flavor of Portuguese heritage under the influence of other European immigrants and a variety of other ethnic groups. It is one of the richest cities in the country, the state capital with the highest life quality and literacy rate (97%), and the book capital of Brazil. Gaúchos, as natives of Rio Grande do Sul state are known, are very proud of their land and culture. In 1835 a revolution which declared Rio Grande do Sul independent from Brazil broke out, the most significant national conflict of the Brazilian Empire (1822-1889), named the Farroupilha Revolution or Farrapos War. This war wreaked havoc across the entire state during 10 bloody years, killing nearly 20% of Gaúchos and ultimately leading to a peace treaty where the República Riograndense once again became part of Brazil. Another major Brazilian revolution also began in Rio Grande do Sul. The Federalist Revolution of 1893 defended the decentralization of powers and greater autonomy for the states, and only finished in 1895, after spreading to two other states. It was also in Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre) where the 1930 Revolution which overthrew the president Washington Luis began, and so was from Rio Grande do Sul the most important Brazilian communist revolutionary of all times: Luis Carlos Prestes, who led the nation-wide communist upheaval in 1935. For such reasons, among many others, Gaúchos are particularly proud of their mother state, many considering themselves different from other Brazilians. Currently, Porto Alegre is a service centered city in between the industrial part of the state (north-east) and the rural part (south). It is also called the "Mercosul Capital". Get in thumb right Salgado Filho International Airport in Porto Alegre has flights throughout South America, and flights to Lisbon and Miami. (File:Salgado Filho07.jpg) thumb right The TRENSURB in Porto Alegre. (File:TUE TRENSURB 113.JPG) thumb 300px right Porto Alegre TRENSURB station map. (File:Trensurb portoalegre.png) By plane Porto Alegre's International Airport is Salgado Filho (POA), located 4.3 miles (7km) from downtown. Flights come from and go to cities such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Curitiba, Florianópolis, Foz do Iguaçu, Montevideo, Córdoba (Cordoba (city, Argentina)), Rosario, Buenos Aires, Santiago de Chile, Lima, Panama City and Lisbon. It's served by all major Brazilian airlines (Azul, TAM, Gol Varig, Webjet, Oceanair), regional ones ( NHT and Trip) and international airlines TAP Portugal, COPA, TACA, Pluna and Aerolineas Argentinas. There is a train station (known as ''trensurb'' by locals) and bus stops near the airport. However, it is recommended to take a cab ("taxi" for locals) in order to leave the airport, because the nearby ''trensurb'' station is not exactly close to the airport facility and available buses don't take you downtown. Cab rides can be a little pricey, so you can opt to take a bus to a place near your destination and get a cab from there. The airport facility is modern (built in 2001) and has a shopping-like structure, with restaurants, shops and even movie theaters. *Salgado Filho International Airport (POA) By train Trains serve only the metropolitan area. Locals call it ''trensurb'' and services are limited, with only one line connecting Downtown to some metropolitan cities (Canoas, Esteio, Sapucaia do Sul and São Leopoldo). The fare is R$1,85 and there's a station near Rodoviaria (central bus station) and the airport. It is more or less safe to walk during day time from Rodoviaria or the airport to the stations. An automated people mover connects the first floor of the terminal to the local train station. By car Coming from the North (Florianópolis (Florianopolis), Curitiba, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro), one may reach Porto Alegre by two ways. BR-116 is shorter, but much more dangerous. This road is used to reach other destinations in Rio Grande do Sul, such as Caxias do Sul, Gramado and Canela. BR-116 also connects all major metropolitan cities and traffic jams are frequent during rush hours in weekdays. The other way to get to Porto Alegre from the North is using BR-101 to Osório and then BR-290. The first connects Curitiba, Florianópolis (Florianopolis) and Osório, and is being upgraded to highway standards; the latter crosses Rio Grande do Sul from Osório to Uruguaiana, through Porto Alegre. The section between Osório and Porto Alegre is called ''free-way'' by locals, and is a very well-maintained 6-lane toll-road. Also, in neighbouring Canoas, BR-386 begins, connecting the metropolitan area with other major cities in the countryside, such as Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Maria (Santa Maria (Rio Grande do Sul)) and Passo Fundo. It has 4 lanes up to Tabaí and it is in decent conditions. From the South, coming from cities such as Pelotas, Rio Grande, and Chuí, one would use BR-116. From the East, Porto Alegre is reachable by BR-290 from Uruguaiana and Argentina. Using this road, it's possible to reach southern cities such as Bagé and Santana do Livramento. This section of BR-290 shares a stretch with BR-116, from Guaíba's Bridge up to Eldorado do Sul interchange. Be advised that some of these roads are dangerous due to their poor signaling conditions and lots of trucks. Most of them are toll-roads and have electronic speed traps. Schedule your travels by car during the day; it is simply safer. By bus thumb left The Porto Alegre interstate bus station (rodoviária). (File:Rodoviária de Porto Alegre 00.JPG) The long distance bus station is located downtown and is served by state, national and international lines. Daily services connects Porto Alegre with several cities inside the country and also Argentina, Uruguay, Chile and Paraguay. It is also connected to a ''trensurb'' station and several municipal bus lines. *Rodoviária de Porto Alegre (in Portuguese). Information on interstate lines and schedules. By boat Besides its decent port facilities for cargo, a ferry service connects downtown and Barra Shopping Sul to Guaiba, a neighbour city situated across the Guaiba Estuary, known as Rio Guaiba. The crossing takes 20 minutes and costs R$ 7.35 each way. Checking the schedule beforehand is recommended. Get around The city is roughly a semi-circle that expanded outward in a concentric manner, beginning from the historical city center, right next to the promontory and the harbor. Avenues going from the center to the outer areas of the semi-circle are the ''radiais'' (radials) and are crossed by avenues named ''perimetrais'' (perimeters). Hence, to go to and from downtown one will use mostly the former, whereas to go from one neighborhood to another, one uses the latter. Buses thumb The Carris company provides municipal bus transport in Porto Alegre. (File:0561.JPG) To understand the bus system, one must consider the above description. All lines are identified as "(prefix)-number name neighborhood". Currently, almost all lines are radial, that is, they connect an outer neighborhood to the various downtown terminals. Those lines have no prefix. It is quite common to switch buses at downtown but, considering there is a myriad of lines there, it can be challenging to find the right terminal to hop on the next bus. '''Transversal''' lines (prefix "T" - T1, T2, ..., T11), connect different neighborhood without going through the downtown area, effectively eliminating the need of changing buses for the most common trips. '''Circular''' lines (prefix "C" - C1, C2, C3), as the name indicates, run in a circular manner, usually connecting parts of the downtown area to the nearest neighborhoods. There is a map with all the buses online: http: lproweb.procempa.com.br pmpa prefpoa eptc usu_doc mapa_linhas.pdf Also all stops are listed here: http: www.eptc.com.br EPTC_Itinerarios linha.asp Together with google maps this can give you a clue. Unfortunately, it is very hard to find bus stops with indication of lines' destinations or timetables. Hence, when in doubt, the easiest way is to ask the locals which bus will get you to you destination. Porto Alegre's buses are, in most cases, clean, safe and fast, specially when the line uses the ''bus corridor'', a reserved lane with special stops in main avenues, effectively avoiding traffic jams. In order to use the bus, you must be at a bus stop and signal or wave your hand to the arriving bus you want to ride (they will not stop unless waved upon!). The fare must be paid to the ''cobrador'' before crossing the turnstile located inside the bus. Fares may be paid either in cash or using a smartcard system named ''TRI''. ''TRI''-users get discounts in consecutive trips - currently, a fifty percent discount is granted to the second trip within half an hour. Current fares are listed below: class "wikitable" !class !! fare !! remarks - infant free must pass under or over the turnstile - student R$ 1,40 must use a special TRI card - adult R$ 2,85 second trip is R$ 1,35 (with TRI) - resident senior (60y-) free must use a special TRI card - senior (65y-) free any document proving age is enough Lotação The ''Lotação'' is an alternative transportation system, with fewer lines, served by vans with up to 20 people in capacity, where one can hop on and off at any point (i.e. outside designated stops) of the trip. The fare is R$4.25 for everyone. The vans are easily recognized by their "red and blue" colour. If you're not sure if a lotação goes to the destination you want to go, just wave your hand, wait until it stops and FROM THE STREET ask the driver if it goes to your destination (for instance to go to Iguatemi Mall just say Iguatemi?), don't go in just to ask otherwise the driver might ask you to pay the fare since the counter is measured on the stairs near the door. Taxis thumb Taxis outside of the Porto Alegre interstate bus station (rodoviária). (File:Taxis Rodoviaria de Porto Alegre.jpg) There are plenty of taxis. They can be pricey, if compared to other towns, but they are also an easier, safer and more dependable option than buses in some cases. To ride a cab, one can walk to the nearest "taxi stop" (usually in crowded areas or points of interest), wave for an empty passing cab or call a tele-táxi service. Tele-táxi may charge extra for this service. The price of the fare is determined by a machine called ''taxímetro'', usually in front of the passenger seat. There is always a minimum price, which is shown when the machine is reset for the trip, which is, as 2011, R$3,50. Next to the value, there is a "flag" indicator that shows the level of price being paid, always according to the service. Usually there is a table inside of the cab explaining each level of service. It is recommended to check if the correct level is being charged in the beginning of the trip, in order to avoid problems when you reach your destination. Walking Walking around is a reasonable idea only inside a given neighborhood or downtown, as opposed to from one neighborhood to another, as they are usually too far apart. Walking during the night in most parts of the city is outright dangerous. During the day, it is recommended to pay attention to your belongings at all times, due to activity of pickpockets and other thieves. Avoid parks at night. Porto Alegre is a dangerous city at global levels. Be advised that pedestrian crossings, most of the time, are '''completely ignored''' by the vast majority of drivers; never rely on them without looking or making sure the driver will stop. It is also not recommended to cross the street outside the proper crossing areas in traffic jams: motorbike riders usually split between stopped cars, causing a great risk to pedestrians. See '''Linha Turismo''' is a tourist bus line that rides through 11 neighbourhoods and shows the main attractions of the city (parks, trees, statues, hospitals, churches, etc.), with audio guides in three languages. The trip is 28km long and lasts for about 1h20min, and the arrival is at the same departure address. From Tuesdays to Sundays (holidays included), at 9AM, 10:30AM, 1:30PM, 3PM and 4:30m (winter) or 10:30AM, 1:30PM, 3PM, 4:30PM and 6PM (summer). The tickets cost 5 reais for the lower floor and 7 reais for the superior one (which has no ceiling). Travessa do Carmo Street 84, phones +55 51 3213-3464 and +55 51 3212-1628: *'''Monumento aos Açorianos''' (Açorianos monument) - It is a 17m high monument in the memory of the people from the island of Azores, who were the first to settle in Porto Alegre. * '''Santuário Mãe de Deus''', Rua do Santuário 400, Bairro Cascata (''accessible from Av. Oscar Pereira''): A beautiful church almost unknown by most ''porto-alegrenses''. It is placed in an great location, with nice views of Porto Alegre and nearby cities landscapes. Built in 1992, it has a modern architecture and engineering, designed to support the strong winds of the location. It is somewhat difficult to get to this place, for there are no buses near and a cab ride from downtown would be pricey. However, if you rent a car in Porto Alegre, it's worth trying. * '''Usina do Gasômetro''': is an old powerplant built in 1928 which was refurnished recently and now hosts movie theaters and art expositions. During the sunset, lots of people get together in front of the Usina to watch the sun diving into Rio Guaíba (Guaiba river). Museums & Art thumb 180px Fundação Iberê Camargo (Image:FundacaoIbereCamargo.JPG) * WikiPedia:Porto Alegre commons:Porto Alegre
Chávez was first elected under the provisions of the 1961 Constitution in the presidential election (Venezuelan presidential election, 1998) of 6 December 1998. Chávez had been contemplating a constitutional convention for Venezuela as an ideal means to rapidly bring about sweeping and radical social change to Venezuela beginning from the eve of his 1992 coup attempt. Chávez would state later that: Punk The Brazilian punk rock (Punk in Brazil) scene was born in the late 1970s in São Paulo and Brasília with Restos de Nada (:pt:Restos de Nada), AI-5 (:pt:AI-5 (banda)), Joelho de Porco (:pt:Joelho de Porco), Condutores de Cadáver (:pt:Condutores de Cadáver), and Aborto Elétrico, among others. The first show was in 1978 in São Paulo and the punk "boom" was when the 1980s began, with Inocentes, Cólera, Ratos de Porão, Garotos Podres, Plebe Rude, ''Ignoze'', Olho Seco (:pt:Olho Seco), Mercenárias, Lobotomia, Ulster (:pt:Ulster (banda)), Fogo Cruzado, Coquetel Molotov (:pt:Coquetel Molotov (banda)) (from Rio de Janeiro), Replicantes (:pt:Os Replicantes) (from Porto Alegre), Devotos (:pt:Devotos) (or ''Devotos do Ódio'', from Recife), Beijo AA Força (from Curitiba), and many others, mostly from São Paulo (São Paulo (city)). - Porto Alegre WikiPedia:Porto Alegre commons:Porto Alegre
–1960). In 1961 he was transferred to the National Security Council. While teaching at the Army General Staff Command College (1961–1964), Figueiredo was promoted to colonel and appointed the department head in the National Information Service. In 1966 he assumed the command of public defense force in São Paulo. In 1967–1969 he commanded a regiment in Rio de Janeiro and was promoted to general. When General Emílio Garrastazú Médici assumed the presidency, Figueiredo was appointed head of the president's military staff (October 30, 1969 – March 15, 1974). - 1. December 16, 1992 Estádio Olímpico Monumental, Porto Alegre, Brazil WikiPedia:Porto Alegre commons:Porto Alegre
eats fish and chicken. ''Comida por quilo'' and all-you-can eat restaurants prepare a wide range of fresh dishes. Diners can more easily find food in such restaurants that satisfies dietary restrictions. Venues Brazil does not have a home national stadium like many other national teams and as such rotate their home World Cup qualifying (FIFA World Cup) matches through various venues: the Estádio do Maracanã or Estádio Olímpico João Havelange in Rio de Janeiro, the Estádio do
, from 10AM to 7PM. There's a permanent collection and an area that is often receiving new exhibitions. There's also a bistro and a store that sells art books and souvenirs. Admission is free. *
* '''SBPB''' (PHB) – Parnaíba-Prefeito Dr. João Silva Filho International Airport – Piauí, Parnaíba At Grêmio, Paulo Nunes lived the most glorious time in career, winning two Campeonato Gaúcho titles, the Copa Libertadores cup, the Campeonato Brasileiro, the Recopa Sul-Americana (Recopa Sudamericana) and the Copa do Brasil for the Porto Alegre team and being the lead scorer in the 1996 Campeonato Brasileiro and the 1997 Copa do Brasil. His good
, peaches, rice and cassava grown on rural smallholdings. The shoe and leather industries are also important, especially in Novo Hamburgo, in the Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre. In recent years, Porto Alegre hosted the World Social Forum, an initiative of several non-government organizations. The city became famous for being the first city that implemented participatory budgeting. WikiPedia:Porto Alegre commons:Porto Alegre
plan that works and activities program broken down by investment sector, by region and around the city. Also according to Fedozzi, this favors: Fedozzi, Luciano. "Esfera pública e cidadania: a experiência do Orçamento Participativo de Porto Alegre". In: ''Ensaios FEE''. Porto Alegre, Vol. 19, No 2, 1998. pp. 237; 256 Costa, Giseli Paim. "Um Estudo sobre Cidadania e Políticas Públicas em Porto Alegre". In: ''Revista Brasileira de Gestão e
attractions there. Go next thumb Gramado (File:Gramado portao.jpg) is a German-themed tourist city in the Serra Gaúcha that is about 105km from Porto Alegre (under 2 hours by car, although you may spend more time driving through the beautiful cities of the Rota Romântica or Romantic Route). thumb Aparados da Serra National Park. (File:Parque Nacional de Aparados da Serra.JPG) thumb The São Miguel das Missões (File:Missões jesuíticas em São Miguel das Missões, RS.jpg) historic 18th century Jesuit mission is just under 500km from Porto Alegre (a little over 7 hours by car). *'''Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra''' (Monkey Canyons)- 120 miles from Porto Alegre going on BR101 by Praia Grande SC or RS-020 by Cambará. Thousands of square miles of exuberant nature teeming with life. Miles of escarpments, innumerable waterfalls, rushing streams in an area absolutely undisturbed by human intervention--comprising not only tropical forest zones, but also the coastal, high plateau. And the coast--visible from the canyon’s rim. The unforgettable landscape is the result of immense volcanic eruptions more than 130 million years ago. For travel information, contact the RS Tourist Bureau or planitbrazil.com (US)925-270-4190 *São Miguel das Missões - Near the border with Argentina, has a UNESCO-listed World Heritage Site (UNESCO World Heritage List) *Gramado - a German-themed tourist city in the Serra Gaúcha. This is a great city to visit during Christmas (November through early January). *Caminhos de Pedra in Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul - Visit original houses of Italian immigrants in the region along this road. Many of the homes have been converted into restaurants and stores selling wine, grape juice, other products derived from grapes and arts and crafts from the Serra Gaúcha region. General Information The voltage is 110v. The area code of Porto Alegre is 51 Rio Grande do Sul has come to be the champion in armed civil population. There is a culture of gun glorification in Porto Alegre, fruited in a past rural mentality. Useful Phone Numbers Police (Military Brigade):190 Ambulance:192 Firefighters: 193 Civil Defense: 199 Civil Police: 197 Federal Police: 194 Transport and Circulation Public Business: 118 Telephone Assistance: 102 (To know area codes and international codes of countries) Climate Humid climate with four well-defined seasons. Average annual temperature of 19°C Winter (June to September): between -1°C e 19°C. Changeable temperatures, warm days with temperature of upwards of 30°C are not uncommon. Summer (December to March): between 20°C e 38°C Fall (April to June): between 7°C e 25°C Spring (September to November): between 10°C e 30°C Health In the case you need help, go to the Hospital Municipal de Pronto Socorro (HPS). Public, conventional, and private patient services. In the case that you need immediate help, call an ambulance at 192 (SAMU system). Located in Largo Teodora Herzl (corner of Avenida Osvaldo Aranha, Bom Fim neighborhood). Maintain Contact For national calls, press 0+ operator code + area code (DDD) + telephone number -For national cover calls, press 90+ operator code + area code (DDD) + telephone number -For international calls, press 00 + operator code + country code + city code + telephone number To make phone calls, the Integration Phone Station is also available (Avenida Borges de Medeiros 332 – Centro) from Monday to Friday, 8AM til 8PM, and Saturday, 9AM til 6PM. The cellphone companies that serve Rio Grande do Sul are: Vivo, Claro, TIM and Brasil Telecom (OI). Recharging cards for these carriers can be found in a variety of places like supermarkets and pharmacies. Brasil Telecom (Oi) frees up public phones throughout the city. They operate through special cards that can be acquired at the company’s store or in newsstands. WikiPedia:Porto Alegre commons:Porto Alegre
with the landowners and charge MST members with offences quoted by some as "frivolous and bizarre"; Wilder Robles-Cameron, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Guelph. Dept. of Sociology & Anthropology, 2007: ''Peasant mobilization, land reform and agricultural co-operativism in Brazil''. page 160. Available at for instance, in the particular case of a 2004 land occupation
'''Porto Alegre''' ( local
Porto Alegre was founded in 1769 by Manuel Jorge Gomes de Sepúlveda, who used the pseudonym José Marcelino de Figueiredo to hide his identity; but the official date is 1772 with the act signed by immigrants (Immigration to Brazil) from the Azores, Portugal. In the late 19th century the city received many immigrants from other parts of the world, particularly from Germany, Italy, and Poland. The vast majority of the population is of European (European Brazilian) descent.
The city lies on the eastern bank of the Rio Guaiba (Guaiba Lake), where five rivers converge to form the Lagoa dos Patos (Lagoon of the Ducks), a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This five-river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial center of Brazil.
The port of Porto Alegre is important for transporting local produce. The "capital gaúcha (Gaucho)" has a broad-based economy that lays particular emphasis on agriculture and industry. Agricultural production includes produce such as plums, peaches, rice and cassava grown on rural smallholdings. The shoe and leather industries are also important, especially in Novo Hamburgo, in the Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre.
In recent years, Porto Alegre hosted the World Social Forum, an initiative of several non-government organizations. The city became famous for being the first city that implemented participatory budgeting. The 9th Assembly of the World Council of Churches was held in Porto Alegre in 2006. Since 2000, Porto Alegre also hosts one of the world's largest free software events, called FISL.
The city is one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, having previously been a venue for the 1950 FIFA World Cup.