Portuguese Mozambique

What is Portuguese Mozambique known for?


small poor

Kaúlza de Arriaga (General), O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MOÇAMBIQUE E A PROMOÇÃO DAS SUAS POPULAÇÕES - SITUAÇÃO EM 1974, Kaúlza de Arriaga's published works and texts As part of this redevelopment program, construction of the Cahora Bassa Dam began in 1969 in the Overseas Province of Mozambique (the official designation of Portuguese Mozambique by then). This particular project became intrinsically linked with Portugal's concerns over security in the overseas colonies. The Portuguese government viewed the construction of the dam as testimony to Portugal’s “civilising mission” Allen Isaacman. ''Portuguese Colonial Intervention, Regional Conflict and Post-Colonial Amnesia: Cahora Bassa Dam, Mozambique 1965–2002'', cornell.edu. Retrieved on March 10, 2007 and intended for the dam to reaffirm Mozambican belief in the strength and security of the Portuguese colonial government. The 1960s, however, were crisis years for Portugal. Guerrilla movements (Portuguese Colonial War) emerged in the Portuguese African overseas territories of Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) that aimed at liberating those territories from "the last colonial empire". Fighting three guerrilla movements for more than a decade proved to be enormously draining for a small, poor country in terms of labor and financial resources. At the same time, social changes brought about by urbanization, emigration, the growth of the working class, and the emergence of a sizable middle class put new pressures on the political system to liberalize. Instead, Salazar increased repression, and the regime became even more rigid and ossified (Wiktionary:ossified).


centuries period

its overseas departments (Département d'outre-mer) and other territories. * For Portugal, during the 19th and 20th centuries period, ''Metrópole'' designated the European part of Portugal (Mainland Portugal plus the Azores and Madeira); the overseas provinces (Portuguese Empire) were called ''Ultramar'' ( overseas). Until 1975, Portuguese Africa's ''Ultramar'' referred to Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique), Portuguese Guinea, Cape Verde


quot fighting

. The 1960s, however, were crisis years for Portugal. Guerrilla movements (Portuguese Colonial War) emerged in the Portuguese African overseas territories of Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) that aimed at liberating those territories from "the last colonial empire". Fighting three guerrilla movements for more than a decade proved to be enormously draining for a small, poor country in terms of labor and financial resources


skill+technical

in the civil service and private businesses, as long as they had the right technical (skill) and human qualities. In addition, intermarriage (interracial marriage) of black women with white Portuguese men was a common practice since the earlier contacts with the Europeans. The access to basic, secondary and technical education was being expanded and its availability was being increasingly opened to both the indigenous and European Portuguese of the territories. Examples


program construction

Kaúlza de Arriaga (General), O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MOÇAMBIQUE E A PROMOÇÃO DAS SUAS POPULAÇÕES - SITUAÇÃO EM 1974, Kaúlza de Arriaga's published works and texts As part of this redevelopment program, construction of the Cahora Bassa Dam began in 1969 in the Overseas Province of Mozambique (the official designation of Portuguese Mozambique by then). This particular project became intrinsically linked with Portugal's concerns over security in the overseas colonies. The Portuguese government viewed the construction of the dam as testimony to Portugal’s “civilising mission” Allen Isaacman. ''Portuguese Colonial Intervention, Regional Conflict and Post-Colonial Amnesia: Cahora Bassa Dam, Mozambique 1965–2002'', cornell.edu. Retrieved on March 10, 2007 and intended for the dam to reaffirm Mozambican belief in the strength and security of the Portuguese colonial government. The 1960s, however, were crisis years for Portugal. Guerrilla movements (Portuguese Colonial War) emerged in the Portuguese African overseas territories of Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) that aimed at liberating those territories from "the last colonial empire". Fighting three guerrilla movements for more than a decade proved to be enormously draining for a small, poor country in terms of labor and financial resources. At the same time, social changes brought about by urbanization, emigration, the growth of the working class, and the emergence of a sizable middle class put new pressures on the political system to liberalize. Instead, Salazar increased repression, and the regime became even more rigid and ossified (Wiktionary:ossified).


short film

-aItuY João Belo — Xai-Xai , a film of João Belo, Portuguese Mozambique, before 1975. * — Beira (Beira, Mozambique); Cidade da Beira A short film of Beira, Portuguese Mozambique. <

Amélia, Portuguese Mozambique. * — Vila Cabral Other important urban centres included Sofala, Nacala, Nacala — no outro lado do tempo, short film of Nacala, Portuguese Mozambique before independence in 1975. António Enes (Angoche), Island of Mozambique and Vila Junqueiro. Demographics By 1970, the Portuguese

wwNCk59J5Ig Cidade da Beira A short film of Beira, Portuguese Mozambique. BEIRA-CENTENÁRIO-O MEU TRIBUTO A film about Beira, Portuguese Mozambique, its Grande Hotel, and the railway station. Post-independence images of the city are shown, the film uses images of RTP 1 (Rádio e Televisão de Portugal)'s TV program ''Grande Reportagem''. By 1970, the city of Beira had 113,770 inhabitants. Political activism After


legal feature

a sociological rather than a legal feature of colonial society. The rule of traditional authorities was indeed integrated more than before in the colonial administration. Ethnic African inhabitants of the Portuguese overseas provinces were ultimately supposed to become full citizens with full political rights through a long development process. To that end, by the 1960s and 1970s, segregation in Mozambique was minimal compared to that in neighbouring South Africa. Urban centres The largest coastal


cidade da beira a short film

-aItuY João Belo — Xai-Xai , a film of João Belo, Portuguese Mozambique, before 1975. * — Beira (Beira, Mozambique); Cidade da Beira A short film of Beira, Portuguese Mozambique. <

wwNCk59J5Ig Cidade da Beira A short film of Beira, Portuguese Mozambique. BEIRA-CENTENÁRIO-O MEU TRIBUTO A film about Beira, Portuguese Mozambique, its Grande Hotel, and the railway station. Post-independence images of the city are shown, the film uses images of RTP 1 (Rádio e Televisão de Portugal)'s TV program ''Grande Reportagem''. By 1970, the city of Beira had 113,770 inhabitants. Political activism After


agricultural+productions

, and also included British and South African investment. In 1959–60, Mozambique's major exports included cotton, cashew nuts, tea, sugar, copra and sisal. Other major agricultural productions included rice and coconut. The expanding economy of the Portuguese overseas province was fuelled by foreign direct investment, and public investment which included ambitious state-managed development plans. British capital owned two of the large sugar concessions (the third


national interest

territories in Africa during the 1960s. The independence movements active in Portuguese Angola, Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea were supported by both the United States and the Soviet Union, which both wanted to end all colonial empires and expand their own spheres of influence. For the Portuguese ruling regime, the centuries-old overseas empire was a matter of national interest. The criticism against some kinds of racial discrimination in the Portuguese

: www.barnard.edu history sample%20thesis Fine%20thesis.pdf Colorblind Colonialism? Lusotropicalismo and Portugal’s 20th. Century Empire. in Africa. Leah Fine. Barnard College Department of History, Spring 2007 For the Portuguese ruling regime, the overseas empire was a matter of national interest. In Portuguese Africa, trained Portuguese black Africans were allowed to occupy positions in several occupations including specialized military, administration, teaching, health and other posts

Portuguese Mozambique

'''Portuguese Mozambique''' or '''Portuguese East Africa''' are the common terms by which ''''Mozambique'''' is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory (Portuguese Empire). Former Portuguese Mozambique constituted a string of Portuguese colonies and later a single Portuguese overseas province along the south-east African coast, which now form the Republic of Mozambique.

During its history, Portuguese Mozambique had the following formal designations: '''Captaincy of Sofala''' (1501-1569), '''Captaincy of Mozambique and Sofala''' (1570-1676), '''Captaincy-General of Mozambique and Rivers of Sofala''' (1676-1836), '''Province of Mozambique''' (1836-1926), '''Colony of Mozambique''' (1926-1951), '''Province of Mozambique''' (1951-1972) and '''State of Mozambique''' (1972-1975).

Portuguese trading settlements and, later, colonies were formed along the coast from 1498, when Vasco da Gama first reached the Mozambican coast. Lourenço Marques (Lourenço Marques (explorer)) explored the area that is now Maputo Bay in 1544. He settled permanently in present-day Mozambique, where he spent most of his life, and his work was followed by other Portuguese (Portuguese people) explorers, sailors and traders. Some of these colonies were handed over in the late 19th century for rule by chartered companies such as the '' as an integral part of Portugal. Most of the original colonies have given their names to the modern provinces of Mozambique.

Mozambique, according to official policy, was not a colony at all but rather a part of the "pluricontinental and multiracial nation" of Portugal. Portugal sought in Mozambique, as it did in all its colonies, to Europeanise the local population and assimilate them into Portuguese culture. Lisbon also wanted to retain the colonies as trading partners and markets for its goods. African inhabitants of the colony were ultimately supposed to become full citizens with full political rights through a long development process. To that end, segregation in Mozambique was minimal compared to that in neighbouring South Africa. However, paid forced labour (forced labour#Payment for unfree labour), to which all Africans were liable if they failed to pay head taxes (tax per head), was not abolished until the early 1960s.

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