Poland

What is Poland known for?


complex analysis

Contribs) (Special:Contributions Trevor macinnis) 21:05, 6 September 2005 (UTC) #I concur with prior statements: if Wikipedia and its undercrowd intend it to become an all-encompassing compendium of knowledge, polls are vital. The more polls, poles, Poles (Poland), and others, the merrier (and more 'multipolar') Wp will be. :) E Pluribus Anthony (User:E Pluribus Anthony) 07:25, 18 November 2005 (UTC) # Wikipedia needs more poles (Pole (complex analysis)) of order n, preferable for large n! -- SCZenz (User:SCZenz) 09:02, 6 December 2005 (UTC) '''Josef Hassid''' ( WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland


deep commitment

. thumb right The Dinosaurs Valley (reconstructions of prehistoric reptiles) within Silesian Culture and Recreation Park (File:Śląski Ogród Zoologiczny - kotlina dinozaurów.jpg) in Poland's (Poland) Upper-Silesian Metropolis (Metropolitan Association of Upper Silesia). thumb The Meadow of Atlanta Atlanta, Georgia's (File:Piedmont-park-urban-park.jpg) Piedmont Park. Gandhi's deep commitment and disciplined belief in non-violent civil disobedience as a way to oppose tyranny


book book

. '''''The Great Escape''''' is a 1963 American film about an escape by Allied (Allies of World War II) prisoners of war (prisoner of war) from a German POW camp (Stalag) during World War II, starring Steve McQueen, James Garner, and Richard Attenborough. The film is based on the book of the same name (The Great Escape (book)) by Paul Brickhill, a non-fiction account of the mass escape (Stalag_Luft_III#The_.22Great_Escape.22) from Stalag Luft III in Sagan (now Żagań, Poland), in the province of Lower Silesia, Nazi Germany. Some of the characters are composites of real men. The film was made by the Mirisch Company, released by United Artists, and produced and directed by John Sturges. In the Karnstein Trilogy, based loosely on J. Sheridan Le Fanu's early vampire novella ''Carmilla'', Hammer showed some of the most explicit scenes of lesbianism yet seen in mainstream English language films. Despite otherwise traditional Hammer design and direction, there was also a corresponding increase in scenes of nudity in the films during this era. The ''Karnstein Trilogy'' comprises: * ''The Vampire Lovers'' (1970), featuring Polish (Poland) actress Ingrid Pitt * ''Lust for a Vampire'' (1971) In 2001 a twinning agreement was officially established with the Polish (Poland) district of Racibórz. *Mały Kieżmarski Szczyt (north face), Tatra Mountains, Slovakia about 900 m denivelation (vertical rise) *Giewont (north face), Tatra Mountains, Poland, 852 m above '''Polana Strążyska''' glade (Glade (geography)) *Kazalnica Mięguszowiecka, Tatra Mountains, Poland 576 m above the Czarny Staw pod Rysami *Giewont (north face), Tatra Mountains, Poland, 852 m above '''Polana Strążyska''' glade (Glade (geography)) *Kazalnica Mięguszowiecka, Tatra Mountains, Poland 576 m above the Czarny Staw pod Rysami *The six great north faces of the Alps (Great north faces of the Alps) (Cima Grande di Lavaredo 450 m, Eiger 1,500 m, Grandes Jorasses 1,100 m, Matterhorn 1,350 m, Petit Dru (Aiguille du Dru) 1,000 m, and Piz Badile 850 m) right 150px thumb POW memorial in Hemer (File:Duloh Gedaenkstaette.jpg) The first Polish POWs arrived in October 1939, and had to sleep on the floor as the beds were still not finished. Inadequate equipment remained a problem throughout the whole of the war, both because the material was needed at the front, and also because the camp was permanently overpopulated. At first the inmates were mostly from Poland and France, but after the beginning of the war with the Soviet Union in 1941 Soviet POWs quickly became the majority. Range and habitat The cave bear's range stretched across Europe, from Spain to Eurasia, from Italy and Greece to Belgium, the Netherlands and Great Britain, across a portion of Germany through Poland, then south into Hungary, Romania and parts of Russia, Caucasus and northern Iran. There have been no traces of cave bears living in northern Britain, Scandinavia or the Baltic countries, which were covered in extensive glaciers at the time. The largest numbers of cave bear remains have been found in Austria, Switzerland, southern Germany, northern Italy, northern Spain, Croatia, Hungary, and Romania. The huge number of bones found in south, central and east Europe has led some scientists to think that Europe may have once had literal herds of cave bears. Some however point out that though some caves have thousands of bones, they were accumulated over a period of 100,000 years or more, thus requiring only two deaths in a cave per year to account for the large numbers. WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland


album+radical

niepamięci '' or ''Play It Again''. In 1992 he even was named Best Polish Star of 1991 by readers of magazine "Popcorn" for teenagers. His next album ''Neopositive'' from 1992 repeated commercial success of ''Acoustic'', thanks to the huge hit ''Tolerancja'', which became his biggest one in all his career. In that year he also won the Bursztynowy Słowik - Grand Prix of Sopot International Song Festival. Another album, ''Radical Graża'' from 1994, was a mediocre commercial success, just


high growing

;ndash; the only ''Impatiens'' species native to Central and Northern Europe – and utilizes similar habitats, but no evidence exists of natural hybrid (hybrid (biology))s. Small Balsam (''I. parviflora''), originally native to southern Central Asia, is even more extensively naturalized in Europe. More problematic is the Himalayan Balsam (''I. glandulifera''), a high-growing species which displaces smaller plants by denying them sunlight. It is an invasive weed in many


books short

School. While there, Benda studied under Robert Henri and Edward Penfield. Starting in 1905, Benda was primarily a graphic artist. He illustrated books, short stories, advertising copy, and magazine covers for ''Collier's (Collier's (magazine))'', ''McCall's'', ''Ladies' Home Journal'', ''Good Housekeeping'', ''Theatre Magazine'' and many others. Many publishers regarded Benda as their go-to artist for his dependability and artistic abilities. In his time he


guest performances

Blabbermouth.net url http: www.roadrunnerrecords.com blabbermouth.net news.aspx?mode Article&newsitemID 95159 accessdate 2008-05-12 On August 13, it was announced that the album would also feature guest performances by Joe Rico of the band Sacrifice, with whom Believer toured in the early 1990s, and Rocky Gray of Living Sacrifice.


working national

, church leaders often preach on the spiritual significance of the Epiphany. In 2011, by an act of Parliament, Epiphany was restored as an official non-working national public holiday in Poland for the first time since it was cancelled under communism fifty


early+unique

due to large scale urbanization, its early unique character can be still felt in the surviving miners' housings, the marketplace, numerous individual buildings and structures, as well as the relatively well preserved general design of a "Garden city" (Garden city movement). '''Bogucice''' ( ) is a district of Katowice, in Poland. The village was probably founded in the 13th century once the first mention of Bogucice dates from 15 December 1360


highly progressive

political factions often collide and police will usually close off the area where parades and rallies are held. Combined with May 3 (see below), this holiday provides for a surefire long weekend in most years and will see many Poles enjoy a holiday outside of their place of residence. * '''Constitution Day''' (''Święto Konstytucji Trzeciego Maja'') - '''3 May''', celebrated in remembrance of the Constitution of 3 May 1791. The document itself was a highly progressive attempt at political reform, and it was Europe's first constitution (and world's second, after the US). Following the partitions, the original Constitution became a highly poignant symbol of national identity and ideals. * '''Pentecost''' (''Zesłanie Ducha Świętego'' or ''Zielone Świątki'') - movable feast, celebrated '''7 weeks after Easter''', which is always on a '''Sunday'''. It is a relatively low-key religious holiday compared to the other listed, or the way it is celebrated in predominantly protestant countries. Since this is a Sunday, it may make little difference in some cases and some Poles do not even know it is a public holiday, but in case of establishments normally open on Sundays you may find them closed on that day. Pentecost is a two-day holiday in many countries, but the second day (Monday) is not a public holiday and not widely celebrated in Poland. * '''The Feast of Corpus Christi''' (''Boże Ciało'') - another movable feast, is celebrated on the '''Thursday''' after Trinity Sunday, or '''sixty days after Easter'''. It is celebrated across the country; in smaller locations virtually the whole village or town becomes involved in a procession, and all traffic is stopped as the procession weaves its way through the streets. * '''Assumption''' (''Wniebowzięcie Najświętszej Marii Panny'') coinciding with ''Day of the Polish Military'' ('''Święto Wojska Polskiego''') - '''15 August''', commemorating the victory of the Polish Army over the invading Soviet (Red) Army in the Battle of Warsaw. The victory was attributed by the religious to the influence of the Virgin Mary. The day is thus marked with both catholic religious festivities and military parades. * '''All Saints Day''' (''Wszystkich Świętych'') - '''1 November'''. In the afternoon people visit graves of their relatives and light candles. After dusk cemeteries glow with thousands of lights and offer a very picturesque scene. If you have the chance, be sure to visit a cemetery to witness the holiday. Many restaurants, bars and cafés will either be closed or close earlier than usual on this holiday. * '''Independence Day''' (''Narodowe Święto Niepodległości'') - '''11 November''', celebrated to commemorate Poland's independence in 1918, after 123 years of partitions and occupation by Austria, Prussia and Russia. Some somber official celebrations, as well as another slew of politically-inspired rallys are bound to be held. Neither would be of particular interest or especially accessible to most tourists. There are also big patriotic demonstrations and marches in larger cities, especially in Warsaw, where they usually end with riots. * '''Christmas Eve''' (''Wigilia Bożego Narodzenia'' or simply ''Wigilia'') - '''24 December''' is actually '''not''' a public holiday, but for the Poles may be more important to celebrate than the Christmas Days itself. is definitely the year's most important feast. According to Catholic tradition, celebration of liturgical feasts starts in the evening of the preceding day (a vigil, hence ''wigilia''). In Polish folklore, this translates into a special family dinner, which traditionally calls for a twelve course meatless meal (representing the twelve apostles), which is supposed to begin in the evening, after the first star can be spotted in the night sky. On Christmas Eve most stores will close around two or three in the afternoon at the latest out of respect for traditions rather than the law. It is also a Polish tradition to do not leave anybody alone on Christmas Eve, so Polish people tend to be extremely hospitable on the evening and on many occasions will invite their lonely friends to participate in the traditional dinner (which is disappointing when turned down). It is also acceptable to ask your friends if you could join them if you're alone. There's also a tradition of Midnight Mass on that day (''Pasterka''), when Christmas carols are sung. * '''Christmas''' (''Boże Narodzenie'') - ''' 25 and 26 December'''. On Christmas days people will still usually stay home and enjoy meals and meetings with families and sometimes close friends. Everything apart from essential services will be closed and public transport will be severely limited. * '''New Year's Eve''' (''Sylwester'') - '''31 December''' is '''not''' a public holiday, but many businesses will close early. Pretty much all hotels, restaurants, bars and clubs will host special balls or parties, requiring previous reservations and carrying hefty price tags. In cities, free open-air parties with live music and firework displays are organized by the authorities on central squares. Regions Poland's administrative regions are called ''województwa'', abbreviated "''woj.''". The word is translated as ''voivodeship'' or ''province''. WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland

Poland

PLEASE DO NOT make any changes to the following section before discussing them on the discussion page (Talk:Poland). Thank you. ------

'''Poland''' , making it the 71st largest country (List of countries and dependencies by area) in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country (List of countries by population) in the world, the sixth most populous member of the European Union (Member state of the European Union), and the most populous post-communist member of the European Union. Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions (voivodeship).

Many historians trace the establishment of a Polish state to 966, when Mieszko I (Mieszko I of Poland), ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland (Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)) was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a longstanding political association (Polish–Lithuanian union) with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin, forming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth gradually ceased to exist in the years 1772–1795, when the Polish territory was partitioned (Partitions of Poland) among Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), the Russian Empire, and Austria (Habsburg Monarchy). Poland regained its independence (History of Poland (1918–39)) (as the Second Polish Republic) at the end of World War I, in 1918.

Two decades later, in September 1939, World War II started with the invasions of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union (as part of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact). More than six million Polish citizens died in the war. Project in Posterum, Poland World War II casualties. Retrieved 20 September 2013. Holocaust: Five Million Forgotten: Non-Jewish Victims of the Shoah. Remember.org. AFP Expatica, ''Polish experts lower nation's WWII death toll'', Expatica.com, 30 August 2009 Tomasz Szarota & Wojciech Materski, ''Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami'', Warsaw, IPN 2009, ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 (Introduction online.) In 1944, a Soviet-backed Polish provisional government (Polish Committee of National Liberation) was formed, which, after a period of conflict, falsified referendum (Polish people's referendum, 1946) and elections (Polish legislative election, 1947), gave rise to a satellite state Rao, B. V. (2006), History of Modern Europe Ad 1789-2002: A.D. 1789-2002, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. of the Soviet Union, ''Polish Republic'' (''Rzeczpospolita Polska''), renamed to the People's Republic of Poland (''Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa'') in 1952. During the Revolutions of 1989, Poland's Marxist–Leninist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy under the name ''Rzeczpospolita Polska'', often referred to as the "Third Polish Republic" (''III Rzeczpospolita'').

Despite the vast destruction (World War II casualties of Poland) the country experienced during World War II (Occupation of Poland (1939–45)), Poland managed to preserve much of its cultural wealth (Culture of Poland). There are 14 heritage sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage (List of World Heritage Sites of Poland) and 54 Historical Monuments (List of Historic Monuments (Poland)) and many objects of cultural heritage (Objects of cultural heritage in Poland). Since the end of the communist period (People's Republic of Poland), Poland has achieved a "very high" ranking in terms of human development (Human Development Index), as well as gradually improving economic freedom. http: www.heritage.org research reports 2015 01 asia-pacific

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