, Montenegro, Croatia, Turkey, Lebanon, Indonesia, and Italy. '''Monar''' is an integrated system of human aid focused on drug addicts, the homeless, those who are HIV positive or who have AIDS, and many other groups of people who need help. This Polish (Poland) non-governmental organization was established formally as an Professional association
association in 1981. Location North European Plain covers the territories of Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, and Poland; it touches the Czech Republic and southwestern part of Sweden as well. Parts of eastern England can also be considered part of the same plain; as they share its low-lying character and were connected by land to the continent during the last ice age (Pleistocene). Early years in the GDR Thierse was born in Breslau
individuals subjected to them, which draws parallels to symbolic violence. Third, he argues that the etymology of the Latin word for ‘virulence’ (virulentus) is derived from the word man (vir), and as related concept metaphors in contemporary English, ‘virulence’ and ‘virility’ are informed by masculinist modes of response and engagement. Virulent imaginative geographies are thus argued to employ a sense of ‘virility’ to code ‘Oriental’ males as pre-oedipal and or feminine. Springer also contends that the first step towards peace involves rethinking our imaginative geographies. 282 px (File:JanLam.jpg) '''Jan Lam''' (1838 - 1886) was a Polish (Poland) journalist, writer and comic, as well as a teacher in numerous schools of Galicia. He is probably best remembered as the author of a poem ''Marsz Sokołów'', the anthem of the Sokół, as well as a long-time journalist of the Dziennik Polski daily. Towards the end of World War II, two subcamps of Dachau concentration camp — one for men, one for women — were established in Burgau. More than 1000 prisoners, including 500 Jewish women and girls from Poland and Hungary, were transported form Dachau, Bergen-Belsen (Bergen-Belsen concentration camp) and Ravensbrück (Ravensbrück concentration camp). They forced to work (forced labour in Germany during World War II) in miserable conditions in an aircraft hangar in Scheppach Forest (Jettingen-Scheppach); 18 died and were buried in the Jewish cemetery in Ichenhausen. ''Gedenkstätten für die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus. Eine Dokumentation, Band 1. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-89331-208-0, S. 149 After the war, some 1600 ''Heimatvertriebene'' were resettled in Burgau. During World War II, '''ghettos in Nazi (Nazism)-occupied Europe''' were set up by the Third Reich in order to confine Jews and sometimes Gypsies (Romani people) into tightly packed areas of the cities. In total, according to USHMM archives, "The Germans established at least 1,000 ghettos in German-occupied and annexed Poland and the Soviet Union alone." Therefore, the examples are intended only to illustrate their scope and living conditions across Eastern Europe. Types of Ghettos. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C. Although the common usage in Holocaust literature is 'ghetto', the Nazis most often referred to these detention facilities in documents and signage as 'Jüdischer Wohnbezirk' or 'Wohngebiet der Juden' (German); both translate as Jewish Quarter (Jewish Quarter (diaspora)). World War II In 1937 Kook began his career as an international spokesperson for the Irgun and Revisionist Zionism. He first went to Poland, where he was involved in fundraising and establishing Irgun cells in Eastern Europe. It was there that he met the founder of the Revisionist movement, Ze'ev Jabotinsky, and became friends with his son Ari (Ari Jabotinsky). At the founders' request, Kook traveled to the United States with Jabotinsky in 1940, at United States Holocaust Memorial Museum where he soon served as the head of the Irgun and revisionist mission in America, following the elder's death in August. This assignment was clandestine, and Kook publicly denied he was affiliated with the Irgun many times while in America. In 1943, Kook established an "Emergency Committee for the Rescue of European Jewry". The Committee, which included Jewish and non-Jewish American writers, public figures, and politicians, worked to disseminate information to the general public, and also lobbied the President (President of the United States) and Congress (Congress of the United States) to take immediate action to save the remnants of Europe's Jews. United States immigration laws at the time limited immigration to only 2% of the number of each nationality present in the United States since the census of 1890, which limited Jews from Austria and Germany to 27,370 and from Poland to 6,542; even these quotas often went unfilled, due to United States State Department pressure on US consulates to place as many obstacles as possible in the path of refugees. The proposal to admit more refugees was ratified by the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, and, in response to the pressure, President Roosevelt (Franklin D. Roosevelt) subsequently issued an administrative order for the establishment of a special national authority, the War Refugee Board (WRB) to deal with Jewish and non-Jewish war refugees. An official government emissary sent to Turkey was of considerable assistance in the rescue of Romanian Jewry. The WRB saved about 200,000 Jews. (Wyman 1984:285) Those rescued through the WRB were probably mostly in Hungary, in part through the Raoul Wallenberg mission which was sponsored by the WRB. '''Barbara Jagiellon''' (15 July 1478 – 15 February 1534 POLAND, Medieval Lands ) was a princess of Poland and a duchess of Saxony (Duchy of Saxony). Life Barbara was married on 21 November 1496 in a glittering ceremony in Leipzig to George, Duke of Saxony (1471–1539). At the wedding, 6,286 German and Polish nobles were said to be present. This marriage was a key part of maintaining good diplomatic relations between Germany and Poland. For Barbara's family, the marriage was also important due to their rivalry with the House of Habsburg. Both states joined the League of Nations, and both signed agreements of defence of several countries, most significantly Poland. The Treaty of Sèvres split the Middle East between the two states, in the form of mandates (League of Nations mandate). However the outlook of the nations were different during the inter-war years; while France saw itself inherently as a European power, the UK enjoyed close relationships with Australia, Canada and New Zealand and at one time flirted with the idea of Empire Free Trade, a form of protectionism that would have seen large tariffs placed on goods from France. WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland
Union . thumb 250px Rawka river in Dolecko (Image:River Rawka01.jpg) The '''Rawka River''' is a river in central Poland, a tributary of the Bzura river (between Łowicz and Sochaczew), with a length of 97 kilometres and the basin area of 1,192 km 2 . '''Krzysztof Nowak''' (September 27, 1975 – May 26, 2005) was a Polish (Poland) football (soccer) player, best known for his stint with the VfL Wolfsburg team. Location and geography
with Dezerter, KSU (KSU (band)) and Brygada Kryzys, Smierc Kliniczna was one of the most popular early punk rock bands in Poland. It played at the 1982 Jarocin Festival, and next year, with a second vocalist, Jacek Szafir, the band played several concerts, among others at the Opole Festival, Jarocin Festival, Rockowisko in Lodz and FAMA Festival in Swinoujscie. After the 1984 Jarocin Festival, Smierc Kliniczna was disbanded; Dariusz Dusza founded punk-rock
with Dezerter, KSU (KSU (band)) and Brygada Kryzys, Smierc Kliniczna was one of the most popular early punk rock bands in Poland. It played at the 1982 Jarocin Festival, and next year, with a second vocalist, Jacek Szafir, the band played several concerts, among others at the Opole Festival, Jarocin Festival, Rockowisko in Lodz and FAMA Festival in Swinoujscie. After the 1984 Jarocin Festival, Smierc Kliniczna was disbanded; Dariusz Dusza founded punk-rock band
-numbered years since 1984, although there was no World Championship in 1996, and there was a World Championship in 1997. Asian nations began sending national teams to international events in 1980, and teams from nations in Oceania and North America began competing in the 1990s. Athletes from twenty-six nations attended the 2000 World Championship in Nanjing, China, the first to be held outside of Europe. IARU
thought and history.'' 1989, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, 218 pages, ISBN 0-275-96141-9 Inadvertently, Gogol's accomplishment became "an anti-Polish novel of high literary merit, to say nothing about lesser writers." '''Hilary Minc''' (24 August 1905, Kazimierz Dolny - 26 November 1974, Warsaw) – born into a middle-class Jewish family of Oskar Minc and Stefania née Fajersztajn – was a communist politician in Stalinist Poland and pro-Soviet Marxist economist. Minc joined the Communist Party of Poland before World War II. Between 1944-1956, he was a member of the PWP PUWP Politburo of the KCPPR (Polska Partia Robotnicza). '''Brzeg Dolny''' WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland
Pakistan.jpg right thumb The Pakistan made TT Pistol. '''Mateusz Kusznierewicz''' (born April 29, 1975 in Warsaw) is a Polish (Poland) sailor, specialising in the Finn (Finn (dinghy)) and Star (Star (sailboat)) classes. Biography Frankel was born in London on 31 January 1906, the son of Polish (Poland)-Jewish parents. He started learning the violin at an early age, showing remarkable talent; at age 14, his piano-playing gifts attracted the attention
reflections on his mother's experiences as a refugee, and of his own Jewish heritage. WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland
disease. '''Romanticism in Poland''' was a literary, artistic and intellectual period in the evolution of Polish culture that began around 1820, coinciding with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz's first poems in 1822. It ended with the suppression of the January 1863 Uprising (January Uprising) against the Russian Empire in 1864. The latter event ushered in a new era in Polish culture known as the ''Positivism'' (Positivism in Poland). ref name "
, the Persian Gulf, Israel, and other countries, attracted by the favourable climate, scenic landscape, and reasonable prices. Dutch sheep farmers were meanwhile unable to cope with the demand, so that ever increasing numbers of German (Germany) sheep were being bought, and when even this source proved inadequate, representatives of the company travelled to the Ukraine, Denmark and Iceland in circa 1875, and in 1891 a trading office was opened in Buenos Aires, which arranged
PLEASE DO NOT make any changes to the following section before discussing them on the discussion page (Talk:Poland). Thank you. ------
'''Poland''' , making it the 71st largest country (List of countries and dependencies by area) in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country (List of countries by population) in the world, the sixth most populous member of the European Union (Member state of the European Union), and the most populous post-communist member of the European Union. Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions (voivodeship).
Many historians trace the establishment of a Polish state to 966, when Mieszko I (Mieszko I of Poland), ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland (Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)) was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a longstanding political association (Polish–Lithuanian union) with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin, forming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth gradually ceased to exist in the years 1772–1795, when the Polish territory was partitioned (Partitions of Poland) among Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), the Russian Empire, and Austria (Habsburg Monarchy). Poland regained its independence (History of Poland (1918–39)) (as the Second Polish Republic) at the end of World War I, in 1918.
Two decades later, in September 1939, World War II started with the invasions of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union (as part of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact). More than six million Polish citizens died in the war. Project in Posterum, Poland World War II casualties. Retrieved 20 September 2013. Holocaust: Five Million Forgotten: Non-Jewish Victims of the Shoah. Remember.org. AFP Expatica, ''Polish experts lower nation's WWII death toll'', Expatica.com, 30 August 2009 Tomasz Szarota & Wojciech Materski, ''Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami'', Warsaw, IPN 2009, ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 (Introduction online.) In 1944, a Soviet-backed Polish provisional government (Polish Committee of National Liberation) was formed, which, after a period of conflict, falsified referendum (Polish people's referendum, 1946) and elections (Polish legislative election, 1947), gave rise to a satellite state Rao, B. V. (2006), History of Modern Europe Ad 1789-2002: A.D. 1789-2002, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. of the Soviet Union, ''Polish Republic'' (''Rzeczpospolita Polska''), renamed to the People's Republic of Poland (''Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa'') in 1952. During the Revolutions of 1989, Poland's Marxist–Leninist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy under the name ''Rzeczpospolita Polska'', often referred to as the "Third Polish Republic" (''III Rzeczpospolita'').
Despite the vast destruction (World War II casualties of Poland) the country experienced during World War II (Occupation of Poland (1939–45)), Poland managed to preserve much of its cultural wealth (Culture of Poland). There are 14 heritage sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage (List of World Heritage Sites of Poland) and 54 Historical Monuments (List of Historic Monuments (Poland)) and many objects of cultural heritage (Objects of cultural heritage in Poland). Since the end of the communist period (People's Republic of Poland), Poland has achieved a "very high" ranking in terms of human development (Human Development Index), as well as gradually improving economic freedom. http: www.heritage.org research reports 2015 01 asia-pacific