Portuguese India

What is Portuguese India known for?


term originating

: a study in inter-relationship between habitat, technology, economy, society, and culture'' (1977), P. R. G. Mathur, Anthropological Survey of India, Kerala Historical Society, p. 1 The Indian government designates members of the community as "Syrian Christians", a term originating with the Dutch colonial authority (Dutch India) distinguishing the Saint Thomas Christians, who used Syriac (Syriac language) as the liturgical language, from newly evangelized Christians following Latin liturgy. Vadakkekara, Benedict (2007). ''Origin of Christianity in India: a Historiographical Critique'', p. 52. Media House Delhi. The term ''Syrian'' relates not to their ethnicity but to their historical, religious and liturgical connection to the Church of the East, or East Syrian Church. Menachery, George (1973) ''The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India'', vol. II. B. N. K. Press. ISBN 81-87132-06-X The Portuguese had a keen interest in implanting themselves in the spice trade and in spreading their particularly bellicose version of Christianity, which had been forged during several centuries of warfare in the Reconquista. Frykenberg, Eric (2008). ''Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present'', 125–127. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5. Facilitating their goals was the ''Padroado Real'', a series of treaties and decrees in which the Pope conferred upon the Portuguese government certain authority in ecclesiastical matters in the foreign territories they conquered. They set up in Goa, forming a colonial government (Portuguese India) and a Latin church hierarchy under the Archbishop of Goa, and quickly set to bringing the Saint Thomas Christians under his authority. Frykenberg, Eric (2008). ''Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present'', pp. 127–128. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5. - Dom Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal (Afonso, Duke of Porto) 31 July 1865 21 February 1920 Infante of Portugal (Infante), Duke of Porto, Viceroy of India (Portuguese India), and after 1908 Prince Royal. In March 1505, having received from Manuel I of Portugal the appointment of viceroy of the newly conquered territory in India (Portuguese India), he set sail from Lisbon in command of a large and powerful fleet, and arrived in July at Quiloa (Kilwa (Kilwa Kisiwani)), which yielded to him almost without a struggle. A much more vigorous resistance was offered by the Moors of Mombasa, but the town was taken and destroyed, and its large treasures went to strengthen the resources of Almeida. Attacks followed on Hoja (now known as Ungwana, located at the mouth of the Tana River (Tana River (Kenya))), Barawa, Angoche, Pate (Pate Island) and other coastal towns until the western Indian Ocean was a safe haven for Portuguese commercial interests. At other places on his way, such as the island of Angediva, near Goa, and Cannanore (Kannur), the Portuguese built forts, and adopted measures to secure the Portuguese supremacy. Indian postal systems for efficient military and governmental communications had developed long before the arrival of Europeans. When the Portuguese (Portuguese India), Dutch (Dutch India), French (French India), Danish (Danish India) and British (United Kingdom) displaced the Mughals (Mughal Empire), their postal systems existed alongside those of many somewhat independent states. The British East India Company gradually displaced other powers and brought into existence a British administrative system over most of India, with a need to establish and maintain both official and commercial mail systems. The international context was not favourable to the Portuguese regime. The Cold War was near its peak, and both Western (Western Bloc) and Eastern-bloc (Eastern Bloc) states were supporting the guerrillas in the Portuguese colonies, attempting to bring these under, respectively, American and Soviet influence (see Portuguese Colonial War). The overseas policy of the Portuguese Government and the desire of many overseas residents to remain under Portuguese rule would led to an abrupt decolonisation, which occurred only after the Carnation Revolution of April 1974 and the fall of the regime. Unlike other European colonial powers, Portugal had long-standing and close ties to its African colonies. For the Portuguese ruling regime, the overseas empire was a matter of national interest. In the view of many Portuguese, a colonial empire was necessary to continued national power and influence. In contrast to Britain and France, Portuguese colonial settlers had extensively inter-married and assimilated within the colonies over a period of 400 years. Despite objections in world forums such as the United Nations, Portugal had long maintained that its African colonies were an integral part of Portugal, and felt obliged to militarily defend them against Communist-inspired armed groups, particularly after India's unilateral and forcible annexation of Portuguese exclaves Goa, Daman (Daman District, India) and Diu (Diu district) (Portuguese India), in 1961 (see Indian Invasion of Goa). thumb right Portuguese Air Force (File:AssaltonaMatadaSanga....jpg)'s helicopter operating in an African theatre during the Portuguese Colonial War. *In the Second World War, Portugal was neutral (Participants in World War II#Portugal) but the treaty was invoked by the Allies to establish bases on the Azores. *In 1961, during the invasion (Operation Vijay (1961)) of the Portuguese possessions (Portuguese India) of Goa, Daman and Diu by the Indian Union, Portugal sought the help of Britain to little effect. *During the 1982 Falklands War the facilities of the Azores were again offered to the Royal Navy. Expansion and territory The English East India Company (hereafter, the Company) was founded in 1600, as ''The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies''. It gained a foothold in India in 1612 after Mughal (Mughal Empire) emperor Jahangir granted it the rights to establish a factory (Factory (trading post)), or trading post, in the port of Surat on the western coast. In 1640, after receiving similar permission from the Vijayanagara ruler (Vijayanagara Empire) farther south, a second factory was established in Madras on the southeastern coast. Bombay island, not far from Surat, a former Portuguese outpost gifted to England (Kingdom of England) as dowry in the marriage of Catherine of Braganza to Charles II (Charles II of England), was leased by the Company in 1668. Two decades later, the Company established a presence on the eastern coast as well; far up that coast, in the Ganges river delta, a factory was set up in Calcutta. Since, during this time other ''companies''—established by the Portuguese (Portuguese India), Dutch (Dutch East India Company), French (French East India Company), and Danish (Danish East India Company)—were similarly expanding in the region, the English Company's unremarkable beginnings on coastal India offered no clues to what would become a lengthy presence on the Indian subcontinent. left thumb 250px India in 1765 and 1805 showing East India Company Territories (Image:India1765and1805b.jpg) '''Old Goa''' (Konkani (Konkani language):पोरणें गोंय – ''Pornnem Goem''; Hindi ओल्ड गोवा – ''Old Gova'', पुराणा गोवा – ''Purana Gova'') or '''Velha Goa''' (''Velha'' means "old" in Portuguese (Portuguese language)) is a historical city in North Goa district in the Indian state (States and territories of India) of Goa. The city was constructed by the Bijapur Sultanate in the 15th century, and served as capital of Portuguese India from the 16th century until its abandonment in the 18th century due to plague. The remains of the city are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India were Portuguese India. The period of European contact of Ceylon began with the arrival of Portuguese soldiers and explorer (Exploration)s of the expedition of Lorenzo de Almeida, the son of Francisco de Almeida in 1505. '''André Pereira dos Reis''' was a Portuguese (Portugal) captain, pilot, and cartographer. A native of Goa, he was engaged in the wars against the Arabs, serving in the fleets of fortress of Portuguese India. In 1647, he was knighted (knight). He was blamed for the loss of Muscat (Muscat, Oman) (1650). thumb right w:St. Paul's Church, Diu St. Paul's Church in Diu (File:Eglise St Paul.jpg) named after St. Paul (w:St. Paul), the Apostle of Jesus (w:Apostle (Christian)) also known as the Apostle to the Gentiles, in baroque architecture (w:Baroque architecture) in India. '''Daman and Diu (w:Daman and Diu)''' is a union territory (w:Union Teritory) in India. For over 450 years, the coastal exclaves of Daman (w:Daman) and Diu (w:Diu) on the Arabian Sea (w:Arabian Sea) coast (w:Coast) were part of Portuguese India (w:Portuguese India), along with Goa (Goa) and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w: Dadra and Nagar Haveli). Goa, Daman, and Diu (w: Goa, Daman, and Diu) were incorporated into the Republic of India (w: Republic of India) on 19 December 1961 by military conquest (w:Operation Vijay 1961). *Goa, Daman and Diu were the main Portuguese possessions (w:Portuguese India) in India which remained under the Portuguese rule for 450 years. They were liberated on 19 December 1961 during Operation Vijay (w:Operation Vijay 1961). Both Daman and Diu were governed from Goa till their liberation (w:Liberation) on 19 December 1961. Before the Portuguese period, from fourteenth to sixteenth century. Diu (w:Diu, India) was one of the best port and naval bases and both Daman and Diu were notable. **Kumar Suresh Singh, et al, in Daman and Diu (1994), p. 5 *The twin islands are a perfect example of a place where history and nature meet.The tranquillity (w:Tranquillity) is what symbolises the beaches (w:Beaches) of Daman and Diu Islands. Daman was the Portuguese colony (w:Portuguese India) for over four centuries and joined the Indian Union (w:Indian Union) in 1961. **Prakash Talwar, in Travel And Tourism Management (4 Vols.) (1 January 2006), p. 208


personal reasons

The Portuguese founded a fort at the port city of Colombo in 1517 and gradually extended their control over the coastal areas. Territorial usage The escudo was used in the Portuguese mainland, the Azores and Madeira, with no distinction of coins or banknotes. In Portugal's African colonies, the escudo was generally used up to independence, with Portuguese and sometime local coins circulating alongside banknotes of the Banco Nacional Ultramarino, rather than those of the Bank of Portugal used on the mainland. For more details, see the escudos of Angola (Angolan escudo), Cape Verde (Cape Verde escudo), Mozambican


series history'

page 3 isbn 9789057024535


quot representing

'' their royal crown in addition to gaining an imperial one, becoming King-Emperors. After the Mughal Emperor was deposed by the British East India Company, and after the company itself was dissolved, the title "Empress of India" (or ''Kaiser-i-Hind'', a form coined by the orientalist G.W. Leitner (Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner) in a deliberate attempt to dissociate British imperial rule from that of preceding dynasties) B.S. Cohn, "Representing Authority in Victorian India", in E. Hobsbawm and T. Ranger (eds.), ''The Invention of Tradition'' (1983), 165-209, esp. 201-2. was taken by Queen Victoria from 1 May 1876, and proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1877. The title was introduced nineteen years after the formal incorporation into the British Empire of Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent, comprising most of modern-day India (excluding the Portuguese India, the State of Sikkim, and the enclaves of French India), Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Burma (though the latter would be made a separate colony in 1937). Prime Minister (Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) Benjamin Disraeli is usually credited with the title's creation. History of the Monarchy, Victoria thumb The 1931 series celebrated the inauguration of New Delhi (Image:Inauguration of New Delhi 1931.jpg) as the seat of government. The one rupee stamp shows George V with the "Secretariat Building, New Delhi" and Dominion Columns. Significant losses to the Dutch in Portuguese India and Southeast Asia during the 17th century brought an end to the Portuguese trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean. Brazil became Portugal's most valuable colony until, as part of the wave of independence movements (Decolonization of the Americas) that swept the Americas during the early 19th century, it broke away in 1822. Portugal's Empire was reduced to its colonies on the African coastline (which were expanded inland during the Scramble for Africa in the late 19th century), East Timor, and enclaves in India and Macau. *''Ceylon Government-General'' All of India below a line running approximately from Portuguese (Portuguese colonial empire) Goa (Portuguese India) to the coastline of the Bay of Bengal. The Roman Catholic Brahmin caste among the Goan Catholics and Mangalorean Catholics are descended from Konkani Brahmins who converted to Roman Catholicism during the Portuguese colonial rule (Portuguese India) in Goa. Terminology The Saint Thomas Christians are so called due to their reverence for Saint Thomas the Apostle, who is said to have brought Christianity to India. The name dates to the period of Portuguese colonization (Portuguese India). They are also known, especially locally, as the ''Nasrani'' or ''Nasrani Mappila''. "Nasrani" is a term meaning "Christian"; it appears to be derived from Nazareth, Jesus' hometown. Mappila is an honorific applied to members of non-Indian faiths, including Muslims (''Jonaka Mappila'') and Jews (''Yuda Mappila''). Županov, Ines G. (2005). ''Missionary Tropics: The Catholic Frontier in India (16th-17th centuries)'', p. 99 and note. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11490-5 Bindu Malieckal (2005) Muslims, Matriliny, and A Midsummer Night's Dream: European Encounters with the Mappilas of Malabar, India; The Muslim World Volume 95 Issue 2 page 300 Some Syriac Christians of former Travancore continue to attach this honorific title to their names. ''The Mappila fisherfolk of Kerala: a study in inter-relationship between habitat, technology, economy, society, and culture'' (1977), P. R. G. Mathur, Anthropological Survey of India, Kerala Historical Society, p. 1 The Indian government designates members of the community as "Syrian Christians", a term originating with the Dutch colonial authority (Dutch India) distinguishing the Saint Thomas Christians, who used Syriac (Syriac language) as the liturgical language, from newly evangelized Christians following Latin liturgy. Vadakkekara, Benedict (2007). ''Origin of Christianity in India: a Historiographical Critique'', p. 52. Media House Delhi. The term ''Syrian'' relates not to their ethnicity but to their historical, religious and liturgical connection to the Church of the East, or East Syrian Church. Menachery, George (1973) ''The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India'', vol. II. B. N. K. Press. ISBN 81-87132-06-X The Portuguese had a keen interest in implanting themselves in the spice trade and in spreading their particularly bellicose version of Christianity, which had been forged during several centuries of warfare in the Reconquista. Frykenberg, Eric (2008). ''Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present'', 125–127. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5. Facilitating their goals was the ''Padroado Real'', a series of treaties and decrees in which the Pope conferred upon the Portuguese government certain authority in ecclesiastical matters in the foreign territories they conquered. They set up in Goa, forming a colonial government (Portuguese India) and a Latin church hierarchy under the Archbishop of Goa, and quickly set to bringing the Saint Thomas Christians under his authority. Frykenberg, Eric (2008). ''Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present'', pp. 127–128. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5. - Dom Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal (Afonso, Duke of Porto) 31 July 1865 21 February 1920 Infante of Portugal (Infante), Duke of Porto, Viceroy of India (Portuguese India), and after 1908 Prince Royal. In March 1505, having received from Manuel I of Portugal the appointment of viceroy of the newly conquered territory in India (Portuguese India), he set sail from Lisbon in command of a large and powerful fleet, and arrived in July at Quiloa (Kilwa (Kilwa Kisiwani)), which yielded to him almost without a struggle. A much more vigorous resistance was offered by the Moors of Mombasa, but the town was taken and destroyed, and its large treasures went to strengthen the resources of Almeida. Attacks followed on Hoja (now known as Ungwana, located at the mouth of the Tana River (Tana River (Kenya))), Barawa, Angoche, Pate (Pate Island) and other coastal towns until the western Indian Ocean was a safe haven for Portuguese commercial interests. At other places on his way, such as the island of Angediva, near Goa, and Cannanore (Kannur), the Portuguese built forts, and adopted measures to secure the Portuguese supremacy. Indian postal systems for efficient military and governmental communications had developed long before the arrival of Europeans. When the Portuguese (Portuguese India), Dutch (Dutch India), French (French India), Danish (Danish India) and British (United Kingdom) displaced the Mughals (Mughal Empire), their postal systems existed alongside those of many somewhat independent states. The British East India Company gradually displaced other powers and brought into existence a British administrative system over most of India, with a need to establish and maintain both official and commercial mail systems. The international context was not favourable to the Portuguese regime. The Cold War was near its peak, and both Western (Western Bloc) and Eastern-bloc (Eastern Bloc) states were supporting the guerrillas in the Portuguese colonies, attempting to bring these under, respectively, American and Soviet influence (see Portuguese Colonial War). The overseas policy of the Portuguese Government and the desire of many overseas residents to remain under Portuguese rule would led to an abrupt decolonisation, which occurred only after the Carnation Revolution of April 1974 and the fall of the regime. Unlike other European colonial powers, Portugal had long-standing and close ties to its African colonies. For the Portuguese ruling regime, the overseas empire was a matter of national interest. In the view of many Portuguese, a colonial empire was necessary to continued national power and influence. In contrast to Britain and France, Portuguese colonial settlers had extensively inter-married and assimilated within the colonies over a period of 400 years. Despite objections in world forums such as the United Nations, Portugal had long maintained that its African colonies were an integral part of Portugal, and felt obliged to militarily defend them against Communist-inspired armed groups, particularly after India's unilateral and forcible annexation of Portuguese exclaves Goa, Daman (Daman District, India) and Diu (Diu district) (Portuguese India), in 1961 (see Indian Invasion of Goa). thumb right Portuguese Air Force (File:AssaltonaMatadaSanga....jpg)'s helicopter operating in an African theatre during the Portuguese Colonial War. *In the Second World War, Portugal was neutral (Participants in World War II#Portugal) but the treaty was invoked by the Allies to establish bases on the Azores. *In 1961, during the invasion (Operation Vijay (1961)) of the Portuguese possessions (Portuguese India) of Goa, Daman and Diu by the Indian Union, Portugal sought the help of Britain to little effect. *During the 1982 Falklands War the facilities of the Azores were again offered to the Royal Navy. Expansion and territory The English East India Company (hereafter, the Company) was founded in 1600, as ''The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies''. It gained a foothold in India in 1612 after Mughal (Mughal Empire) emperor Jahangir granted it the rights to establish a factory (Factory (trading post)), or trading post, in the port of Surat on the western coast. In 1640, after receiving similar permission from the Vijayanagara ruler (Vijayanagara Empire) farther south, a second factory was established in Madras on the southeastern coast. Bombay island, not far from Surat, a former Portuguese outpost gifted to England (Kingdom of England) as dowry in the marriage of Catherine of Braganza to Charles II (Charles II of England), was leased by the Company in 1668. Two decades later, the Company established a presence on the eastern coast as well; far up that coast, in the Ganges river delta, a factory was set up in Calcutta. Since, during this time other ''companies''—established by the Portuguese (Portuguese India), Dutch (Dutch East India Company), French (French East India Company), and Danish (Danish East India Company)—were similarly expanding in the region, the English Company's unremarkable beginnings on coastal India offered no clues to what would become a lengthy presence on the Indian subcontinent. left thumb 250px India in 1765 and 1805 showing East India Company Territories (Image:India1765and1805b.jpg) '''Old Goa''' (Konkani (Konkani language):पोरणें गोंय – ''Pornnem Goem''; Hindi ओल्ड गोवा – ''Old Gova'', पुराणा गोवा – ''Purana Gova'') or '''Velha Goa''' (''Velha'' means "old" in Portuguese (Portuguese language)) is a historical city in North Goa district in the Indian state (States and territories of India) of Goa. The city was constructed by the Bijapur Sultanate in the 15th century, and served as capital of Portuguese India from the 16th century until its abandonment in the 18th century due to plague. The remains of the city are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India were Portuguese India. The period of European contact of Ceylon began with the arrival of Portuguese soldiers and explorer (Exploration)s of the expedition of Lorenzo de Almeida, the son of Francisco de Almeida in 1505. '''André Pereira dos Reis''' was a Portuguese (Portugal) captain, pilot, and cartographer. A native of Goa, he was engaged in the wars against the Arabs, serving in the fleets of fortress of Portuguese India. In 1647, he was knighted (knight). He was blamed for the loss of Muscat (Muscat, Oman) (1650). thumb right w:St. Paul's Church, Diu St. Paul's Church in Diu (File:Eglise St Paul.jpg) named after St. Paul (w:St. Paul), the Apostle of Jesus (w:Apostle (Christian)) also known as the Apostle to the Gentiles, in baroque architecture (w:Baroque architecture) in India. '''Daman and Diu (w:Daman and Diu)''' is a union territory (w:Union Teritory) in India. For over 450 years, the coastal exclaves of Daman (w:Daman) and Diu (w:Diu) on the Arabian Sea (w:Arabian Sea) coast (w:Coast) were part of Portuguese India (w:Portuguese India), along with Goa (Goa) and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w: Dadra and Nagar Haveli). Goa, Daman, and Diu (w: Goa, Daman, and Diu) were incorporated into the Republic of India (w: Republic of India) on 19 December 1961 by military conquest (w:Operation Vijay 1961). *Goa, Daman and Diu were the main Portuguese possessions (w:Portuguese India) in India which remained under the Portuguese rule for 450 years. They were liberated on 19 December 1961 during Operation Vijay (w:Operation Vijay 1961). Both Daman and Diu were governed from Goa till their liberation (w:Liberation) on 19 December 1961. Before the Portuguese period, from fourteenth to sixteenth century. Diu (w:Diu, India) was one of the best port and naval bases and both Daman and Diu were notable. **Kumar Suresh Singh, et al, in Daman and Diu (1994), p. 5 *The twin islands are a perfect example of a place where history and nature meet.The tranquillity (w:Tranquillity) is what symbolises the beaches (w:Beaches) of Daman and Diu Islands. Daman was the Portuguese colony (w:Portuguese India) for over four centuries and joined the Indian Union (w:Indian Union) in 1961. **Prakash Talwar, in Travel And Tourism Management (4 Vols.) (1 January 2006), p. 208


called history

of independence was about 360,000. Most of these left the region after its independence in 1975, returning to Portugal where they were called ''retornados (History of Portugal (1974-1986)#The retornados)''. As compared to the European population, there is a higher ''mestiço (mestizo)'' minority of Mozambicans with mixed Bantu and Portuguese heritage. The remaining Caucasians in Mozambique are Indians in Mozambique,primarily known as Indo-Mozambicans, Pakistan, Portuguese India and Arab


vasco da gama

the rest of the overseas territory in December 1961, when it was taken by India after military action. In spite of this, Portugal only recognised Indian control in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution and the fall of the Estado Novo regime (Estado Novo (Portugal)). Early history '''André Pereira dos Reis''' was a Portuguese (Portugal) captain, pilot, and cartographer. A native of Goa, he was engaged in the wars against the Arabs, serving in the fleets of fortress of Portuguese India. In 1647, he was knighted (knight). He was blamed for the loss of Muscat (Muscat, Oman) (1650). thumb right w:St. Paul's Church, Diu St. Paul's Church in Diu (File:Eglise St Paul.jpg) named after St. Paul (w:St. Paul), the Apostle of Jesus (w:Apostle (Christian)) also known as the Apostle to the Gentiles, in baroque architecture (w:Baroque architecture) in India. '''Daman and Diu (w:Daman and Diu)''' is a union territory (w:Union Teritory) in India. For over 450 years, the coastal exclaves of Daman (w:Daman) and Diu (w:Diu) on the Arabian Sea (w:Arabian Sea) coast (w:Coast) were part of Portuguese India (w:Portuguese India), along with Goa (Goa) and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w: Dadra and Nagar Haveli). Goa, Daman, and Diu (w: Goa, Daman, and Diu) were incorporated into the Republic of India (w: Republic of India) on 19 December 1961 by military conquest (w:Operation Vijay 1961). *Goa, Daman and Diu were the main Portuguese possessions (w:Portuguese India) in India which remained under the Portuguese rule for 450 years. They were liberated on 19 December 1961 during Operation Vijay (w:Operation Vijay 1961). Both Daman and Diu were governed from Goa till their liberation (w:Liberation) on 19 December 1961. Before the Portuguese period, from fourteenth to sixteenth century. Diu (w:Diu, India) was one of the best port and naval bases and both Daman and Diu were notable. **Kumar Suresh Singh, et al, in Daman and Diu (1994), p. 5 *The twin islands are a perfect example of a place where history and nature meet.The tranquillity (w:Tranquillity) is what symbolises the beaches (w:Beaches) of Daman and Diu Islands. Daman was the Portuguese colony (w:Portuguese India) for over four centuries and joined the Indian Union (w:Indian Union) in 1961. **Prakash Talwar, in Travel And Tourism Management (4 Vols.) (1 January 2006), p. 208


medical knowledge

(nutrition) diet . GColTE (Order of the Tower and Sword) (c.February 1809 - 19 April 1878; Lisbon) - a liberalist sympathizer and hero of the Liberal Wars, he would go on to fame for his medical knowledge and contribuitions during cholera (1856) and yellow-fever (1857) outbreaks, as well as his attacks on the royalist medicine and power of the Catholic Church, founding the Sociedade Humanitariana Raspalhista and publishing various articles in '''''O Portuguez''''' and '''''O


famous amp

is in Gujarat near Bhavnagar at Alang. Somnath is one of the 12 Jyotirlings in India. The other equally famous & important town to Hindus is Dwarka, where Lord Krishna is worshipped. Palitana is sacred to the Jains & is one of a kind in India, with hundreds of temples atop a hill. Sasan Gir located in the Gir Forest is a staging post for Lion Safaris, being the only habitat of the Asiatic Lion in Asia. 109 Buddhist caves, including those at Kanheri, can be found


high religious

six ''rasa (Rasa (aesthetics))s'' and three ''guṇas'' to help describe comestibles. '''André Pereira dos Reis''' was a Portuguese (Portugal) captain, pilot, and cartographer. A native of Goa, he was engaged in the wars against the Arabs, serving in the fleets of fortress of Portuguese India. In 1647, he was knighted (knight). He was blamed for the loss of Muscat (Muscat, Oman) (1650). thumb right w:St. Paul's Church, Diu St. Paul's Church in Diu (File:Eglise St Paul.jpg) named after St. Paul (w:St. Paul), the Apostle of Jesus (w:Apostle (Christian)) also known as the Apostle to the Gentiles, in baroque architecture (w:Baroque architecture) in India. '''Daman and Diu (w:Daman and Diu)''' is a union territory (w:Union Teritory) in India. For over 450 years, the coastal exclaves of Daman (w:Daman) and Diu (w:Diu) on the Arabian Sea (w:Arabian Sea) coast (w:Coast) were part of Portuguese India (w:Portuguese India), along with Goa (Goa) and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w: Dadra and Nagar Haveli). Goa, Daman, and Diu (w: Goa, Daman, and Diu) were incorporated into the Republic of India (w: Republic of India) on 19 December 1961 by military conquest (w:Operation Vijay 1961). *Goa, Daman and Diu were the main Portuguese possessions (w:Portuguese India) in India which remained under the Portuguese rule for 450 years. They were liberated on 19 December 1961 during Operation Vijay (w:Operation Vijay 1961). Both Daman and Diu were governed from Goa till their liberation (w:Liberation) on 19 December 1961. Before the Portuguese period, from fourteenth to sixteenth century. Diu (w:Diu, India) was one of the best port and naval bases and both Daman and Diu were notable. **Kumar Suresh Singh, et al, in Daman and Diu (1994), p. 5 *The twin islands are a perfect example of a place where history and nature meet.The tranquillity (w:Tranquillity) is what symbolises the beaches (w:Beaches) of Daman and Diu Islands. Daman was the Portuguese colony (w:Portuguese India) for over four centuries and joined the Indian Union (w:Indian Union) in 1961. **Prakash Talwar, in Travel And Tourism Management (4 Vols.) (1 January 2006), p. 208


poetry book

) Mozambique , a Portuguese colony at the time, he spent his youth in Goa, Portuguese India, another Portuguese colony. At the age of 18, he left Goa and traveled to Lisbon, where he studied history and philosophy at the local university. In 1951, Costa published his first work, a poetry book entitled ''A Estrada e a Voz''. He continued publishing, not only poetry, but also drama and romance (romance novel). Goa Formerly known as the ''Estado da Índia (Portuguese India)'' this territory was an integral part of Portugal (as distinct from a colony) under Portugal's Constitution (Constitution of Portugal) of 1910. '''Antao D'Souza''' (born January 17, 1939, Goa, Portuguese India) is a former Pakistani cricketer who played in six Tests (Test cricket) from 1959 to 1962. He was the fourth Christian to play Test cricket for Pakistan. They've served Pak cricket, on the field and off it He was a medium pace bowler and tail-end obdurate batsman. D'Souza toured England in 1962, heading the batting averages (53) as he remained not out in five of his six innings. Given a minimum of ten innings, D'Souza is one of only two Test cricketers, whose batting averages exceeded their highest score. '''André Pereira dos Reis''' was a Portuguese (Portugal) captain, pilot, and cartographer. A native of Goa, he was engaged in the wars against the Arabs, serving in the fleets of fortress of Portuguese India. In 1647, he was knighted (knight). He was blamed for the loss of Muscat (Muscat, Oman) (1650). thumb right w:St. Paul's Church, Diu St. Paul's Church in Diu (File:Eglise St Paul.jpg) named after St. Paul (w:St. Paul), the Apostle of Jesus (w:Apostle (Christian)) also known as the Apostle to the Gentiles, in baroque architecture (w:Baroque architecture) in India. '''Daman and Diu (w:Daman and Diu)''' is a union territory (w:Union Teritory) in India. For over 450 years, the coastal exclaves of Daman (w:Daman) and Diu (w:Diu) on the Arabian Sea (w:Arabian Sea) coast (w:Coast) were part of Portuguese India (w:Portuguese India), along with Goa (Goa) and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w: Dadra and Nagar Haveli). Goa, Daman, and Diu (w: Goa, Daman, and Diu) were incorporated into the Republic of India (w: Republic of India) on 19 December 1961 by military conquest (w:Operation Vijay 1961). *Goa, Daman and Diu were the main Portuguese possessions (w:Portuguese India) in India which remained under the Portuguese rule for 450 years. They were liberated on 19 December 1961 during Operation Vijay (w:Operation Vijay 1961). Both Daman and Diu were governed from Goa till their liberation (w:Liberation) on 19 December 1961. Before the Portuguese period, from fourteenth to sixteenth century. Diu (w:Diu, India) was one of the best port and naval bases and both Daman and Diu were notable. **Kumar Suresh Singh, et al, in Daman and Diu (1994), p. 5 *The twin islands are a perfect example of a place where history and nature meet.The tranquillity (w:Tranquillity) is what symbolises the beaches (w:Beaches) of Daman and Diu Islands. Daman was the Portuguese colony (w:Portuguese India) for over four centuries and joined the Indian Union (w:Indian Union) in 1961. **Prakash Talwar, in Travel And Tourism Management (4 Vols.) (1 January 2006), p. 208

Portuguese India

The '''State of India''', formally, '''Estado da Índia Portuguesa,''' and commonly '''Portuguese India''', was a colonial state of the Portuguese Empire (List of states of the Portuguese Empire), founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.

The first viceroy, Francisco de Almeida, established his headquarters in Cochin (''Cochim'', Kochi). Subsequent Portuguese governors (List of governors of Portuguese India) were not always of viceroy rank. After 1510, the capital of the Portuguese viceroyalty was transferred to Goa. Until the 18th Century, the Portuguese governor in Goa had authority over all Portuguese possessions (Portuguese empire) in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to southeast Asia. In 1752 Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) got its own separate government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory of Macau (Portuguese Macau), Solor and Timor (Portuguese Timor), and its authority was confined to the colonial holdings on the Malabar (Malabar Coast) coast of present-day India.

At the time of the British Indian Empire's dissolution in 1947, Portuguese India was subdivided into three districts located on modern-day India's western coast, sometimes referred to collectively as '''Goa''': Goa; Daman (Daman, Daman and Diu) (Portuguese: Damão) which included the inland enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli; and Diu (Daman and Diu). Portugal lost effective control of the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1954, and finally the rest of the overseas territory in December 1961, when it was taken by India after military action. In spite of this, Portugal only recognised Indian control in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution and the fall of the Estado Novo regime (Estado Novo (Portugal)).

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