk in Pskov and was promoted an ensign (Ensign (rank)). After rejecting an academic career in Tartu, he moved to Tallinn in 1900, to start a political career. ***Fëdor Danilovič (1335–1346) **'''Pskov''' - Šeloga, Governor of Pskov (1303–1308, 1338–1341) During the 12th and the 13th centuries the ''smerds'' were mentioned in a number of sources narrating the events in Halych-Volynia and Novgorod. It appears that during this period the term "''smerd''" encompassed the whole rural population of a given region. Sources of the 14th and 15th centuries refer to the ''smerds'' of Novgorod and Pskov as peasants-proprietors, who possessed lands collectively (communes) or individually and had the right to freely alienate their own allotments. However, their personal freedom was limited: they were forbidden to seek for a new master or princely patronage. The ''knyaz'' could not accept complaints from the ''smerds'' on their master. Also, the ''smerds'' had to perform certain duties called ''dani'' (дани), "tributes", or ''raboty'' (работы), "assignments", to the benefit of the city as a collective feudal master. The six upper escutcheons are joint depictions of various smaller principalities and ''oblasts''. From left to right, these are: the combined arms of the northeastern regions (Perm, Volga Bulgaria, Vyatka (Kirov, Kirov Oblast), Kondinsky, Obdorsk), of Belorussia and Lithuania (Lithuania, Białystok, Samogitia, Polatsk, Vitebsk, Mstislavl), the provinces of Great Russia proper (Pskov, Smolensk, Tver, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Ryazan, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Belozersk, Udorsky (Udorsky District)), the arms of the southwestern regions (Volhyn, Podolsk, Chernigov), the Baltic provinces (Esthonia (Governorate of Estonia), Courland and Semigalia, Karelia, Livonia (Governorate of Livonia)) and Turkestan (Russian Turkestan). Expansion of Lithuania Algirdas not only succeeded in holding his own, but acquired influence and territory at the expense of Muscovy and the Golden Horde, and extended the borders of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the northern shore of the Black Sea. Principal efforts of Algirdas were directed to securing the Slavonic (Slavic peoples) lands which had been a part of the former Kievan Rus (Kievan Rus'). He procured the election of his son Andrew (Andrei of Polotsk) as the Prince of Pskov, and a powerful minority of the citizens of the Republic of Novgorod held the balance in his favor against the Muscovite influence, however his ascendancy in both these commercial centres was at the best precarious. Very little is known about years when Jaunutis ruled. Those were quite peaceful years, as the Teutonic Knights were led by ineffective Ludolf König. His brothers were much more active: Algirdas attacked Mozhaysk, Livonian Order, defended Pskov, Kęstutis was helping Liubartas in succession disputes in Galicia–Volhynia. The Bychowiec Chronicle mentions that Jaunutis was supported by Jewna, presumed wife of Gediminas and mother of his children. She died ca. 1344 and soon after Jaunutis lost his throne. If he was indeed protected by his mother, then it would be an interesting example of influence held by queen mother in pagan Lithuania. However, a concrete stimulus might have been a major ''reise'' planned by the Teutonic Knights in 1345. Jaunutis was supported by his brother Narimantas, who traveled to Jani Beg, Khan of the Golden Horde, to form an alliance against Algirdas and Kęstutis. Jaunutis was imprisoned in Vilnius, but managed to escape and went to his brother-in-law Simeon of Russia in Moscow. There Jaunutis was baptized as Ioann, but failed to solicit help (possibly because his sister Aigusta (Augusta Anastasia of Lithuania), wife of Simeon, died the same year). WikiPedia:Pskov commons:Pskov


of any importance could boast of its annalists, Pskov and Suzdal among others. In some respects these compilations, the productions of monks in their cloisters, remind us of Herodotus, dry details alternating with here and there a picturesque incident; and many of these annals abound with the quaintest stories. Current dialectology upholds Pskov and Polotsk as the two cities where the ''Tale'' was most likely written. Numerous persons


'''Pskov''' (

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