Popayán

What is Popayán known for?


unusual+strength

who demanded a day of rest in which they would be truly free. To preserve social peace, the Spanish Crown granted to this end the 5 January: That news was announced by Proclame in Popayán and thus was 5 January declared free day for people of color, the black population of the capital of Cauca (Cauca Department) took to the streets dancing to African music and began to paint the famous black-white walls of that town. Later this custom was watered to the south, taking an unusual

strength in the cold city of Pasto, where the chronicler José Maria Córdoba Moure, said that there are traces of it was played as early as 1854.


strong+construction

) neighborhood which was previously extremely difficult to cross, requiring pedestrians to almost crawl on their knees. Accordingly the new bridge was named ''Humilladero''. For a long time this bridge was one of the main entrances to the city. The liberating armies crossed it to enter Popayán during the early stages of the struggle for Colombia independence. Its well-planned design and strong construction has allowed the bridge to remain intact through many earthquakes. Churches


important social

This town is well-known because of its beautiful colonial architecture and its contributions to Colombian cultural and political life. It is also known as the "white city" due to the color of the most of colonial houses and places in the city downtown, where several churches are located, such as San Francisco, San José, Belén, Santo Domingo, San Agustín, and the Catedral Basílica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, known locally as "La Catedral". The city's cathedral was home to the Crown of the Andes, a 16th-century Marianist devotional object featuring emeralds taken from the captured Inca Emperor Atahualpa before its sale to finance local health care institutions. Much of the city's original splendor was destroyed on 31 March 1983, when an earthquake (1983 Popayán earthquake) toppled many buildings. Though many of them were rebuilt and repaired, the heart of the city still bears ruins and empty lots since the disaster. Popayán has been home to seventeen Colombian presidents, as well as noted poets, painters, and composers. The University of Cauca (est. 1827), one of Colombia's oldest and most distinguished institutions of higher education, is located here; that is why Popayán is also known as the "University City." Nearby is Puracé National Natural Park, a geothermal wonderland of hot springs, waterfalls, and an inactive volcano from which the park derives its name. The nearest large city is Cali, in the Valle del Cauca Department, to the north of Cauca. In 2005, Popayán was declared by the UNESCO as the first city of gastronomy because of its variety and meaning to the intangible patrimony of Colombian culture. Popayan, Colombia appointed first UNESCO City of Gastronomy UNESCO 28 Aug 2005 The culinary history of the Cauca Department was chosen because of their maintaining of traditional methods of food preparation which has been passed over through different generations orally. On 2009 September 28, UNESCO also declared the processions of the Easter Week processions as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Patrimony of Humanity. History Name origin The word Popayán comes from a Native American (Indigenous peoples of the Americas) dialect. There are some theories about the origin of this word, one claims it means: Po: Two; Pa: Straw; Yan: Village, or Two Villages with Straw Roofs. Another theory says that the word Popayán comes from the name of the Payán indigenous leader, who used to live around Eme Hill, nowadays known as Las Tres Cruces Hill. Yet another theory says that according to the historian Arcecio Aragón, the origin of the word Popayán is "Pampayán" and it comes from the Quechua (Quechua languages) language: ''pampa'' (valley) and ''yan'' (river), or in other words, the pass of the river, the Cauca river. Colonial Era thumb 200px Popayán downtown (File:Centro Histórico 2.JPG) There are no records regarding the pre-Hispanic (Pre-Columbian era) history of the indigenous village of Popayán, but on 13 January 1537 the Spanish conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar came to the conquered village and declared the foundation of Popayán. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Popayán was administered by an appointed governor under the jurisdiction of the Royal Audience of Quito. Popayán was a very important town during the colonial period because of its location between Lima, Quito and Cartagena (Cartagena, Colombia). Even after the discovery of the Pacific Ocean, Popayán remained a transfer point of gold and riches going to Cartagena on its way to Spain. Popayán also served as a colonial mine, producing various denominations of the Escudo gold coins and silver Reales from 1760 through 1819; it continued producing coinage for the new Republic of Colombia after 1826. Krause "World Coins 1701-1800" 4th Ed and "1801-1900" 5th Ed, Colin R. Bruce II, Sr. editor thumb left 140px Popayán downtown (File:Centro Histórico 1.JPG) Natives populated the town before the arrival of the Spanish. Next to the city there is still a huge mound built by the Indians (Indigenous peoples of the Americas), similar to a pyramid and now covered by grass; legend says the inner structure holds richness and gold. Later, Spanish immigrants settled next to the Indians taking advantage of their good heartedness and cheap labor, and Catholicism was taught to the Indians in exchange for their gold and work. As a result of its colonial importance, Popayán is one of the most traditional Colombian towns and is very rich in Colonial architecture. Although in 1983 an earthquake (1983 Popayán earthquake) destroyed part of the city, there are still several colonial bridges, museums and churches in the town. The city is the home of an ancient pre-Hispanic (Pre-Columbian era) pyramid known as El Morro del Tulcán. It was already abandoned when the first Spanish arrived to the city in 1535. Analyses of dental samples have revealed that individuals buried there probably belonged to the most important social class from their Indian society. Popayán has been destroyed by several earthquakes. The most recent and destructive lasted eighteen seconds and occurred on 31 March 1983. The reconstruction of the colonial city took more than 10 years and today it is still possible to see some lots that have not been reconstructed. The first earthquake seismic design code (Seismic analysis) was established in Colombia as a consequence of this earthquake. The Antique City Popayán's Historic Downtown is considered one of the most beautiful and best preserved in Colombia and Latin America. Popayán has preserved its colonial architecture for more than four centuries, a reason why national Colombian and foreign visitors are seduced by its historic downtown. The cobblestone streets were almost all paved in 1937; however, there are a few projects which are currently being implemented to recover the old city's original look. Places of interest thumb right 200px El Morro, in the background (File:El Morro de Tulcán.JPG) El Morro de Tulcán It is the main archaeological site of Popayán. It consists of a truncated pyramid built in prehistoric times, approximately between 500 and 1600 A.C., a period known as late chiefdom societies. In 1937 to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the foundation of the city, a monument was opened in 1937 at the top of the hill in honor of the founder of the city, Sebastián de Belalcázar, with an equestrian statue made by the Spanish artist Victorio Macho. Francisco José de Caldas Auditorium Better known as the Paraninfo, it is an imposing building of the mid eighteenth century and it was part of the monastery of the Dominican order until 1826. First, it was built with a mud and straw roof, then it was reinforced over the years with rammed earth and tile, until it became a colonial architecture expression again. Simón Bolivar declared it in 1827 as a property with historic heritage value, when it was already a two steps hose in front of the Santo Domingo plaza. The last great governor of Cauca (Cauca Department), don Miguel de Arroyo Hurtado, made more renovations and reforms that gave it the most current look. When the building was handed over to the University of Cauca in the early twentieth century, several changes and additional extensions were made, which recovered all the original spaces. thumb right 200px Caldas Park (File:Parque Caldas 1.JPG) Caldas Park This park, common passageway of students, executives, and all citizens, and cultural reunion place, it was born at the same time as Popayán in 1537, when the track in grid generated around religious, governmental, and founders buildings. Initially it was used as a marketplace. In 1538 it was placed a trap in the center of the park, where Jorge Robledo y Álvaro Oyón were beheaded. This trap lasted until 1766 when it was replaced by a faucet of water, which lasted until 1805 when a stone pile was put in its place, but it was removed too in 1910 after the inauguration of the monument to Sabio Caldas, a piece of the French sculptor Raoul Verlet, which has remained since that time in the same place. There exists a replica located in the Plazoleta de las Nieves in Bogotá. At the same time there were planted leafy trees which currently round up the monument and embellish this place. In May 2007 a proposal of architect Lorenzo Castro was made to remodel Caldas Park by expanding the pedestrian zone around the park, and in April 2009 the first phase of the work in the park began, in preparation for the celebration of Easter, a touristic time for Popayán. thumb left 200px Humanities Faculty of University of Cauca (File:Unicauca - El Carmen 1.jpg) University of Cauca thumb 200px Clock Tower (File:Torre del Reloj de la Catedral.jpg) It is the main university of Popayán, which gathers students from around the country. It was founded in 1827 by decree of General Francisco de Paula Santander. Its motto is Posteris Lumen Moriturus Edat. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the main headquarters have been placed in the old convent of the Dominican Order, cloister which is one of the best examples of religious architecture (Sacred architecture) in the city. Clock Tower Called “the nose of Popayán” by Master Guillermo Valencia, the clock tower is a well known symbol of the city. It was constructed next to the Cathedral church between 1673 and 1682 with 96 thousand bricks. The clock, made in England, was placed in 1737. Its mechanism operated by the action of two lead weights which were changed by Antonio Nariño in the Colombia independence dispute in 1814, when metal was required to manufacture ammunition. thumb 200px Humilladero Bridge (Image:El Humilladero.jpg) After the earthquake of 1983, the clock was restored and put back in operation by the same English company that manufactured it, but it stopped working a long time ago. Humilladero Bridge This bridge connects the central and northern zones of the city. It was built in 1873 on arches of brick and masonry. The designs were prepared by the Italian friar Fray Serafin Barbetti and a German engineer whose mummified remains are preserved in the Archdiocesan Museum of Religious Art in the city. The bridge crosses a fault between the city center and the El Callejón (now Bolivar) neighborhood which was previously extremely difficult to cross, requiring pedestrians to almost crawl on their knees. Accordingly the new bridge was named ''Humilladero''. For a long time this bridge was one of the main entrances to the city. The liberating armies crossed it to enter Popayán during the early stages of the struggle for Colombia independence. Its well-planned design and strong construction has allowed the bridge to remain intact through many earthquakes. Churches thumb 200px San Francisco church (File:Iglesia San Francisco 2.JPG) San Francisco According to the architect, critic and historian Germain Téllez, the facade of this church is the best example of baroque style (Baroque architecture) throughout Colombia. In its tower is placed a famous bell donated by Don Pedro Agustín de Valencia. This temple is remarkable because of its altars decorations and its naves and apse proportions. In the San Francisco's square, it stands the monument to the local hero Camilo Torres (Camilo Torres Tenorio), whose replica is located in the square of the Colegio Mayor de San Bartolomé in Bogotá. Santo Domingo Late Neogranadino Baroque (Baroque architecture) work, designed by the Spanish architect Antonio Garcia. It has excellent examples of architectures, metal works, and furniture from Quito and Spain schools. His pulpit was designed in the first half of the nineteenth century by an illustrious son of the city, the Wise Francisco José de Caldas. Next this church is located the faculty of Laws and Political and Social Sciences of the University of Cauca. Whose style is colonial (Spanish Colonial architecture) too. thumb 200px Santo Domingo church (File:Facultad de Santo Domingo.JPG) San Agustín, Church and convent Fray Jeronimo Escobar founded the convent of the Augustinians in the late seventeenth century, whose temple was destroyed in the earthquake in 1736. Then, it was reconstructed thanks to contributions from notable people of the city, but it was necessary to restore it again after the earthquake of 1983. In particular it stands out its altar carved in wood and covered in gold, its expository baroque (Baroque architecture) made in silver and a beautiful image of the Lady of Sorrows (Our Lady of Sorrows). La Ermita It is the oldest church in the city and sometimes it served as “Pro Tempore” Cathedral. It dates from 1546 and contains a fine altar discovered after the earthquake of 1983. The principal attraction of this church is the street because its road is made of stones, like old roads in Popayán. Catedral Basílica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción thumb left 200px Catedral Basílica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción Church (Image:Torre-del-Reloj Popayan.jpg) Originally it was a straw hut, but in 1609 it was opened a second cathedral of mud and masonry. The current construction was consecrated in 1906 by Archbishop Manuel Antonio Arboleda, who brings it a magnificent European pipe organ. Its style is the neoclassical (Neoclassical architecture), and much of the building was restored because of the earthquake of 1983, including the great dome of 40 meters high, whose restoration was made according to guidelines of the original structure designed by the local artist Adolfo Dueñas. San José thumb 200px Belén Church (Image:Iglesia belen.jpg) It was built in 1702 according to the architectural guidelines of the Jesuits (Society of Jesus) in the American Baroque (Baroque architecture). It has put up with some changes, for example, the most recent occurred in 1983, when much of the facade which had been covered with paint and lime for at least two centuries, was left on view. Belén Chapel It is located on the hill of Belén, and from the chapel you can see a panoramic view of the city. To arrive to this church, it is necessary to pass through the “quingos", a road of stone steps that allow a nice climb to one of the viewpoints of the city. Since 1717 this chapel is in charge of the image of Santo Ecce Homo, patron saint of the city. Next to the church there is a cross of quarry stone of 1789, which are attributed to many legends. The original church was completely replaced by a new structure after the earthquake of 1983. Museums House-Museum Mosquera This house displays a very interesting collection of colonial art and precious memories of the Mosquera family. It works in the house that belonged to the Mosquera Arboleda family, a recognized family in the history of Colombia, whose members occupied the highest positions of political power, ecclesiastical, military and diplomatic, simultaneously during much of the nineteenth century. The most important were: Joaquín Mosquera, Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera, Manuel José Mosquera and Manuel Maria Mosquera. The father of them all, Jose Maria Mosquera y Figueroa, was considered by the Liberator Simón Bolívar as the only person he would choose as a second parent. Archdiocesan Museum of Religious Art The old residence of the Arboleda family, was built in the eighteenth century based on plans of the priest Andres Perez Marcelino Arroyo, and it was acquired by the city in 1974 and renovated for its current use in 1979. Their collections are extraordinary examples of religious art, silverware, pictures of the so-called Quito School and paintings of the colonial period. Monstrances of the collection have such value that they are only exposed to the public for a few days during Easter. National Museum Guillermo Valencia It is located in a mansion on the Próceres Street, and it is dedicated to the poet Guillermo Valencia, one of the most prominent members of Modernism in Spanish literature. Its numerous rooms are decorated with valuable works of art and artistic pieces, as well as a collection of hundred of selected books, diplomas, medals and awards that Master Valencia received for his distinguished political life and for its fine literary and poetic compositions. In the park located across the street it stands the statue of the poet, made by the Spanish sculptor Victorio Macho. It has too a family cemetery where the remains of several generations of Valencia are resting. Natural History Museum It offers an exhibition of animals, like insects, butterflies and birds native to the region, and a collection of pre-Columbian pottery. Arts and culture thumb left 200px Paso (File:Paso 1.jpg) Easter File:Paso de La Verónica.jpg thumb 200px La


metal works

hero Camilo Torres (Camilo Torres Tenorio), whose replica is located in the square of the Colegio Mayor de San Bartolomé in Bogotá. Santo Domingo Late Neogranadino Baroque (Baroque architecture) work, designed by the Spanish architect Antonio Garcia. It has excellent examples of architectures, metal works, and furniture from Quito and Spain schools. His pulpit was designed in the first half of the nineteenth century by an illustrious son of the city, the Wise Francisco


large black

Department Cauca DATE OF DEATH October 5, 1816 - Popayán align center PPN align center SKPP Guillermo León Valencia Airport align center F50 - The blackie game origin was a blacks' "''asueto''" (hollyday), originated in the ''Great Cauca'', old region to which belonged Pasto. In 1607 there was a slave rebellion in Remedios, Antioquia, which caused panic among the colonial authorities. This event was remembered by the large black population in Popayán who demanded a day of rest in which they would be truly free. To preserve social peace, the Spanish Crown granted to this end the 5 January: That news was announced by Proclame in Popayán and thus was 5 January declared free day for people of color, the black population of the capital of Cauca (Cauca Department) took to the streets dancing to African music and began to paint the famous black-white walls of that town. Later this custom was watered to the south, taking an unusual strength in the cold city of Pasto, where the chronicler José Maria Córdoba Moure, said that there are traces of it was played as early as 1854.


significant tradition

and instrumental form. Gastronomy thumb Creative cities network Popayan of the UNESCO (File:Creative cities network Popayan.jpg) Popayán is the only place in Latin America to have been declared a City of Gastronomy by UNESCO, in tribute to its significant tradition of regional cooking. Typical dishes of the city are a legacy of both Spanish and indigenous cultural interaction, integrating components of local origin with fruits brought from Spain. The National Gastronomy Congress


good music

events. Fiestas de Pubenza Popayán celebrates these festivities at the beginning of the year, from January 5 to 13. These fiestas celebrates the spirit of racial diversity in the country, in the same way as the Carnival of Blacks and Whites in Pasto, which originally initiated in Popayán during the slavery period as a way of escaping the racial discrimination prevailing at the time. Music It is said that among the original performers there were good music interpreters


wooden quot

, with ancient religious images paraded through Popayán's historical downtown streets. They are borne on wooden platforms by means of 4 projecting wooden "bars" at the front and 4 at the back. These bars rest on the shoulders of the “Cargueros”, as those responsible for carrying the platforms are known. "Easter processions are representations of different episodes narrated in the Gospels, on the Passion, Crucifixion (Crucifixion of Jesus) and Death of Jesus Christ (Jesus), where


current construction

of 1983. The principal attraction of this church is the street because its road is made of stones, like old roads in Popayán. Catedral Basílica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción thumb left 200px Catedral Basílica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción Church (Image:Torre-del-Reloj Popayan.jpg) Originally it was a straw hut, but in 1609 it was opened a second cathedral of mud and masonry. The current construction was consecrated in 1906 by Archbishop Manuel Antonio Arboleda, who brings


quito

the Spanish conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar came to the conquered village and declared the foundation of Popayán. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Popayán was administered by an appointed governor under the jurisdiction of the Royal Audience of Quito. Popayán was a very important town during the colonial period because of its location between Lima, Quito and Cartagena (Cartagena, Colombia). Even after the discovery of the Pacific Ocean, Popayán remained

hero Camilo Torres (Camilo Torres Tenorio), whose replica is located in the square of the Colegio Mayor de San Bartolomé in Bogotá. Santo Domingo Late Neogranadino Baroque (Baroque architecture) work, designed by the Spanish architect Antonio Garcia. It has excellent examples of architectures, metal works, and furniture from Quito and Spain schools. His pulpit was designed in the first half of the nineteenth century by an illustrious son of the city, the Wise Francisco

would choose as a second parent. Archdiocesan Museum of Religious Art The old residence of the Arboleda family, was built in the eighteenth century based on plans of the priest Andres Perez Marcelino Arroyo, and it was acquired by the city in 1974 and renovated for its current use in 1979. Their collections are extraordinary examples of religious art, silverware, pictures of the so-called Quito School and paintings of the colonial period. Monstrances of the collection have

Popayán

'''Popayán''' is the capital of the Colombian department (departments of Colombia) of Cauca (Cauca Department). It is located in southwestern Colombia between Colombia's Western Mountain Range (Cordillera Occidental (Colombia)) and Central Mountain Range (Cordillera Central (Colombia)). It has a population of 258,653 people, DANE 2005. a territorial extension of 512 km 2 , is located 1760 meters above sea level, and has an average temperature of 18 20°C.

thumb 220px Popayán downtown ceilings view at night (File:Centro Histórico 3.JPG) thumb 220px Popayán evening (File:Atardecer en Popayán 1.JPG) thumb 220px Purace volcano (File:Volcan purace.JPG) This town is well-known because of its beautiful colonial architecture and its contributions to Colombian cultural and political life. It is also known as the "white city" due to the color of the most of colonial houses and places in the city downtown, where several churches are located, such as San Francisco, San José, Belén, Santo Domingo, San Agustín, and the Catedral Basílica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, known locally as "La Catedral".

The city's cathedral was home to the Crown of the Andes, a 16th-century Marianist devotional object featuring emeralds taken from the captured Inca Emperor Atahualpa before its sale to finance local health care institutions.

Much of the city's original splendor was destroyed on 31 March 1983, when an earthquake (1983 Popayán earthquake) toppled many buildings. Though many of them were rebuilt and repaired, the heart of the city still bears ruins and empty lots since the disaster.

Popayán has been home to seventeen Colombian presidents, as well as noted poets, painters, and composers. The University of Cauca (est. 1827), one of Colombia's oldest and most distinguished institutions of higher education, is located here; that is why Popayán is also known as the "University City."

Nearby is Puracé National Natural Park, a geothermal wonderland of hot springs, waterfalls, and an inactive volcano from which the park derives its name. The nearest large city is Cali, in the Valle del Cauca Department, to the north of Cauca.

In 2005, Popayán was declared by the UNESCO as the first city of gastronomy because of its variety and meaning to the intangible patrimony of Colombian culture. Popayan, Colombia appointed first UNESCO City of Gastronomy UNESCO 28 Aug 2005 The culinary history of the Cauca Department was chosen because of their maintaining of traditional methods of food preparation which has been passed over through different generations orally. On 2009 September 28, UNESCO also declared the processions of the Easter Week processions as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Patrimony of Humanity.

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