Portuguese Guinea

What is Portuguese Guinea known for?


skill+technical

specialized military, administration, teaching, health and other posts in the civil service and private businesses, as long as they had the right technical (skill) and human qualities. In addition, intermarriage (interracial marriage) of black women with white Portuguese men was a common practice since the earlier contacts with the Europeans. The access to basic, secondary and technical education was being expanded and its availability was being increasingly opened to both


development programs

guerrillas and show to the Portuguese people and the world that the overseas territories were totally under control, the Portuguese government accelerated its major development programs to expand and upgrade the infrastructure of the overseas territories in Africa by creating new roads, railways, bridges, dams, irrigation systems, schools and hospitals to stimulate an even higher level of economic growth and support from the populace. ref name "Portuguese Mozambique development">


quot supporting

, were also signs of the so called "Winds of change" supporting and giving context to the emergence of independence movements in Portuguese Africa. Age of Discovery When the Portuguese began trading on the west coast of Africa, in the 15th century, they concentrated their energies on Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) and Angola (Angola (Portugal)). Hoping at first for gold, they soon found that slaves were the most valuable commodity available in the region for export


scale military

attempted to resist this tide and maintain the integrity of the Portuguese empire. By 1970, the anti-guerrilla war in Africa was consuming an important part of the Portuguese budget and there was no sign of a final solution in sight. This year was marked by a large-scale military operation in northern Mozambique, the Gordian Knot Operation, which displaced the FRELIMO's bases and destroyed much of the guerrillas' military capacity. At a military level, a part of Guinea-Bissau was de facto independent since 1973, but the capital and the major towns were still under Portuguese control. In Angola and Mozambique, independence movements were only active in a few remote countryside areas from where the Portuguese Army had retreated. However, their impending presence and the fact that they wouldn't go away dominated public anxiety. Throughout the war period Portugal had to deal with increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by most of the international community. A leftist military coup in Lisbon on 24 April 1974 by the ''Movimento das Forças Armadas'' (MFA), overthrow the Estado Novo (Estado Novo (Portugal)) regime headed by Prime-Minister Marcelo Caetano. History The city was founded in 1687 by Portugal as a fortified port and trading center. In 1942 it became the capital of Portuguese Guinea. After the declaration of independence by the anti-colonial guerrillas of PAIGC, in 1973, the capital of the ''de facto'' independent territories was declared to be Madina do Boe, but Bissau remained as the capital of the Portuguese-occupied regions, and the ''de jure'' capital of the entire Portuguese Guinea. When Portugal recognized the independence of Guinea-Bissau and pulled out in 1974 due to the military coup of April 25 (Carnation Revolution) in Lisbon, the two territories merged and Bissau became the capital of the new independent state. The city is known for its annual carnival. thumb upright left Monument du 22 Novembre 1970, Conakry Monument du 22 Novembre 1970 (File:Conakry-1970momunent.JPG) commemorating the victims of the 1970 Portuguese invasion In 1970, conflict between Portuguese forces and the PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde) in neighbouring Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea-Bissau) spilled into the Republic of Guinea when a group of 350 Portuguese troops and Guinean dissidents landed near Conakry, attacked the city (Portuguese invasion of Guinea, 1970), and freed 26 Portuguese prisoners of war held by the PAIGC before retreating, failing to overthrow the government or kill the PAIGC leadership. However, the first regular parachute unit was only created in 1955, by the Portuguese Air Force, as the Parachute ''Caçadores'' Battailon. This unit adopted the green beret, which has become, since then, the principal emblem of the Portuguese paratroopers. The Battailon was expanded to a Regiment and additional parachute battailons were created in the Portuguese overseas territories of Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea). These units were actively engaged in the Portuguese Colonial War, from 1961 to 1975, being involved both in airborne and air assault operations. In addition to the regular units of paratroopers, in Mozambique were also created the Parachute Special Groups (Special Groups (Portugal)), composed of African irregular troops who wore a maroon beret. In France, the heritage of ''slave name'' from the French and Europeans slave trade can be found in the West Indies (Roots), Haiti. In the 15th century, the rivers of Guinea and Cape Verde islands (Cape Verde) were among the first in Africa explored by the Portuguese. In 1446, Portugal claimed Portuguese Guinea(what is today Guinea-Bissau), but few posts had been established before 1600. In 1630, the Portuguese were settled and governed the territory. Cacheu had become one of the main centers of the (slave trade (Maafa)), which declined in the 19th century. Beyond the ''Comandos'', the Portuguese Armed (Portuguese Armed Forces) and Security Forces used several other commando type forces in the Colonial War in Angola, Mozambique and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea), like the ''Caçadores Especiais'' (Special Operations Troops Centre) (Special Hunters) of the Portuguese Army, the ''Caçadores Paraquedistas'' (Parachute Troops School) (Parachute Hunters) of the Portuguese Air Force, the ''Fuzileiros Especiais'' (Portuguese Marine Corps) (Special Marines) of the Portuguese Navy, the ''Flechas'' (Arrows) of the International and State Defense Police (PIDE) and the ''Grupos Especiais'' (Special Groups (Portugal)) (Special Groups) of the Government of Mozambique. History The Casamance was subject to both French and Portuguese colonial efforts before a border was negotiated in 1888 between the French colony of Senegal and Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea-Bissau) to the south. Portugal lost possession of Casamance, then the commercial hub of its colony Nova Colônia do Sacramento, Uruguay (1680-1777)


campaign building

Biographical Dictionary'', 1994, p. 73. By 1967, the PAIGC had carried out 147 attacks on Portuguese barracks and army encampments, and effectively controlled 2 3 of Portuguese Guinea. The following year, Portugal began a new campaign against the guerrillas with the arrival of the new governor of the colony, António de Spínola. Spínola began a massive construction campaign, building schools, hospitals, new housing (houses) and improving telecommunications and the road


community+gold

Colonial War (1961–1974). Throughout the colonial war period Portugal had to deal with increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by most of the international community. *Gold Coast (Gold Coast (British colony)) → Ghana (1957) *Portuguese Guinea → Guinea-Bissau (1979) *British Guiana → Guyana (1966) After initiating the European slave trade in Sub-Saharan Africa through its involvement in the African slave trade, Portugal played


studies+development

place on the morning of 25 April. Within a few hours Lisbon was completely occupied by troops loyal to the MFA. Prime Minister Marcello Caetano handed over power to General António de Spínola. As a consequence of 25 April 1974 the MFA mobilised the army and announced the three 'D's: Democratisation, Decolonisation and Development (Development studies). Portugal began establishing the first global trade network and empire (Portuguese Empire) under the leadership


football history

; ref ), during a time that in the European mainland only four public universities were in operation, two of them in Lisbon (which compares with the 14 Portuguese public universities today). Several figures in Portuguese society, including one of the most idolized sports stars in Portuguese football history, a black football player from Portuguese East Africa named Eusébio, were another examples of assimilation and multiracialism. Since 1961, with the beginning of the colonial wars


promoting+strong

countries supported the guerrillas with weapons and military training. The conflict in Portuguese Guinea involving the PAIGC guerrillas and the Portuguese Army was the most intense and damaging of all Portuguese Colonial War. Thus, during the 1960s and early 1970s, Portuguese development plans promoting strong economic growth and effective socioeconomic policies, like those applied by the Portuguese in the other two theaters of war (Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique


major feature

the Atlantic coast of Africa. Muslim merchants had a high demand for slaves, which were used as porters on the trans-Saharan routes, and for sale in the Islamic Empire. The Portuguese found Muslim merchants entrenched along the African coast as far as the Bight of Benin. H. Miner, ''The City in Modern Africa'' - 1967 Before the arrival of the Europeans, the African slave trade was not yet the major feature of the coastal economy of Guinea, and it developed after the Portuguese reached this region in 1446. The Portuguese used slave labour to colonize and develop the previously uninhabited Cape Verde islands where they founded settlements and grew cotton and indigo. They then traded these goods, in the estuary of the Geba River, for slaves which were sold in Europe and, from the 16th century, in the Americas. The Company of Guinea was a Portuguese government institution, whose task was to deal with the spices and to fix the prices of the goods. It was called ''Casa da Guiné'', ''Casa da Guiné e Mina'' from 1482 to 1483 and ''Casa da Índia e da Guiné'' in 1499. The local African rulers in Guinea, who prospered greatly from the slave trade, had no interest in allowing the Europeans any further inland than the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place. The Portuguese presence in Guinea was therefore largely limited to the port of Bissau. Nova Colônia do Sacramento, Uruguay (1680-1777)

Portuguese Guinea

'''Portuguese Guinea''' ( ), called the '''Overseas Province of Guinea''' from 1951, was a West African colony of Portugal (Portuguese Empire) from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau.

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