, to contribute funds towards Billy Talent's first album (Billy Talent (album)). '''Abraham Abele Gombiner''' (Hebrew: '''אברהם אבלי הלוי גומבינר''') (c. 1635 – oct 5, 1682), known as the '''Magen Avraham''', born in Gąbin (Gombin), Poland, was a rabbi, Talmudist and a leading religious authority in the Jewish community of Kalish (Kalisz), Poland during
of the Polish Patent Office, SUN, Novell, Hewlett-Packard and Microsoft, as well as various patent lawyers, confirmed that the present proposal of the EU Council does make all software potentially patentable. "Poland Does Not Support Current Proposal for EU Software Patent Directive", Joint Press Release Foundation a Free Information Infrastructure, Internet Society Poland, Nosoftwarepatents.com. Released December 4, 2004. The next day, Nicolas Schmit, deputy foreign minister of Luxembourg (which at that time chaired the Council), said that he would instead ask the Council to formally adopt the draft directive at a meeting on 17 February. Although Poland stated it would only oppose this if other countries raised an objection, reports of opposition from Denmark, the Netherlands and Spain ensured that the common position was not on the agenda for that meeting of the Commission. Veneration Around the abbey allegedly founded by him in the 7th century (Abbey of St. Gilles), sprang up the town of St-Gilles-du-Gard (Saint-Gilles, Gard). The abbey (which was re-dedicated to him in the 10th century) remained the center of his cult, which was particularly strong in Languedoc, even after a rival body of Saint Giles appeared at Toulouse. Pierre-Gilles Girault, 2002. "Observations sur le culte de saint Gilles dans le Midi", in ''Hagiographie et culte des saints en France méridionale (XIIIe-XVe siècle)'', ''Cahiers de Fanjeaux'' '''37''', pp. 431-454. His cult spread rapidly far and wide throughout Europe in the Middle Ages, as is witnessed by the countless churches and monasteries dedicated to him in France, Spain, Germany, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and Great Britain; by the numerous manuscripts in prose and verse commemorating his virtues and miracles; and especially by the vast concourse of pilgrims who from all Europe flocked to his shrine. thumb left Giles, depicted in the lower left with a hind, is one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers (Image:14Nothelfer.JPG). Despite an initially uneasy relationship with communist authorities (Communist Romania) who denounced him as formalist (Formalism (art)), Baba soon established himself as an illustrator and artist. In 1955 he was allowed to travel to the Soviet Union, and won a Gold Medal in an international exhibition in Warsaw, Poland. In 1956, Baba accompanied ''The Chess Player'' and two other paintings showed at the Venice Biennale, after which the paintings traveled on to exhibits in Moscow, Leningrad (Saint Petersburg), and Prague. Susara, 2001, p. 166. Aliyah was also spurred during this period by the resurgence of messianic fervor among the Jews of France (History of the Jews in France), Italy (History of the Jews in Italy), the Germanic states (History of the Jews in Germany), Poland, Russia (History of the Jews in Russia and the Soviet Union) and North Africa. WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland
) in Kosovo. The total Ukrainian military deployment around the world as of 1 August 2009 is 540 servicemen participating in 8 peacekeeping missions. CURRENT PARTICIPATION OF THE UKRAINIAN ARMED FORCES IN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS export-goods export-partners Russia 23.7%, Poland 11.6%, China (People's Republic of China) 10.4%, Turkey 7.6%, Kazakhstan 5.9%, Ukraine 4.7%, Bangladesh 4.3% (2006) imports $4.4 billion (2006) The term '''Unitarian''' entered the English language via Henry Hedworth in relation to the teachings of Laelio Sozzini and the Polish Socinians. Unitarian churches were formally established in Transylvania and Poland (by the Socinians (Socinianism)) in the second half of the 16th Century. Harris, MW. Unitarian Universalist Origins: Our Historic Faith The early Unitarian church not only rejected the Trinity, but also the pre-existence of Christ as well, in many cases, predestination and original sin as put forward by Augustine of Hippo, and the substitutionary atonement of Christ developed by Anselm of Canterbury and John Calvin. There were several different forms of Christology in the beginnings of the Unitarian movement; ultimately, the variety that became prevalent was that Jesus was a man, but one with a unique relationship to God. These Unitarian thinkers and groups have gone by many names, including Anti-trinitarianism. WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland
''', or '''Helvaeonae''', or '''Helvecones''', or '''Aelvaeones''', or '''Ailouaiones''', are names possibly referring to the same ancient population, and possibly further connected to the Germanic (Germanic peoples) Hilleviones of Sweden. The Helveconae as such (manuscript variant Helvaeonae) are one of the tribal states of the Lugii in Tacitus. Tacitus, ''Germania'', Germania.XLIII (wikisource:Germania#XLIII) The Lugii were located in the Silesia area (today
, like to use buckets and have no mercy on passers-by. (Drivers - this means keep your windows wound up or you're likely to get soaked.) Despite its light-hearted nature, it is indeed a public holiday. * '''Labour Day''' (''Święto Pracy'') - '''1 May''' is of absolutely lay nature and not of special religious or national significance, but a public holiday as well.Politically inspired parades and rallies are often organized, especially in larger cities, and it is best to avoid them as opposing
, or given name, followed by ''nazwisko'', the last name, surname, or family name. The usage of personal names in Poland is generally governed (in addition to personal taste or family custom) by three major factors: civil law (civil law (legal system)), Church (Roman Catholic Church) law, and tradition. '''Longannet power station''' is a large coal-fired power station (Fossil fuel power plant) in Fife capable of co-firing biomass
;task view&id 334&Itemid 34, "Sopot Summer Capital" , Polish Cultures It was the biggest Polish music festival altogether with the National Festival of Polish Song in Opole, and one of the biggest annual song contest in Europe. The contest was transmitted live by the Polish state television, TVP (Telewizja Polska) between 1994 and 2004. Later, the concert was broadcasted by the private media station TVN (TVN (Poland)). After Isidore had received funding from Vasili II, he went to Florence to attend the continuation of the Council of Basel in 1439. He was made a cardinal (Cardinal (Catholicism))-presbyter and a papal legate for the provinces of Lithuania, Livonia, all Russia and Galicia (Galicia (Central Europe)) (Poland). During this Council, Isidore fervently defended the union between the Churches of East and West, but he was opposed only by the secular representative from Russia - ambassador (Ambassador (diplomacy)) Foma (Thomas) of Tver. Finally, the union agreement was signed and Isidore returned to Russia. In 1437 he was sent by the Byzantine Patriarch Joseph II (Patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople) (1416–39, a conspicuous friend of reunion, who died a Catholic at Florence) to be Metropolitan of Moscow As soon as he arrived he began to arrange a Russian legation for the council about to be held at Ferrara. The Russian tsar, Vassili II (Vasili II of Russia) (1425–62), made difficulties about this, and let him go eventually only after he had promised to come back with "the rights of Divine law and the constitution of the holy Church" uninjured. Syropulus and other Greek writers charge Isidore with perjury because in spite of this he accepted the union. Only after its internet debut in 2000, ''Happy Tree Friends'' became an unexpected success, getting over 15 million hits each month, WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland
by the rulers of Lithuania, and after rulers from the Jagiellon dynasty became kings of Poland, it was later found among the titles used by kings of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Polish kings of the Swedish Vasa (House of Vasa) dynasty also used this grand princely title for their non-Polish territories. Modern translations normally credit the Lithuanian monarch with the title of "High King". The title ''Didysis kunigaikštis'' (in Lithuanian) was used
the birth name of Maria Skłodowska-Curie (Marie Curie), the Polish (Poland)-born French (France) scientist. '''Tarnowski''' (plural: '''Tarnowscy''') is the surname of a Polish (Poland) szlachta (nobility) family. Because Polish adjectives have different forms for the genders, '''Tarnowska''' is the form for a female family member. Education and early life Born in Niederkappel, Upper Austria, Kirschläger was orphaned at the age of 11. He graduated from High School
team Polish national football team played its first international match in 1921. In Poland for many years held Polish Rally Championship (Rajdowe Samochodowe Mistrzostwa Polski) RSMP are played from 1928. The Rally Poland (Rajd Polski) is the second oldest rally in the world after the famous classic Rally Monte Carlo. Between 1998-2001 the level was the strongest in Europe because racing many great drivers in WRC (World Rally Car) cars. For a poor policy Polski Związek
PLEASE DO NOT make any changes to the following section before discussing them on the discussion page (Talk:Poland). Thank you. ------
'''Poland''' , making it the 71st largest country (List of countries and dependencies by area) in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country (List of countries by population) in the world, the sixth most populous member of the European Union (Member state of the European Union), and the most populous post-communist member of the European Union. Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions (voivodeship).
Many historians trace the establishment of a Polish state to 966, when Mieszko I (Mieszko I of Poland), ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland (Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)) was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a longstanding political association (Polish–Lithuanian union) with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin, forming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth gradually ceased to exist in the years 1772–1795, when the Polish territory was partitioned (Partitions of Poland) among Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), the Russian Empire, and Austria (Habsburg Monarchy). Poland regained its independence (History of Poland (1918–39)) (as the Second Polish Republic) at the end of World War I, in 1918.
Two decades later, in September 1939, World War II started with the invasions of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union (as part of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact). More than six million Polish citizens died in the war. Project in Posterum, Poland World War II casualties. Retrieved 20 September 2013. Holocaust: Five Million Forgotten: Non-Jewish Victims of the Shoah. Remember.org. AFP Expatica, ''Polish experts lower nation's WWII death toll'', Expatica.com, 30 August 2009 Tomasz Szarota & Wojciech Materski, ''Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami'', Warsaw, IPN 2009, ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 (Introduction online.) In 1944, a Soviet-backed Polish provisional government (Polish Committee of National Liberation) was formed, which, after a period of conflict, falsified referendum (Polish people's referendum, 1946) and elections (Polish legislative election, 1947), gave rise to a satellite state Rao, B. V. (2006), History of Modern Europe Ad 1789-2002: A.D. 1789-2002, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. of the Soviet Union, ''Polish Republic'' (''Rzeczpospolita Polska''), renamed to the People's Republic of Poland (''Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa'') in 1952. During the Revolutions of 1989, Poland's Marxist–Leninist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy under the name ''Rzeczpospolita Polska'', often referred to as the "Third Polish Republic" (''III Rzeczpospolita'').
Despite the vast destruction (World War II casualties of Poland) the country experienced during World War II (Occupation of Poland (1939–45)), Poland managed to preserve much of its cultural wealth (Culture of Poland). There are 14 heritage sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage (List of World Heritage Sites of Poland) and 54 Historical Monuments (List of Historic Monuments (Poland)) and many objects of cultural heritage (Objects of cultural heritage in Poland). Since the end of the communist period (People's Republic of Poland), Poland has achieved a "very high" ranking in terms of human development (Human Development Index), as well as gradually improving economic freedom. http: www.heritage.org research reports 2015 01 asia-pacific