Polotsk

What is Polotsk known for?


successful taking

region Baltic by 1585. As of 1598 Polish Livonia (Duchy of Livonia) was divided onto: * Wenden Voivodeship (''województwo wendeńskie'', Kieś) The armies of Ivan the Terrible (Ivan IV of Russia) were initially successful, taking Polotsk (1563) and Parnawa (Pärnu) (1575) and overrunning much of Grand Duchy of Lithuania up to Vilnius. Eventually, Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland formed Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569 under the Union of Lublin


political position

Wikipedia:Polotsk Commons:Category:Polatsk


862

Belarus coordinates_region BY subdivision_type Country (Countries of the world) Subdivision (Subdivisions of Belarus) subdivision_name Belarus Vitebsk Oblast leader_title Mayor leader_name Uladzimir S. Tachyla established_title Founded established_date 862 area_magnitude area_total_km2 40.77 area_land_km2 area_water_km2 population_as_of 2009 population_footnotes ref>

ancient cities of the Eastern Slavs. The Primary Chronicle listed Polotsk in 862 (as Полотескъ, poloteskŭ ), together with Murom and Beloozero. However there is debate about this, as some historians believe Polotsk was not yet in existence in the 9th century, and this record was an invention of the compiler. Wladyslaw Duczko.Viking Rus: Studies on the Presence of Scandinavians in Eastern Europe. 2004, p.126 However, an archaeological expedition from

веке (''Novgorod and the Novgorod Land in XV century'') last Bernadsky first Viktor Nikolayevich year 1961 publisher published by the USSR Academy of Sciences location Leningrad (Saint Petersburg) pages 134–144 History First chronicled in 862, Belozersk was one of five original Russian towns (the other being Ladoga (Staraya Ladoga), Novgorod, Polotsk, and Rostov). According to the Primary Chronicle, Sineus (Sineus and Truvor), a brother


historic connection

in 1895 due to its name, the family having no historic connection with it Dzieje Rezydencji na Dawnych Kresach Rzeczpospolitej . Other branches of the family remained Polish by choice & retained estates near Braslaw & Miory until 1940, including Zajnow, Kamienpol, Leonpol & Miedzyrzec. Adam Napoleon Mirski of Zawierz & his sister Maria were painted by Jan Rustem in 1808 Jan Rustem 'Portrait of Maria Mirska, Adam Napoleon Mirski & Barbara Szumska' c1808, oil on canvas, National Museum, Warsaw . Adam was apparently highly regarded by his peasants as they rose in support of him during a local uprising in the 1840s. Tomasz Mirski (d 1852, not the same Tomasz as above) was an officer in Napoleon's Polish cavalry. Father Eugeniusz Swiatopelk-Mirski was murdered by the Bolsheviks in Mogilev in 1918 http: www.kul.pl dzwonkowski s3.html . Father Antoni Swiatopelk-Mirski SJ (1907-1942) was martyred at Auschwitz by the Nazis & has recently been advanced by the Vatican (Holy See) as a candidate for beatification http: college.holycross.edu faculty vlapomar hiatt kill.htm . Two teenage members of the family. Krysztof & Michal, were killed in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising Polski Slownik Biograficzny & another family member fought at Monte Cassino (Battle of Monte Cassino) personal communication regarding her late father by family member . The Polish family suffered heavily in the Russian occupation of the Polish eastern provinces & few remain today, with representatives in the UK, Australia & Poland. There are representatives of the Russian family in the UK, USA, Brazil & France personal knowledge from various family members . 1943-1944 thumb 250px Belarussian partisans in the forest near Polotsk (Image:Soviet guerilla.jpg), Belarussian SSR September 1943. thumb 250px Soviet partisans on the road in Belarus, 1944. (Image:Sov partizans.jpg) * Wikipedia:Polotsk Commons:Category:Polatsk


modern sense

in Polotsk, Russian Empire, now part of Belarus. His parents owned a house in the town, but the homecraft they made did not bring enough money, so at the age of 12, Boris started working as calligrapher in the court. He had finished school in Polotsk, but still needed the exams from an additional year which granted him the right to continue education at a higher level. He passed those in Minsk in 1893, as an external student. The same year he was enrolled at the St. Petersburg Technological Institute, at the mechanics department. Due to the lack of funds Boris Grigoryevich had to combine studying at the institute with working as a draftsman and giving private lessons. thumb 200px right Boris Galerkin (File:Boris Galerkin 01.jpg) The following years were marked by the rivalries of the competing princes of the dynasty and weakening of Kiev's political influence, although Kiev temporarily prevailed after the defeat of the Polotsk at the Battle on the river Nemiga (1067) that also led to the burning of Minsk. In 1146, the next Ruthenian bishop, Klym Smoliatych (Clement (Smolyatych)) (Kliment of Smolensk), was appointed to serve as the Metropolitan of Kiev. In 1169 Andrei of Suzdal (Andrei Bogolyubsky) sent an army against Mstislav Iziaslavich (Mstislav II of Kiev) and Kiev. Led by one of his sons, it consisted of the forces of eleven other princes, representing all three of the main branches of the dynasty against the fourth, Iziaslavichi of Volynia. The allies were victorious. Medieval Russia: 980-1584 By Janet Martin The sack of Kiev allowed the Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal (Vladimir-Suzdal) to take a leading role as the predecessor of the modern Russian state. Return to the Jesuits in Russia In 1782 he left for Polatsk (Polotsk), in the Russian Empire, (Polotsk, Belarus) in order to be readmitted among the Jesuits. A gifted linguist (knowing Latin, French, German, Russian) he translated theological works in his native Polish. He was also a successful and well known preacher. In 1797 he was named Secretary of the Society and worked closely with Gabriel Lenkiewicz, Franciszek Kareu and Gabriel Gruber, the successive Vicars General of the Society in Russia. On their behalf he was keeping correspondence with the many ex-jesuits who wanted to rejoin the Order. At the Regional Congregation of 1802 he was made Assistant of the newly elected Superior General of the Jesuits in Russia, Gabriel Gruber. Return to the Jesuits in Russia In 1782 he left for Polatsk (Polotsk), in the Russian Empire, (Polotsk, Belarus) in order to be readmitted among the Jesuits. A gifted linguist (knowing Latin, French, German, Russian) he translated theological works in his native Polish. He was also a successful and well known preacher. In 1797 he was named Secretary of the Society and worked closely with Gabriel Lenkiewicz, Franciszek Kareu and Gabriel Gruber, the successive Vicars General of the Society in Russia. On their behalf he was keeping correspondence with the many ex-jesuits who wanted to rejoin the Order. At the Regional Congregation of 1802 he was made Assistant of the newly elected Superior General of the Jesuits in Russia, Gabriel Gruber. Superior General At the death of Gruber, in 1805, the Regional (Polish) Congregation IV met at Polatsk (Polotsk), at this point part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polotsk, Belarus) and elected Tadeusz Brzozowski as Superior General of the Society in Russia. The new elected General immediately sent a message to Pope Pius VI thanking him for having restored the Society in Sicily. By then a steady stream of young men was coming to Russia to join the Society. Between 1803 and 1805, 103 candidates entered the novitiate of Polatsk, 23 among them being priests. The total number of Jesuits was 333, mostly engaged in educational activities (7 high schools in Russia only) but moving also into pastoral work in Latvia and Lithuania. It seemed clear that the suppression would eventually be undone. in 1812 Polatsk was upgraded by Tsar Alexander I into a university academy, allowing thus affiliation of all the Jesuit schools and protecting them from undue local interference. Superior General At the death of Gruber, in 1805, the Regional (Polish) Congregation IV met at Polatsk (Polotsk), at this point part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polotsk, Belarus) and elected Tadeusz Brzozowski as Superior General of the Society in Russia. The new elected General immediately sent a message to Pope Pius VI thanking him for having restored the Society in Sicily. By then a steady stream of young men was coming to Russia to join the Society. Between 1803 and 1805, 103 candidates entered the novitiate of Polatsk, 23 among them being priests. The total number of Jesuits was 333, mostly engaged in educational activities (7 high schools in Russia only) but moving also into pastoral work in Latvia and Lithuania. It seemed clear that the suppression would eventually be undone. in 1812 Polatsk was upgraded by Tsar Alexander I into a university academy, allowing thus affiliation of all the Jesuit schools and protecting them from undue local interference. Death Ever since the beginning of 1801, Fr Kareu had suffered from asthma. When he realised that his health had become a liability, he appointed a Vicar General to assist him as. He died in Polatsk (Polotsk), Belarus on the 11th of August 1802. Orthodox churches and small communities of proto-Russian merchants and craftsmen remained in Livonian towns as did close trade links with the Novgorod Republic and the Pskov and Polotsk principalities. In 1481, Ivan III of Russia laid siege to the castle of Fellin (Viljandi) and briefly captured several towns in eastern Livonia in response to a previous attack on Pskov. Between 1558 and 1582, Ivan IV of Russia captured much of mainland Livonia in the midst of the Livonian War but eventually the Russians were driven out by Lithuanian-Polish (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and Swedish armies. Tsar Alexis I of Russia once again captured towns in eastern Livonia, including Dorpat (Tartu) and Nyslott (Vasknarva) between 1656 and 1661, but had to yield his conquests to Sweden. The Primary Chronicle mentions three of Rogneda's sons - Izyaslav of Polotsk (+1001), '''Vsevolod''' of Volhynia (+ca 995), and Yaroslav the Wise. Following an old Yngling tradition, '''Izyaslav''' inherited the lands of his maternal grandfather, i.e., Polotsk. According to the Kievan succession law, his progeny forfeited their rights to the Kievan throne, because their forefather had never ruled in Kiev supreme. They, however, retained the principality of Polotsk and formed a dynasty of local rulers, of which Vseslav the Sorcerer was the most notable. At the beginning of the 13th century, the crusading (Northern Crusades) Livonian Brothers of the Sword led by Bishop Albert of Buxhoeveden of Riga began to occupy the shores of the Gulf of Riga. By 1205 in return for protection against Lithuanians (Lithuanian people) and Polotsk, the Orthodox Church prince Vyachko (Vyachko of Koknese) (''Vetseka'') of Koknese gave half of his land to Albert. By 1209 Koknese had been taken over by the Order, whereupon Albert ordered the construction of a stone castle where the Daugava (Daugava River) meets the Pērse river to replace the wooden fortification of the Latvians. The formal sovereignty of Polotsk was finally revoked in 1215. The Order then controlled the town until its transference in 1238 to the bishops (Archbishopric of Riga) of Riga. The town became the summer residence of the Archbishop of Riga in 1420 and the primary residence in the 16th century. At the beginning of 1944, along with the rest of German forces


biography written

mysterious. In a biography written after the war, he claimed to have infiltrated Organisation Todt under the alias '''Richard Hebel'''. ''The Stasi'', page 51. Historian John O. Koehler considers this unlikely, however. Early life Heifetz was born into a Litvak (Lithuanian Jews) family in Vilnius, Lithuania, then part of the Russian Empire. The record confirming his birth on January 20, 1901 (full archival citation – LVIA 728 4 77) is held at the Lithuanian State Historical Archives (LVIA). A copy of the record is held on microfilm by the family history archives of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City (No 2205068, image number – 795). The record states the family was registered in Polotsk. His father, Reuven Heifetz, son of Elie, was a local violin teacher and served as the concertmaster of the Vilnius Theatre Orchestra for one season before the theatre closed down. Jascha took up the violin when he was three years old and his father was his first teacher. At five he started lessons with Ilya D. Malkin, a former pupil of Leopold Auer. He was a child prodigy, making his public debut at seven, in Kovno (now Kaunas, Lithuania) playing the Violin Concerto in E minor (Violin Concerto (Mendelssohn)) by Felix Mendelssohn. In 1910 he entered the Saint Petersburg Conservatory to study under Leopold Auer himself. thumb Late portrait of Saint-Cyr (Image:M-Gouvion2.JPG) He was still a ''général de division (Général)'', having been excluded from the first list of marshals owing to his action in refusing to influence the troops in favour of the establishment of the French Empire (First French Empire). On the opening of the Russian campaign (Napoleon's invasion of Russia), Saint-Cyr received command of an army corps, and on 18 August 1812 won a victory over the Russians at Polotsk, in recognition of which he was made a marshal. The Russians, under Barclay de Tolly (Michael_Andreas_Barclay_de_Tolly), were burning everything as they retreated back towards Moscow, and had just burned nearby Smolensk. It was just prior to the victory at Polotsk on the banks of the Daugava river, however, that Oudinot (Nicolas_Oudinot) was wounded, and thus Saint-Cyr assumed his command. thumb Late portrait of Saint-Cyr (Image:M-Gouvion2.JPG) He was still a ''général de division (Général)'', having been excluded from the first list of marshals owing to his action in refusing to influence the troops in favour of the establishment of the French Empire (First French Empire). On the opening of the Russian campaign (Napoleon's invasion of Russia), Saint-Cyr received command of an army corps, and on 18 August 1812 won a victory over the Russians at Polotsk, in recognition of which he was made a marshal. The Russians, under Barclay de Tolly (Michael_Andreas_Barclay_de_Tolly), were burning everything as they retreated back towards Moscow, and had just burned nearby Smolensk. It was just prior to the victory at Polotsk on the banks of the Daugava river, however, that Oudinot (Nicolas_Oudinot) was wounded, and thus Saint-Cyr assumed his command. **Mogilev guberniya **Polotsk guberniya (was later reorganized into Vitebsk guberniya) *Ukraine: thumb 250px Balts (File:Baltic Tribes c 1200.svg) in the 12th century The first written reference to Lithuania (name of Lithuania) is found in the Quedlinburg Chronicle, which dates from 1009. Encarta.Lithuania. Accessed September 21, 2006. Archived 2009-10-31. In the 12th century, Slavic chronicles refer to Lithuania as one of the areas attacked by the Rus'. At first pagan Lithuanians paid tribute to Polotsk, but soon grew in strength and organized their own small-scale raids. At some point between 1180 and 1183 the situation began to change, and the Lithuanians started to organize sustainable military raids on the Slavic (Slavic peoples) provinces, raiding the Principality of Polotsk as well as Pskov, and even threatening Novgorod. The sudden spark of military raids marked consolidation of the Lithuanian lands in Aukštaitija. The Polotsk Offensive had the dual objective of taking Polotsk itself, and of screening the northern flank of the main Minsk Offensive against a possible German counter-offensive from Army Group North. thumb Tarnopol Voivodeship (File:Tarnopolskie.gif) before 17 September 1939 In 1772 the city came under Austrian rule after the First Partition of Poland. At the beginning of the 19th century the local population put great hope in Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France), in 1809 the city came under Russian rule, which created ''Ternopol krai'' there. In 1815 the city (then with 11,000 residents) returned to Austrian rule in accordance with the Congress of Vienna. In 1820 Jesuits (Society of Jesus) expelled from Polatsk (Polotsk) by Russians established a gymnasium (Gymnasium (school)) in the town. In 1870 a rail line (Rail transport) connected Ternopil with Lviv, accelerating the city's growth. At that time Ternopil had a population of about 25,000. * The second book, "On bishop Berthold" describes events between 1196 and 1198: the arrival of the second bishop of Ikšķile Berthold of Hanover and his death in the battle with Livonians near what later became the town of Riga. * The third book, "On bishop Albert" describes events between 1198 and 1208: the arrival of third bishop of Ikšķile, Albert of Buxhoeveden, the foundation of the Christian knightly order of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, the conquest and dividing of Livonian territories between the Bishopric of Livonia and the Order, the wars with the Princes of Polotsk and Lithuanians, conquest of the Principality of Koknese and the country of Selonians. *The fourth book, "On Estonia" describes events between 1208 and 1226: the campaigns against Estonian counties, the conquest of the Principality of Jersika, the wars with Curonians, Semigallians, Lithuanians and Princes of Pskow and Novgorod. The region has a large population of ethnic Russians (Baltic Russians), especially in Daugavpils, the largest city in the region. Many of the Russians who lived in Latgale before the Soviet occupation are Old Believers. Rēzekne, often called the heart of Latgola, Krāslava, and Ludza are other large towns in the region, which also has a Belarusian minority. There is still a significant Polish minority (Daugavpils has almost as many Poles as Latvians). As part of the Polotsk and Vitebsk guberniyas, the region was part of the Pale of Settlement and had a very large Jewish population – but most of the Jews perished in the Holocaust (The Holocaust) and much of the remainder has emigrated. As the Varangians dealt mainly with Northern Russian lands, their sagas regard the city of Holmsgardr (''Holmgarðr'', Veliky Novgorod) as the capital of Garðaríki. Other local towns mentioned in the sagas are Aldeigjuborg (Old Ladoga (Staraya Ladoga)), Kœnugarðr (Kiev), Pallteskja (Polotsk), Smaleskja (Smolensk), Súrsdalar (Suzdal), Móramar (Murom), and Ráðstofa (Rostov). see Eparch of Polotsk archbishop_of Eparch of Polotsk, Martyr (Christian martyrs) consecration November 12, 1617 (Bishop (Bishop (Catholic Church))) In the terms of the treaty, Russia renounced its claims to Livonia and Polotsk but conceded no core Russian territories as Batory returned the territories his armies had been occupying (particularly, he gave up on the siege of Pskov and left the town of Velikiye Luki. The truce was extended for twenty years in 1600, when a diplomatic mission to Moscow led by Lew Sapieha concluded negotiations with Tsar Boris Godunov. The truce was broken when the Poles invaded Muscovy in 1605 (Polish-Muscovite War (1605-1618)). right Euphrosyne of Polatsk (Image:EufrasinniaPolackaja.jpg) '''Euphrosyne''' (sometimes spelled Eŭfrasińnia, Efrasinnia) of Polotsk (or Polatsk, Połack) ( Wikipedia:Polotsk Commons:Category:Polatsk


historic images

Forum *Polacak *Photos on Radzima.org *Polotsk historic images *Weather Polotsk *ePOLOTSK.com (Category:Polotsk) Category:Cities in Belarus


outspoken support

, was regarded as a traitor by his fellow Polish rebels for his outspoken support of Panslavism,and was eventually allowed to return to Russia, where he remained under house arrest until his death Polski Slownik Biograficzny . His sons Dmitri & Nikolai were educated as members of the Russian nobility & had distinguished military careers. Tomasz Bogumil Jan claimed a Rurikid descent (according to his claim, Mirskis were descendants of Sviatopolk I of Kiev, hence


family member

been advanced by the Vatican (Holy See) as a candidate for beatification http: college.holycross.edu faculty vlapomar hiatt kill.htm . Two teenage members of the family. Krysztof & Michal, were killed in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising Polski Slownik Biograficzny & another family member fought at Monte Cassino (Battle of Monte Cassino) personal communication regarding her late father by family member . The Polish family suffered heavily in the Russian occupation of the Polish eastern provinces & few remain today, with representatives in the UK, Australia & Poland. There are representatives of the Russian family in the UK, USA, Brazil & France personal knowledge from various family members . 1943-1944 thumb 250px Belarussian partisans in the forest near Polotsk (Image:Soviet guerilla.jpg), Belarussian SSR September 1943. thumb 250px Soviet partisans on the road in Belarus, 1944. (Image:Sov partizans.jpg) * Wikipedia:Polotsk Commons:Category:Polatsk


defensive fighting

. The Order then controlled the town until its transference in 1238 to the bishops (Archbishopric of Riga) of Riga. The town became the summer residence of the Archbishop of Riga in 1420 and the primary residence in the 16th century. At the beginning of 1944, along with the rest of German forces on the Eastern front (Eastern Front (World War II)), the 20th Panzer Division spent a hard winter of defensive fighting in the Polotsk, Vitebsk, and Bobruisk (Babruysk) areas. In May, it was rushed to the southern sector of the front to participate in operations in the area around Cholm. Having suffered heavy losses during the Red Army's Operation Bagration, the division was sent to Romania for refitting in August 1944. In October, the division was sent to East Prussia, then Hungary in December. It then made a fighting withdrawal through Breslau, Schweinitz and Neisse in Silesia (now part of Poland). The division was transferred to Görlitz (east of Dresden on the German frontier with Poland). On 19 April 1945, the division was involved in a counteroffensive west of Görlitz in the direction of Niesky, but disengaged three days later and retreated west. It counterattacked again in the Bautzen area, succeeding in relieving the local garrison at heavy cost to Soviet forces. By 26 April 1945, the division was situated northwest of Dresden, however by 6 May it was forced to retreat south across the Czechoslovakian border. Some divisional elements surrendered to the Soviets near Teplice-Sanov (northwest of Prague), whilst the rest, including elements of ''Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung 20.'' managed to surrender to the Americans at Rokycany, (between Prague and Plzeň); but they were soon handed over to the Soviets. 27 soldiers of the 20th Panzer Division were awarded the Knight's Cross. Born to a Jewish family in Polotsk, she immigrated to the Boston (Boston, Massachusetts) area with her mother and siblings in 1894, moving from Chelsea to Ward 8 in Boston's South End, a notorious slum, as the venue of her father's store changed. She married Amadeus William Grabau in 1901, and moved to New York City where she attended Teachers College (Teachers College, Columbia University) of Columbia University and Barnard College. Antin is best known for her 1912 autobiography ''The Promised Land (The Promised Land (autobiography))'', which describes her public school education and assimilation into American (United States) culture, as well as life for Jews in Czarist Russia. After its publication, Antin lectured on her immigrant experience to many audiences across the country, and became a major supporter for Theodore Roosevelt and his Progressive Party (Progressive Party (United States, 1912)). In late 1808, Dode de la Brunerie was sent to Spain. He participated in the sieges of Zaragoza and of Badajoz. He was then promoted to ''général de brigade'' and made head of the engineers staff of the ''Army of Spain (Army of Spain (France))''. Dode de la Brunerie served in battles near Almonacid and Ocana until he was recalled to France. In 1812, Dode de la Brunerie was made head of the engineers in the III Corps under Marshal Ney (Michel Ney). He successively fought under Marshals Oudinot (Nicolas Oudinot), Gouvion Saint-Cyr (Laurent, Marquis de Gouvion Saint-Cyr) and Victor (Claude Victor-Perrin, duc de Belluno) in Russia, where he fought at Polotsk and the crossing of the Beresina (Battle of Berezina). Early biography Viktor Kyrpychov graduated from the Polotsk military school (1862) and St.Michael artillery school in Saint Petersburg (1863). In 1863-1870 he was in the faculty of Kronstadt military academy where he taught material science and mechanics. In 1873 he was a postdoc student of Gustav Kirchhoff in Germany. After that, until his move to Ukraine in 1885, he was a professor at Saint Petersburg Technological Institute (Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology). In 1882, he was responsible for investigation of the Borki train disaster. Nowadays The modern town is located on the right shore of the river Viliya, in northwest part of the Minsk region, 100 kilometers away from Minsk. The town’s population numbers 30,000 people. There is a railway station of the Molodechno-Polotsk line in the town. The roads to Maladzechna, Smarhoń, Myadzel, Dokshytsy, Pleshchanitsy run through the town. The town’s industry is represented by the Zenit plant, wood processing enterprises (including furniture factory), motor repair plant, building materials plants, light and food enterprises. Vileyka also houses the Museum of Regional Studies. #Polonnoye (JE Wikipedia:Polotsk Commons:Category:Polatsk

Polotsk

'''Polotsk''' ('''Polatsk''', ) Occidental spelling according to the Belarus Permanent Mission to the United Nations. Occidental spelling according to the official Belarus website. Occidental spelling according to "Nations Online" website. Spelling according to Google Maps. is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina (Western Dvina) River. It is the center of the Polatsk Raion in Vitsebsk Voblast. Its population is more than 80,000 people. polotskgik.by - City It is served by Polotsk Airport and during the Cold War was home to Borovitsy air base.

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