in the Polish language, and is considered (with Biernat of Lublin and Jan Kochanowski), to be one of the founders of Polish literary language and literature (Polish literature). The Mikołaj Rej collection, with biography and body of works. ''National Digital Library'' (Cyfrowa Biblioteka Narodowa ''Polona''), 2006. Image:POL COA Oksza.svg 80px thumb left
Hajdukiewicz p. 6" thumb left 150px Copernicus' translation of Theophylact Simocatta (File:Symokatta epistole morales.jpg)'s ''Epistles''. Cover shows coats-of-arms (coat of arms) of ''(clockwise from top)'' Poland, Lithuania and Kraków. In 1504–12 Copernicus made numerous journeys as part of his uncle's retinue—in 1504, to Toruń and Gdańsk (Danzig), to a session of the Royal Prussian Council in the presence of Poland's King Alexander Jagiellon; to sessions of the Prussian diet at Malbork (1506), Elbląg (1507) and Sztum (1512); and he may have attended a Poznań session (1510) and the coronation of Poland's King Sigismund I the Old in Kraków (1507). Watzenrode's itinerary suggests that in spring 1509 Copernicus may have attended the Kraków sejm. Polish (Poland) astronomer Konrad Rudnicki calls the discussion a "fierce scholarly quarrel in... times of nationalism" and describes Copernicus as an inhabitant of a German-speaking territory that belonged to Poland, himself being of mixed Polish-German extraction. WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland
WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland
-1930s in the PZL factory in Warsaw. A state-of-the-art construction, one of the first all-metal monoplane fighters in the world, in 1933–1935 it was a main fighter of the Polish Air Force. It was replaced in Polish service by its follow-up design, the PZL P.11c. More than 30 P.7 fighters remained in service in the Polish Defensive War of 1939 (Invasion of Poland (1939)), scoring several kills despite their obsolescence. The League’s greatest extent was from 28 September 1934 (when Ecuador joined) to 23 February 1935 (when Paraguay withdrew) with 58 members. At this time, only Costa Rica (22 January 1925), Brazil (14 June 1926), the Empire of Japan (27 March 1933) and Germany (19 September 1933) had withdrawn and only Egypt was left to join (on the 26 May 1937). The members (listed from earliest joining and alphabetically if they joined on the same day) at this time were Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, the British Empire, Canada, Chile, the Republic of China, Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, El Salvador, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India (British Raj), Italy, Liberia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Persia Iran, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Siam, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the Union of South Africa, the United Kingdom, Uruguay, Yugoslavia, Venezuela, Austria, Bulgaria, Finland, Luxembourg, Albania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Ireland (Irish Free State), Ethiopia, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Turkey, Iraq, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Afghanistan and Ecuador. Until the 1986 census, Australia's most populous Christian church was the Anglican Church of Australia. Since then Catholics have outnumbered Anglicans by an increasing margin. One rationale to explain this relates to changes in Australia's immigration patterns (Immigration to Australia). WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland
84a3d197577d4cb7bdc735a17f957a58 Léonce Rosenberg, in 1929, commissioned Gleizes (replacing Gino Severini) to paint decorative panels for his Parisian residence, which would be installed in 1931. The same year Gleizes was part of the committee of Abstraction-Création (founded by Theo van Doesburg, Auguste Herbin, Jean Hélion and Georges Vantongerloo) that acted as a forum for international non-representational art (abstract art), and counteracted
violinist. His music career as a musician has been that of a performer as well as composer of classical music, opera, television and feature films. Houghton had been supplying military secrets to spies from Poland and the USSR for some time. Through Gee, he gained access to more classified material. In July 1960, Houghton introduced Gee to a man whom she claimed she only knew as "Alex Johnson", allegedly a commander in the United States Navy. "Johnson" wanted
painters#Article Requests ''' here ''' . When not touring, Wertico divides his career among session work (Session musician), producing, teaching, composing and leading his own groups. Among the musicians with whom he has played are Eddie Harris, Lee Konitz, Dave Liebman, Sam Rivers, Bob Mintzer, Terry Gibbs, Buddy DeFranco, Roscoe Mitchell, Evan Parker, Jay McShann, Herbie Mann
to resign, owing to his alleged atheistic tendencies, but he was subsequently nominated a member of the legislative commission by the Emperor. However, these foreigners, including Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Turkey (Ottoman Empire), have left behind a legacy of new words, greatly enriching the Ukrainian language. And despite many repressions, Ukraine has a rich literary heritage having produced many notable authors. Cossack
% (2005) While North American teams were shut out of communist Mongolia during the Cold War, expeditions by Soviet (Soviet Union) and Polish (Poland) scientists, in collaboration with Mongolian colleagues, recovered several more specimens of ''Velociraptor''. The most famous is part of the legendary "Fighting Dinosaurs" specimen (GIN (Mongolian Academy of Sciences) 100 25), discovered by a Polish-Mongolian team in 1971. This fossil preserves a single ''Velociraptor
;http: www.iq.harvard.edu blog sss archives 08292006_Frey2001.pdf (p.11) *or... Velociraptor → Jurassic Park → Steven Spielberg → Schindler's List → Shabbat → Jewish services **Can be done in 5 Velociraptor → Poland → Jewish → Judaism → Jewish services HMAS Brisbane (D 41) → Medical University of Lublin *HMAS Brisbane (D 41) → United States → Poland → Lublin → Medical University of Lublin -- User:Jh51681 jh51681
; Golden Age During the interwar period, the RoAF, second only to Poland among the future Warsaw Pact countries, had a powerful national aircraft industry which designed and produced all types of military and most civil aircraft. In particular the IAR 80 series were stressed-skin fighters, worthy to rank with the other single-seat fighters of WWII, and used in significant numbers on the Eastern Front (Eastern Front (World War II)). terminus_b Sitia ( Greece
PLEASE DO NOT make any changes to the following section before discussing them on the discussion page (Talk:Poland). Thank you. ------
'''Poland''' , making it the 71st largest country (List of countries and dependencies by area) in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country (List of countries by population) in the world, the sixth most populous member of the European Union (Member state of the European Union), and the most populous post-communist member of the European Union. Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions (voivodeship).
Many historians trace the establishment of a Polish state to 966, when Mieszko I (Mieszko I of Poland), ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland (Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)) was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a longstanding political association (Polish–Lithuanian union) with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin, forming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth gradually ceased to exist in the years 1772–1795, when the Polish territory was partitioned (Partitions of Poland) among Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), the Russian Empire, and Austria (Habsburg Monarchy). Poland regained its independence (History of Poland (1918–39)) (as the Second Polish Republic) at the end of World War I, in 1918.
Two decades later, in September 1939, World War II started with the invasions of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union (as part of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact). More than six million Polish citizens died in the war. Project in Posterum, Poland World War II casualties. Retrieved 20 September 2013. Holocaust: Five Million Forgotten: Non-Jewish Victims of the Shoah. Remember.org. AFP Expatica, ''Polish experts lower nation's WWII death toll'', Expatica.com, 30 August 2009 Tomasz Szarota & Wojciech Materski, ''Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami'', Warsaw, IPN 2009, ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 (Introduction online.) In 1944, a Soviet-backed Polish provisional government (Polish Committee of National Liberation) was formed, which, after a period of conflict, falsified referendum (Polish people's referendum, 1946) and elections (Polish legislative election, 1947), gave rise to a satellite state Rao, B. V. (2006), History of Modern Europe Ad 1789-2002: A.D. 1789-2002, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. of the Soviet Union, ''Polish Republic'' (''Rzeczpospolita Polska''), renamed to the People's Republic of Poland (''Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa'') in 1952. During the Revolutions of 1989, Poland's Marxist–Leninist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy under the name ''Rzeczpospolita Polska'', often referred to as the "Third Polish Republic" (''III Rzeczpospolita'').
Despite the vast destruction (World War II casualties of Poland) the country experienced during World War II (Occupation of Poland (1939–45)), Poland managed to preserve much of its cultural wealth (Culture of Poland). There are 14 heritage sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage (List of World Heritage Sites of Poland) and 54 Historical Monuments (List of Historic Monuments (Poland)) and many objects of cultural heritage (Objects of cultural heritage in Poland). Since the end of the communist period (People's Republic of Poland), Poland has achieved a "very high" ranking in terms of human development (Human Development Index), as well as gradually improving economic freedom. http: www.heritage.org research reports 2015 01 asia-pacific