with the United States. U.S., Russia no closer on missile defense, USATODAY.com Previously, a controversial initiative existed for placing GMD missile defense installations in Central Europe, namely in Poland and Czech Republic. As a result of strong Russian (Russian Federation) opposition, the plan has been abandoned in favor of Aegis-class missile defense based in the Black Sea and eventually in Romania. From 1976 he became involved in the Intercosmos and made his third and final spaceflight on an Intercosmos flight with Polish (Poland) cosmonaut Mirosław Hermaszewski (Miroslaw Hermaszewski) on Soyuz 30. http: www.windows.ucar.edu tour link people astronauts klimuk.html&nl 7l UCAR http: www.spacefacts.de bios cosmonauts english klimuk_pyotr.htm Spacefacts '''Henry Morgentaler''', WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland
Warsaw Astronomical Observatory . Gingerich's efforts and conclusions are recounted in ''The Book Nobody Read'', published in 2004 by Walker & Co. The research behind this book earned its author the Polish (Poland) government's Order of Merit (Order of Merit of Poland) in 1981. Due largely to Gingerich's scholarship, ''De revolutionibus'' has been researched and catalogued better than any other first-edition historic text except for the original Gutenberg Bible. ref name "
and field) athletics for four years (long jump, 100 metres). She won the Championships at Voivodeship for 1000 and 600 meters and shot put. She also won bronze in the Polish Championships. She then quit sport for a musical career. Doda started this career as a teenager, at the Buffo Theater in Warsaw. Simultaneously, she took singing lessons from Elżbieta Zapendowska, one of the most famous singing teachers in Poland. She earned popularity due to her participation in the reality show (Reality television) ''The Bar (The Bar (TV series))'', where she earned great notoriety for her vulgar vocabulary and wild antics. Photography She produced the ''Ana Arce Team Sponsorship Calendar 2006'' featuring nude or semi-nude photographs of women curlers from a variety of countries including Denmark, Italy, Spain, England, Poland, Germany and Canada. The curlers included Daniela Jentsch, Melanie Robillard, Lynsay Ryan, Kasia Selwand and Claudia Toth. She produced a second calendar for 2007 which included Christine Keshen, Linn Githmark, Debbie McCormick and Jackie Lockhart. Polish Radio External Service (PR ES) is a part of Poland’s public radio network - Polish Radio. Its aim is to broadcast programs on developments in Poland, Polish foreign policy, the economy, business and foreign investments. Polish Radio External Service provides objective and impartial information about Poland and its stance on international affairs. It shows Polish society, its daily life as well as scientific and cultural achievements. Early life Andrei Sawoniuk was born in Domaczewo, Poland (now Damachava, Belarus), a spa town on the Bug River. At that time 90% of the town's population was Jewish, with the remainder being Poles, Ukrainians, Belorussians and German Volksdeutsche. Sawoniuk, nicknamed "Andrusha" (a Russian (Russian language) and Belarusian (Belarusian language) diminutive of Andrey), has been described as Belorussian, http: new-arch.rp.pl artykul 219849_Najkrocej.html Efraim Zuroff, "Operation Last Chance: One Man's Quest to Bring Nazi Criminals to Justice", Macmillan, 2009, p. 79 some newspaper reports say that his mother was Polish, WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland
Revolution ), told to the newly appointed anti-Communist government they can expect very difficult years to come. The dissatisfaction of many ordinary Czechs and Slovaks was increasing, due to the rigid political situation, lack of freedom, but mainly because they could see on foreign TV channels in some regions (German in frontier Bohemia, Austrian in southwestern Slovakia (including the capital Bratislava)), and in the late 1980s in all regions due to a gradual spread of videorecorders
; 20 June 1888) was a leading chess master of German (Germany)-Polish (Poland)-Jewish origin. He was one of the leading world players for most of the 1870s and 1880s, and lost to Wilhelm Steinitz in the World Chess Championship 1886, which is generally seen as the first World Chess Championship match, he was also beaten by Steinitz in 1872 in unofficial championship; both were best players in the world. __NOTOC__ '''Kościerzyna County''' ( WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland
father’s iconic punk band. They underwent extreme danger to smuggle their anti regime message through soviet censorship (Censorship_in_the_Soviet_Union), becoming hugely influential during the radical social and political change within Poland in the early eighties. Returning to Poland, Pati became immersed in the creative arts scene that had proved such a strong and radical voice in her youth. She also became a self taught visual artist (Visual_arts), published poet, and a widely
'', Expatica.com, 30 August 2009 Tomasz Szarota & Wojciech Materski, ''Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami'', Warsaw, IPN 2009, ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 (Introduction online.) Over 90% of deaths were non-military in nature. Population numbers did not recover until the 1970s. An estimated 600,000 Soviet soldiers died fighting Germans on Polish soil during World War II. ref>
and the one of Lithuania was needed was the former called ''Moskovskij'' 'Muscovite' (and, rarely, the latter ''Lytvynskij'' 'Lithuanian'). There are several speculations alleging that the only one downed F-117 (Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk) was tracked down using Czechoslovakian passive radiolocation system Tamara (Tamara passive sensor) run by Rodan 10 (military version of Odra). http: www.newsweek.pl artykuly sekcje nauka odra-1305--cud-techniki-po-polsku-,59316,1, pol. <
or with their faces wrapped in bandages. Later, he concentrated on painting. His first paintings were abstract art, but throughout the 1960s he made his surrealist inspirations more visible. His early drawings featured sadomasochistic (Sadomasochism) themes. It serves 10 countries in Europe, and is the largest cable operator in countries like Poland, Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary and Czech Republic. Within ten years of the foundation
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PLEASE DO NOT make any changes to the following section before discussing them on the discussion page (Talk:Poland). Thank you. ------
'''Poland''' , making it the 71st largest country (List of countries and dependencies by area) in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country (List of countries by population) in the world, the sixth most populous member of the European Union (Member state of the European Union), and the most populous post-communist member of the European Union. Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions (voivodeship).
Many historians trace the establishment of a Polish state to 966, when Mieszko I (Mieszko I of Poland), ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland (Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)) was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a longstanding political association (Polish–Lithuanian union) with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin, forming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth gradually ceased to exist in the years 1772–1795, when the Polish territory was partitioned (Partitions of Poland) among Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), the Russian Empire, and Austria (Habsburg Monarchy). Poland regained its independence (History of Poland (1918–39)) (as the Second Polish Republic) at the end of World War I, in 1918.
Two decades later, in September 1939, World War II started with the invasions of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union (as part of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact). More than six million Polish citizens died in the war. Project in Posterum, Poland World War II casualties. Retrieved 20 September 2013. Holocaust: Five Million Forgotten: Non-Jewish Victims of the Shoah. Remember.org. AFP Expatica, ''Polish experts lower nation's WWII death toll'', Expatica.com, 30 August 2009 Tomasz Szarota & Wojciech Materski, ''Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami'', Warsaw, IPN 2009, ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 (Introduction online.) In 1944, a Soviet-backed Polish provisional government (Polish Committee of National Liberation) was formed, which, after a period of conflict, falsified referendum (Polish people's referendum, 1946) and elections (Polish legislative election, 1947), gave rise to a satellite state Rao, B. V. (2006), History of Modern Europe Ad 1789-2002: A.D. 1789-2002, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. of the Soviet Union, ''Polish Republic'' (''Rzeczpospolita Polska''), renamed to the People's Republic of Poland (''Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa'') in 1952. During the Revolutions of 1989, Poland's Marxist–Leninist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy under the name ''Rzeczpospolita Polska'', often referred to as the "Third Polish Republic" (''III Rzeczpospolita'').
Despite the vast destruction (World War II casualties of Poland) the country experienced during World War II (Occupation of Poland (1939–45)), Poland managed to preserve much of its cultural wealth (Culture of Poland). There are 14 heritage sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage (List of World Heritage Sites of Poland) and 54 Historical Monuments (List of Historic Monuments (Poland)) and many objects of cultural heritage (Objects of cultural heritage in Poland). Since the end of the communist period (People's Republic of Poland), Poland has achieved a "very high" ranking in terms of human development (Human Development Index), as well as gradually improving economic freedom. http: www.heritage.org research reports 2015 01 asia-pacific