Portuguese Guinea

What is Portuguese Guinea known for?


major fighting

territories , the series of conflicts becoming known as the Portuguese Colonial War. Nicolli 2002, p. 174. Portugal had deployed a detachment of F-86 Sabres to Portuguese Guinea in August 1961, prior to the outbreak of major fighting, but was forced to withdraw the jet fighters back to Europe owing to pressure from the United States and the United Nations, who imposed an arms embargo. Lopes 1988, p. 64. This left a gap in air cover for Portugal's African colonies, both in the close air support role, and in the air defence role. The combined guerrilla forces of the MPLA, the UNITA, and the FNLA, in Angola (Angola (Portugal)), PAIGC in Portuguese Guinea, and FRELIMO in Mozambique (Mozambique (Portugal)), succeeded in their rebellion when their continued guerrilla warfare prompted elements of the Portuguese Armed Forces to stage a coup at Lisbon in 1974. Laidi, Zaki. The Superpowers and Africa: The Constraints of a Rivalry:1960-1990. Chicago: Univ. Of Chicago, 1990. António Pires Nunes, Angola 1966-74 The Portuguese Armed Forces' Movimento das Forças Armadas overthrew the Lisbon government in protest of ongoing war in Portuguese Guinea that seemed to have no military end in sight, as well as in rebellion against the new Military Laws that were to be presented next year (Decree Law: ''Decretos-Leis n.os 353, de 13 de Julho de 1973, e 409, de 20 de Agosto'') in order to cut down military expenses and incorporate militia and military academy officers in the Army branches as equals. Nova Colônia do Sacramento, Uruguay (1680-1777)


low annual

institutional relations between the colonies and Portugal-based individuals and organizations were numerous, though migration to, from, and between Portugal and its overseas departments was limited in size, due principally to the long distance and low annual income of the average Portuguese as well that of the indigenous overseas populations. By early 1974, guerrilla operations in Angola and Mozambique had been reduced to sporadic ambush operations against the Portuguese in the rural countryside areas, far from the main centers of population. The only exception was Portuguese Guinea, where PAIGC guerrilla operations, strongly supported by neighbouring allies like Guinea and Senegal, were largely successful in liberating and securing large areas of Portuguese Guinea. According some historians, Portugal recognized its inability to win the conflict in Guinea at the outset, but was forced to fight on to prevent an independent Guinea from serving as a inspirational model for insurgents in Angola and Mozambique. NORRIE MACQUEEN, Portugal's First Domino: ‘Pluricontinentalism’ and Colonial War in Guiné-Bissau, 1963–1974, "Portugal's presence in Guiné-Bissau through eleven years of intense guerrilla war was justified by the doctrine of ‘pluricontinentalim’. In this view concession to nationalist pressure in one part of the ‘indivisible state’ would lead inevitably to the collapse of the whole. The defence of Portuguese Guiné, therefore, was the price to be paid for the maintenance of the infinitely more valuable territories of Angola and Mozambique. While the Salazar regime was rigid in its adherence to this doctrine, some movement was detectable under his successor from 1968, Marcelo Caetano. The governor-general in Guiné, General Spínola, was permitted to explore possibilities of negotiation. Politically insecure in the face of residual Salazarist power in the regime, however, Caetano abandoned this approach in 1972. This apparent loss of nerve would contribute to the overthrow of the Caetano government by its own military in 1974.", Contemporary European History (1999), 8: 209-230 Cambridge University Press thumb right A PAIGC checkpoint in 1974 (Image:PAIGC posto de controlo.jpg) In Portuguese Guinea (also simply referred to as Guinea at that time), the Marxist African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) started fighting in January 1963. Its guerrilla fighters attacked the Portuguese headquarters in Tite, located to the south of Bissau, the capital, near the Corubal river. Similar actions quickly spread across the entire colony, requiring a strong response from the Portuguese forces. The war in Guinea has been termed "Portugal's Vietnam". The PAIGC was well-trained, well-led, and equipped and received substantial support from safe havens in neighbouring countries like Senegal and Guinea-Conakry. The jungles of Guinea and the proximity of the PAIGC's allies near the border proved to be of significant advantage in providing tactical superiority during cross-border attacks and resupply missions for the guerrillas. The conflict in Portuguese Guinea involving the PAIGC guerrillas and the Portuguese Army would prove the most intense and damaging of all conflicts in the Portuguese Colonial War, blocking Portuguese attempts to pacify the disputed territory via new economic and socioeconomic policies that had been applied with some success in Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique. In 1965 the war spread to the eastern part of Guinea; that same year, the PAIGC carried out attacks in the north of the territory where at the time only the Front for the Liberation and Independence of Guinea (FLING), a minor insurgent group, was active. By this time, the PAIGC had begun to openly receive military support from the Socialist Bloc, mainly from Cuba, and the Soviet Union. Prior to their own Colonial War the Portuguese military had studied French and British efforts in Indo-China, Algeria and Malaya (Cann, 1997). Based on their analysis of operations in those theatres and considering their own situation in Africa, the Portuguese military took the unusual decision to restructure their entire armed forces, from top to bottom, for counterinsurgency. This transformation did, however, take seven years to complete and only saw its final form in 1968. By 1974 the counterinsurgency efforts were successful in the Portuguese territories of Angola (Angola (Portugal)) and Mozambique (Mozambique (Portugal)), but in Portuguese Guinea the local guerrilla was making progresses. As the conflict escalated, the Portuguese authorities developed progressively tougher responses, these included the Gordian Knot Operation and the Operation Green Sea. right 250px thumb The Portuguese Airforce employed Fiat G91 (Image:Fiat G91.jpg) aircraft like this in the Portuguese Colonial War. Unlike the Vietnam War, Portugal's limited national resources did not allow for widespread use of the helicopter. Only those troops involved in raids (Raid (military)) (also called ''golpe de mão'' (hand blow) in Portuguese) - mainly Commandos (Portuguese Army Commandos) and Paratroopers - would deploy by helicopter. Most deployments were either on foot or in vehicles (Berliet and Unimog trucks). The helicopters were reserved for support (in a gunship role) or MEDEVAC. The Alouette III (Aérospatiale Alouette III) was the most widely-used helicopter, although the Puma (Aérospatiale Puma) was also used with great success. Other aircraft were employed: for air support the T6 (T-6 Texan), the F-86 Sabre and the Fiat G.91 were used; for reconnaissance the Dornier Do 27 was employed. In the transport role, the Portuguese Air Force originally used the Junkers Ju 52, followed by the Nord Noratlas, the C-54 Skymaster, and the C-47 (C-47 Skytrain) (all of these aircraft were also used for Paratroop drop operations). From 1965, Portugal (Estado Novo (Portugal)) began to purchase the Fiat G.91 to deploy to its African overseas territories of Mozambique (Portuguese East Africa), Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) and Angola (Portuguese West Africa) in the close-support role. Nicolli 2003, p.174 The first 40 G.91 were purchased second-hand from the Luftwaffe, out of the aircraft that had originally been produced for Greece and which differed from the rest of the Luftwaffe G.91s sufficiently to create maintenance problems. The aircraft replaced the Portuguese F-86 Sabre. Colonial War The army participated in colonial war (Portuguese Colonial War) from 1961 to 1974, in Angola, Goa, Mozambique, Portuguese Guinea and Cape Verde. At the other oversees possessions, East Timor and São Tomé and Príncipe, there was a military presence but no guerrilla organizations. In 1961, the isolated and relatively small Portuguese Army suffered a defeat (Invasion of Goa) against a largely superior Indian Army in the colony of Portuguese India, which was subsequently lost to the Union of India in the same invasion. The counterinsurgency campaigns in Africa had various degrees of success ranging from almost victory in Angola to total and conventional war in Portuguese Guinea. This war ended after the Carnation Revolution military coup of April 1974 in Lisbon and subsequently independence of the colonies. Colonial War The army participated in colonial war (Portuguese Colonial War) from 1961 to 1974, in Angola, Goa, Mozambique, Portuguese Guinea and Cape Verde. At the other oversees possessions, East Timor and São Tomé and Príncipe, there was a military presence but no guerrilla organizations. In 1961, the isolated and relatively small Portuguese Army suffered a defeat (Invasion of Goa) against a largely superior Indian Army in the colony of Portuguese India, which was subsequently lost to the Union of India in the same invasion. The counterinsurgency campaigns in Africa had various degrees of success ranging from almost victory in Angola to total and conventional war in Portuguese Guinea. This war ended after the Carnation Revolution military coup of April 1974 in Lisbon and subsequently independence of the colonies. thumb left A Portuguese Air Force Portuguese (File:Alouette III fazendo uma evacuação sanitária.jpg) Alouette Mk III (Aérospatiale Alouette III), seen in Portuguese Guinea during the early 1970s. The RLI used these helicopters for its Fireforce operations. Each stop had four soldiers called a "stick". Nova Colônia do Sacramento, Uruguay (1680-1777)


community gold

Colonial War (1961–1974). Throughout the colonial war period Portugal had to deal with increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by most of the international community. *Gold Coast (Gold Coast (British colony)) → Ghana (1957) *Portuguese Guinea → Guinea-Bissau (1979) *British Guiana → Guyana (1966) After initiating the European slave trade in Sub-Saharan Africa through its involvement in the African slave trade, Portugal played


mozambique history

Troops Centre ''Caçadores Especiais'' (Special Hunters) of the Portuguese Army, the ''Caçadores Paraquedistas'' (Parachute Troops School) (Parachute Hunters) of the Portuguese Air Force, the ''Fuzileiros Especiais'' (Portuguese Marine Corps) (Special Marines) of the Portuguese Navy, the ''Flechas'' (Arrows) of the International and State Defense Police (PIDE) and the ''Grupos Especiais'' (Special Groups (Portugal)) (Special Groups) of the Government of Mozambique. History


football history

; ref ), during a time that in the European mainland only four public universities were in operation, two of them in Lisbon (which compares with the 14 Portuguese public universities today). Several figures in Portuguese society, including one of the most idolized sports stars in Portuguese football history, a black football player from Portuguese East Africa named Eusébio, were another examples of assimilation and multiracialism. Since 1961, with the beginning of the colonial wars


multiple quot

, Portuguese India and Timor issued war tax stamps. Scott volumes 4-6. '''Boe''' (full name '''Madina do Boe''') is a settlement in the southeastern region of Guinea-Bissau. In this location the independence of Guinea-Bissau was declared on September 24, 1973. Boe served as the Guinea-Bissau ''de facto'' capital until 1974, when Portugal offered independence to Portuguese Guinea after the Carnation Revolution


support role

Nova Colônia do Sacramento, Uruguay (1680-1777)


amp nearby

class put new pressures on the political system to liberalize. Instead, Salazar increased repression, and the regime became even more rigid and ossified (Wiktionary:ossified). list1 '''Former colonies''' list2 '''Africa & nearby Islands:''' Aguz (Souira Guedima) Souira Guedima, Morocco (1506-1525) Angola Portuguese West Africa (Portuguese Angola) (1575-1975) & Cabinda ( Cabinda Province


development studies

place on the morning of 25 April. Within a few hours Lisbon was completely occupied by troops loyal to the MFA. Prime Minister Marcello Caetano handed over power to General António de Spínola. As a consequence of 25 April 1974 the MFA mobilised the army and announced the three 'D's: Democratisation, Decolonisation and Development (Development studies). Portugal began establishing the first global trade network and empire (Portuguese Empire) under the leadership


national interest

effectively began with the uprisings in the overseas territories in Africa during the 1960s. The independence movements active in Portuguese Angola, Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea were supported by both the United States and the Soviet Union, which both wanted to end all colonial empires and expand their own spheres of influence. For the Portuguese ruling regime, the centuries-old overseas empire was a matter of national interest. The criticism against some

, and their peoples, more closely with Portugal itself. Colorblind Colonialism? Lusotropicalismo and Portugal’s 20th. Century Empire. in Africa. Leah Fine. Barnard College Department of History, Spring 2007 For the Portuguese ruling regime, the overseas empire was a matter of national interest. In Portuguese Africa, trained Portuguese black Africans were allowed to occupy positions in several occupations including

Portuguese Guinea

'''Portuguese Guinea''' ( ), called the '''Overseas Province of Guinea''' from 1951, was a West African colony of Portugal (Portuguese Empire) from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau.

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