of Flemish Brabant - Province of Hainaut - Province of Liège - Province of Limburg (Limburg (Belgium)) - Province of Luxembourg - Province of Namur - Province of Walloon Brabant (Walloon Brabant) - Province of West Flanders - Provinces of regions in Belgium - Public Centre for Social Welfare - Purple (government) - Putte - Puurs Stavelot was the seat of the Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy, a small independent region of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the abbots of Stavelot. The principality was dissolved in 1795 during the French Revolution. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Stavelot was added to the Kingdom of the Netherlands while Malmedy was added to the Prussian Rhineland. In 1830 it became part of Belgium. (Malmedy would also become a part of Belgium, but not until 1919.) thumb A map of the dominion of the Habsburg (Image:Habsburg Map 1547.jpg)s following the Battle of Mühlberg (1547) as depicted in ''The Cambridge Modern History Atlas'' (1912); Habsburg lands are shaded green. From 1556 the dynasty's lands in the Low Countries, the east of France, Italy, Sardinia, and Sicily were retained by the Spanish Habsburgs. thumb The Low Countries (with Prince-Bishopric of Liège Liège (Image:Espagnols.PNG), Stavelot-Malmedy (Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy) and Bouillon (County of Bouillon)) until 1795 Under the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), following the War of the Spanish Succession, what was left of the Spanish Netherlands was ceded to Austria and thus became known as the '''Austrian Netherlands'''. However, the Austrians themselves generally had little interest in the region (aside from a short-lived attempt by Emperor Charles VI (Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor) to compete with British and Dutch trade through the Ostend Company), and the fortresses along the border (the Barrier Fortresses (Barrier Treaty)) were, by treaty, garrisoned with Dutch troops. The area had, in fact, been given to Austria largely at British and Dutch insistence, as these powers feared potential French domination of the region. History Historically, French-speaking Belgium was never a single political entity until being unified under French rule during the French Revolution and Napoleonic rule. Prior to that, the region had never belonged to France. It was composed of the County of Hainaut (half of which was annexed by France (Treaties of Nijmegen) under Louis XIV), the County of Namur, the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, the Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy, the southern part of the Duchy of Brabant and the western part of the Duchy of Luxembourg. ** Speyer (Prince-Bishopric of Speyer) - Damian August Philipp von Limburg-Vehlen-Styrum, Prince-Bishop of Speyer (1770–1797) ** Stavelot-Malmedy (Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy) - Jacques de Hubin, Prince-Abbot of Stavelot-Malmedy (1766–1786) ** Strasbourg (Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg) - Louis René de Rohan-Guemené, Prince-Bishop of Strasbourg (1779–1801) **'''Bishopric of Speyer''' - Lothar Friedrich (Lothar Friedrich von Metternich) (1652–1675) **'''Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy''' - Franz I Egon (Franz Egon von Fürstenberg), Abbot of Stablo and Malmedy (1657–1682) **'''Bishopric of Strassburg - Leopold Wilhelm (Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria) (1626–1662) The outer triptych is of Mosan origin, built to house the two inner triptychs of Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) origin, which predate the outer triptych by some decades. It is unknown who the artist(s) were who made it, although other works have been suggested as coming from the same workshop. We do not know with certainty who ordered it, or who paid for it. The Benedictine monastery of Stavelot ruled the Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy, a small statelet in the Holy Roman Empire, and in this period commissioned a number of magnificent pieces of religious metalwork, as well as apparently running a scriptorium which produced some significant illuminated manuscripts, most notably the Stavelot Bible of 1093–97. Stavelot Bible in ''The British Library Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts (Illuminated manuscript).'' Last accessed 26 December 2009. We know that Prince-Abbot Wibald (1098–1158), was sent on a diplomatic mission to Constantinople by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1154. The Triptych was certainly in the Abbey when it was suppressed in 1792, after the French Revolution. The British Museum: Exhibition of Far Eastern Art, ''The Times'', 15 June 1910 (issue 39 299), page 8, column F. The last prince-abbot, Célestin Thys, Stavelot-Malmedy, Ecclesiastic States, ''Regnal Chronologies''. Retrieved 23 October 2010 carried the triptych to Germany during the Napoleonic Wars, where it remained until 1910, when purchased by a London dealer who sold it to J. P. Morgan.
;nbsp;— and the Western Empire — in the tenth century: the Hungarian invasions (Hungarian people). Having been deposed as duke of Lotharingia, Conrad the Red (Conrad, Duke of Lorraine) invited the Hungarians to undermine his opponents, Bruno the Great, archbishop of Cologne, and Reginar III, Count of Hainaut. The '' ''" (
-en In the year 954, Hungarians ravage the regions of Gaul ... In the year 995, victory over the Hungarians ). On 1 July 960, Eraclus, bishop of Liège, driven by the fears of the time, granted the monks a location to build a refuge in Liège. Five years earlier, the victory of emperor Otto I (Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor) over the Hungarians at Lechfeld (Battle of Lechfeld) proved the danger from Hungarian sack (looting). ref name "Philippe
church are presented as a footprint, with walls and column bases that enable the visitor to visualize the scale of the Romanesque (Romanesque architecture) abbey. Geography and administration File:Xhignesse JPG02.jpg thumb alt A small stone church stands in a field. The apse shows two small stained-glass windows, with empty arched niches above. The left transept is also visible, with a half-height chapel adjacent. 11th-century church
George" thumb 150px alt A mediæval illustration of a man with a short red beard wearing a blue tunic and a gold over-tunic, with black tights, holding a golden orb in his left hand and a silver sceptre in his right. Above his red hair, he is wearing a gold crown. Indistinct words are faintly visible above him. Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor (File:Heinrich III. (HRR) Miniatur.jpg), who was present for the 1040 consecration of the church built in Stavelot under prince-abbot
round enamel plaques survive, in Berlin and Frankfurt, Low Countries, 1000–1400 A.D., ''Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History'', Metropolitan Museum of Art. Last accessed 26 December 2009. though a 17th-century drawing survives in Liège. Godefridus Snoek, ''Medieval piety from relics
of Luxembourg, again reiterated this protection by an edict of 1674 (page 46). Early Modern Age In 1509, William (William of Manderscheid) of Manderscheid (County of Manderscheid) organised a procession to induce the recalcitrant county of Logne, a fief of the abbey, to submit to his jurisdiction. The cortège was pious, rather than fraught with tension, with Stavelot monks carrying the shrines of Remaclus and Babolene with other reliquaries and the monks of Malmedy with reliquaries of Quirinus (Nicasius, Quirinus, Scubiculus, and Pientia), Just (Justus of Beauvais), Peter and Philip joined by parishioners from Lierneux with the relics of Symmetrus. In 1521, after the castle in Logne had been dismantled, William added "Count of Logne" to the abbots' titles, with the county representing most of the western portion of the principality's territory. thumb left 220px The town and abbey of Stavelot, c. 1735 (File:Stavelot et Abbaye.JPG) The abbey church served as a monastic church and as a church of pilgrimage until the French Revolution. Its imposing gatehouse tower was rebuilt in 1534; its ground floor is all that remains, though the abbey church has been excavated and its layout is shown on the ground. Malmedy began to flourish particularly in the 16th century with the development of tannery; in 1544 there were only 216 houses with a thousand inhabitants, but that over tripled by 1635. After the death of abbot Christopher of Manderscheid, there was a series of absent abbots, including Maximilian Henry of Bavaria (who was also bishop of Liège and of Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim)), who reformed the abbey in 1656. In the 17th century, Stavelot and Malmedy were major centres of tanning in Europe. Other industries also known to Malmedy include cotton manufacturing, manufacture of chess sets, dominoes and gingerbread; papermaking was particularly important to Malmedy, as was the manufacture of gunpowder. In 1659, a Capuchin (Order of Friars Minor Capuchin) convent was built in Stavelot. thumb left Prince-abbot Alexandre Delmotte (1753-1766) (File:Stavelot Delmotte 1760.jpg) Despite the abbacy's neutrality (neutrality (international relations)) and the protection of the prince-abbots, the territory was invaded at least 50 times by troops passing through, whose depredations had disastrous consequences for the population, including the 4 October 1689 razing of both Stavelot The Triptych was certainly in the Abbey when it was suppressed in 1792, after the French Revolution. The British Museum: Exhibition of Far Eastern Art, ''The Times'', 15 June 1910 (issue 39 299), page 8, column F. The last prince-abbot, Célestin Thys, Stavelot-Malmedy, Ecclesiastic States, ''Regnal Chronologies''. Retrieved 23 October 2010 carried the triptych to Germany during the Napoleonic Wars, where it remained until 1910, when purchased by a London dealer who sold it to J. P. Morgan.
-painting 69534 The-Meuse-Valley Western painting: Dark Ages and medieval Christendom: The Meuse Valley in the ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. Last accessed 26 December 2009. A group of manuscripts from the less productive scriptorium at Malmedy were donated to the Vatican Library in 1816 by Pope Pius VII, Paul Saenger, ''Space between words: the origins of silent reading'', Stanford University Press, 2000, ISBN 978-0-8047-4016-6, page 192 including the ''Malmedy Bible'' and two lectionaries (lectionary) from about 1300. Judith Oliver, ''Gothic manuscript illumination in the diocese of Liege (c. 1250 – c. 1330)'', Uitgeverij Peeters, 1988, ISBN 978-90-6831-131-0 page 310 Malmedy illuminations show particular closeness with metalwork styles. The Triptych was certainly in the Abbey when it was suppressed in 1792, after the French Revolution. The British Museum: Exhibition of Far Eastern Art, ''The Times'', 15 June 1910 (issue 39 299), page 8, column F. The last prince-abbot, Célestin Thys, Stavelot-Malmedy, Ecclesiastic States, ''Regnal Chronologies''. Retrieved 23 October 2010 carried the triptych to Germany during the Napoleonic Wars, where it remained until 1910, when purchased by a London dealer who sold it to J. P. Morgan.
year_end 1795 event_pre Malmedy abb. founded date_pre 648 event_start Stavelot abbey founded date_start event1 Abbot Poppo of Deinze (Poppo of Stavelot) date_event1 1020–48 event2 Abbot Wibald date_event2 1130–58 event3 Annexed (Campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars) by French First Republic France
with personal gifts and means from the king. The monastery of Malmedy is considered by the historians and the hagiographers to be slightly older than the monastery of Stavelot, Malmedy in the ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' Eleventh Edition (Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition), 1911 with the town claiming foundation in 648. ref name "Malmedy:Growth"
guardians — from 844 to 938, including Ebbo, archbishop of Rheims (roman Catholic Archdiocese of Reims), Adalard the Seneschal and Reginar (Reginar, Duke of Lorraine) and Giselbert (Gilbert, Duke of Lorraine), dukes of Lorraine. René-Norbert Sauvage (1928), review of François Baix's 1924 ''Étude sur l'abbaye et principauté de
'' (edited by Danielle Sarlet), Ministère de la Région Wallonne Mardaga 2006, ISBN 978-2-87009-938-4, pages 148–49 Several historical sources provide evidence on the raid of 881, which was well prepared and organised. The monks rushed to dig up the relics of Remaclus and fled to the county of Porcien in present-day Bogny-sur-Meuse in the French Ardennes; the surrounding region was largely unaffected by the invasion.<
Kampf mit dem Drachen, Die Legende des Hl. Quirinus von Malmedy", in: ''Zwischen Venn und Schneifel, volume 9''. Website last accessed 26 December 2009. Through the seventh and eighth centuries, the two abbeys followed their mission of evangelism, along with forest clearance (logging). With the decline of the Carolingian Empire, however, the abbeys suffered the same decay as elsewhere, leaving the principality in the custody of lay abbots — temporal
The '''Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy''' was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire. Princely power was exercised by the Benedictine (Order of Saint Benedict) abbot of the imperial double monastery of Stavelot and Malmedy, founded in 651. At ''Hernach volgend die zehen Krayß (:de:s:Hernach volgend die zehen Krayß#Seite 12: Niderlendisch vnnd Westuelisch Krayß)'' (1532)
As a prince-abbot, the abbot of Stavelot-Malmedy sat in the College of Ruling Princes of the Ecclesiastical Bench of the Imperial Diet (Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire)). Along with the handful of other prince-abbots, he cast a full vote ('' ''), in contrast to the majority of imperial abbots who were only entitled to a collective vote on their respective curial benches.
In 1795 the principality was abolished and its territory was incorporated into the French département (departments of France#Napoleonic Empire) of Ourthe (Ourthe (department)). History on the official website of Stavelot. Last accessed 26 December 2009. and Malmedy became part of the Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) district (districts of Prussia) of Eupen-Malmedy. Both are currently parts of the Kingdom of Belgium (Belgium) — since the 1830 Belgian Revolution and the 1919 Treaty of Versailles respectively.