Pingliang

What is Pingliang known for?


modern

with was another incursion by Xue Ju, as Xue attacked Jing Prefecture (涇州, roughly modern Pingliang, Gansu) and Emperor Gaozu sent Li Shimin to resist Xue. Li Shimin established his defenses and refused to engage Xue to try to wear Xue Ju out, but at that time, he was afflicted with malaria, and he let his assistants Liu Wenjing and Yin Kaishan (殷開山) take command, ordering them not to engage Xue Ju. Liu and Yin, however, did not take Xue Ju seriously, and Xue Ju ambushed them at Qianshui

Plain (淺水原, in modern Xianyang), crushing Tang forces and inflicting 50%-60% casualties. Li Shimin was forced to withdraw back to Chang'an, and Liu and Yin were removed from their posts. (This would be Li Shimin's only defeat recorded in historical records until the Goguryeo campaign of 645.) Xue Ju, in light of his victory, was ready to launch an assault on Chang'an itself, under Hao Yuan's advice, but suddenly died of an illness in fall 618 and was succeeded by Xue Rengao. Emperor Gaozu

then sent Li Shimin against Xue Rengao. Three months after Xue Rengao took the throne, Li Shimin engaged him, and after a fierce battle between Li Shimin and Xue Rengao's major general Zong Luohou (宗羅睺), Li Shimin crushed Zong's forces, and then attacked Xue Rengao. Xue Rengao was forced to withdraw into the city of Gaozhi (高墌, in modern Xianyang as well), and once he did, his soldiers began surrendering to Li Shimin in mass. Xue Rengao was himself forced to surrender. Li Shimin had him


important site

about 11 hours * '''Urumqi''' - takes about 26 hours * '''Xian''' - takes about 7 hours * '''Yinchuan''' - takes about 8 hours By bus West Bus Station is at National Hwy 312, 2.5km west of the center of town. * '''Guyuan''' - takes about 2 hours * '''Lanzhou''' - takes about 5 hours * '''Xian''' - takes about 5 hours Get around See * '''Kongtongshan National Park''' - important site in the Taoist religion Do Buy Eat Drink Sleep Budget *


attacking

together, offering to submit to Former Yan and seeking Former Yan aid. However, Murong Ping refused assistance. Fú Jiān sent forces to attack the four rebellious dukes separately. Fu Wu and Fu Shuang were quickly defeated and killed, followed by Fu Liu and Fu Sou. Later in the year, Emperor Zhaozong made another attempt to take back Fengxiang. Li Maozhen had submitted a petition accusing Wang Jian of attacking Dongchuan against imperial orders. Emperor Zhaozong reacted by issuing an edict

defensive position at Nan'an. By this point, Nan'an was all he could hold; all of his old territory in the west had been seized by Tuyuhun. In 416, after Helian Bobo had captured the Later Qin city Yinmi (陰密, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), he commissioned Helian Chang as the governor of Yong Province (雍州, roughly modern central and northern Shaanxi, but at that point still mostly in Later Qin hands) to defend Yinmi. Meanwhile, two other Northern Wei forces were attacking two

other key Xia cities—the general Daxi Jin (達奚斤) was attacking Puban (蒲阪, in modern Yuncheng (Yuncheng, Shanxi), Shanxi), and the general Pu Ji (普幾) was attacking Shancheng (陝城, in modern Sanmenxia, Henan). Pu was quickly able to capture Shancheng and then advanced into the Chang'an region, but died of an illness on the way, and so his army withdrew. Meanwhile, when Daxi approached Puban, the Xia general defending Puban, Helian Yidou (赫連乙斗) sent a messenger to Tongwan requesting help


54

34° 54' to 35° 46' N and in longitude from 105° 20' to 107° 51' E. Bordering prefecture-level cities are Xianyang (Shaanxi) to the east, Baoji (Shaanxi) and Tianshui to the south, Dingxi and Baiyin to the west, and Guyuan (Ningxia) and Qingyang to the north. It is located on the Loess Plateau with elevations ranging from . Due to its altitude

Feb humidity 56 Mar humidity 59 Apr humidity 56 May humidity 60 Jun humidity 64 Jul humidity 72 Aug humidity 75 Sep humidity 78 Oct humidity 74 Nov humidity 65 Dec humidity 57 Jan sun 192.8 Jan percentsun 62 Feb sun 164.8 Feb percentsun 54 Mar sun 177.5 Mar percentsun 48 Apr sun 211.7 Apr percentsun 54 May sun 237.8 May percentsun 55 Jun sun 233.0 Jun percentsun 54 Jul sun 229.8 Jul percentsun 52 Aug sun 216.6 Aug percentsun 52


major military

Dezong due to incompetence, Yang was solely in charge of the government, and he revived major military projects that Yuan had advocated until his downfall — to rebuild Yuan Prefecture (原州, in modern Guyuan, Ningxia), formerly Tang territory but which had become part of the no man's land between territories held by Tang and Tufan, as a forward advance base for a campaign to recapture lands lost to Tufan; and to conscript labor from the regions of the two capitals (Chang'an and Luoyang) and Guanzhong to reopen Lingyang Aqueduct (陵陽渠, flowing through Bayan Nur, Inner Mongolia) in order to promote agriculture in the region by soldiers. When Duan Xiushi, the military governor of Jingyuan Circuit (涇原, headquartered in modern Pingliang, Gansu) opposed the projects on account that it would provoke a Tufan attack, Yang, angered by Duan's opposition, had Duan recalled to the capital to serve in the relatively powerless post as minister of agriculture. When the disciplinarian general Li Huaiguang was subsequently named to succeed Duan, Duan's soldiers, fearing Li Huaiguang's harshness, rebelled under the leadership of the officer Liu Wenxi (劉文喜). While Liu was quickly killed by his own subordinates, and the rebellion dissipated, neither Yuan Prefecture nor Lingyang Aquedate was actually ever rebuilt. Meanwhile, Emperor Dezong, under Yang's proposal, also began to consider campaigns to recapture the western prefectures lost to Tufan during and immediately after the Anshi Rebellion. However, his putting Li Huaiguang, known for being a harsh commander, in charge of the project caused a mutiny of the soldiers at Jingyuan Circuit (涇原, headquartered in modern Pingliang, Gansu) in 780. Emperor Dezong had the Jingyuan mutiny suppressed, to show resolve, but was forced to abandon the plans to act against Tufan. Around the new year 769, at the suggestion of the chancellor (chancellor of Tang Dynasty) Yuan Zai, the three prefectures belonging to Binning Circuit were merged into Guo Ziyi's command. Ma, along with his army, was moved to Jingyuan Circuit (涇原, headquartered in modern Pingliang, Gansu). Ma took part of the army to the capital of Jingyuan Circuit, Jing Prefecture, first, to rebuild the walls, while briefly having Duan remain at Bin Prefecture to oversee the troop movements. The soldiers under Ma's command were still largely soldiers who had come from Anxi in 756 to fight the Yan rebels and who had since been moved multiple locations. They were displeased about being moved once again, and the officer Wang Tongzhi (王童之) subsequently organized a plot to rise in mutiny. Duan found out about the plot and prepared to counteract; once Wang's plot exposed itself, he executed Wang and eight other coconspirators, and the rest of the army did not dare to resist the subsequent move to Jing Prefecture. The journey took the travellers from Peking to Tungkuan, then Sian (Xi'an), Pingliang, Lanchow (Lanzhou), Sining (Xining), Dzunchia, Teijinar, Issik Pakte, Cherchen, Niya, Keriya, Khotan, Guma (Guma, China), Karghalik, Yarkand (Yarkant County), Kashgar, Tashkurgan, Hunza (Hunza (princely state)), Nagar (Nagar, Pakistan), Gilgit (Gilgit, Pakistan) and finally Srinagar. In 367, after Murong Ke's death and replacement by the far less capable Murong Ping, Fú Jiān began plans to conquer Former Yan. He would soon, however, have to contend with the possibility that his empire would be the one so conquered, as in winter of that year, Fu Liu (at Puban (蒲阪, in modern Yuncheng (Yuncheng, Shanxi), Shanxi)), Fu Sou (at Shancheng (陝城), in modern Sanmenxia, Henan)), Fu Wu (at Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu)), and Fú Jiān's brother Fu Shuang (苻雙) the Duke of Zhao (at Shanggui (上邽, in modern Tianshui, Gansu)), rebelled together, offering to submit to Former Yan and seeking Former Yan aid. However, Murong Ping refused assistance. Fú Jiān sent forces to attack the four rebellious dukes separately. Fu Wu and Fu Shuang were quickly defeated and killed, followed by Fu Liu and Fu Sou. Later in the year, Emperor Zhaozong made another attempt to take back Fengxiang. Li Maozhen had submitted a petition accusing Wang Jian of attacking Dongchuan against imperial orders. Emperor Zhaozong reacted by issuing an edict demoting Wang to be the prefect of Nan Prefecture (南州, in modern Chongqing), making Li Maozhen the military governor of Xichuan to replace Wang, and making Li Sizhou the military governor of Fengxiang to replace Li Maozhen. Both Wang and Li Maozhen refused to follow the edict, and Li Maozhen further refused to let Li Sizhou to reach Fengxiang by putting Li Sizhou under siege at Fengtian. Only after Han wrote Li Maozhen did Li Maozhen lift the siege on Fengtian to allow Li Sizhou to return to Hua. (Li Sizhou — and 10 other princes — however, did not escape death. Soon after Li Sizhou's return to Hua, Li Jiepi returned from Hedong, thus exposing the fact that Li Keyong was in no shape to aid the emperor. With that possibility gone, Han slaughtered the imperial princes, including Li Sizhou, Li Jiepi, and Emperor Zhaozong's uncle Li Zi the Prince of Tong, and then claimed to Emperor Zhaozong that they were plotting treason.) Emperor Zhaozong did make Zhang Lian (張璉) the military governor of Zhangyi Circuit (彰義, headquartered in modern Pingliang, Gansu) the commander of the operations against Li Maozhen, but it appeared that Zhang was either unable or unwilling to attack Li Maozhen, for there was no further record of what Zhang did in the campaign. Emperor Zhaozong also stripped Li Maozhen of his titles and his imperially-bestowed name of LI Maozhen, referring to him as Song Wentong again. (After Emperor Zhaozong's declaration of the campaign against Li Maozhen, Li Jitang abandoned Kuangguo and fled back to Fengxiang; Han thereafter took over Kuangguo as well.) In 392, Yao Chang grew ill, and Fu Deng, hearing this, made a major attack on the important Later Qin city Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), but Yao Chang, in his illness, nevertheless faced him in battle, forcing Fu Deng to withdraw -- and then, in the engagement, made a clean evasive maneuver with his troops and disengaged, to Fu Deng's surprise, and Fu Deng commented: Later in 392, Yao Chang grew ill, and Fu Deng, hearing this, made a major attack on the important Later Qin city Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), but Yao Chang, in his illness, nevertheless faced him in battle, forcing Fu Deng to withdraw—and then, in the engagement, made a clean evasive maneuver with his troops and disengaged, to Fu Deng's surprise, and Fu Deng commented: In 783, when a mutiny by soldiers from Jingyuan Circuit (涇原, headquartered in Pingliang, Gansu) forced Emperor Dezong to abandon Chang'an and flee to Fengtian (奉天, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi), Li Song accompanied Emperor Dezong to Fengtian, and was said to have personally protected Emperor Dezong during the journey to Fengtian, along with his younger brother Li Yi (李誼) the Prince of Pu. ''Zizhi Tongjian'', vol. 228 (:zh:s:資治通鑑 卷228). Li Yi was biologically the son of Emperor Dezong's younger brother Li Miao, but was adopted by Emperor Dezong by Emperor Daizong's orders, presumably after Li Miao's death. See ''Book of Tang'', vol. 150. After the Jingyuan soldiers supported the general Zhu Ci as their emperor (of a new state of Qin), Zhu put Fengtian under siege, and Li Song was said to have personally participated in the defense of Fengtian, including personally encouraging soldiers and attending to the wounded. ''Zizhi Tongjian'', vol. 229 (:zh:s:資治通鑑 卷229). Late 416, Yao Yi, who was in charge of Puban (蒲阪, in modern Yuncheng (Yuncheng, Shanxi), Shanxi), rebelled, but with little popular support, Yao Shao was able to quickly capture Puban and arrest him. However, rebellions continued. In 417, Yao Hong's cousin Yao Hui (姚恢) the Duke of Qi rebelled, abandoning his post of Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu) and using all forces at Anding (a major defense post during Later Qin) against Yao Hong. Yao Shao and his son Yao Zan (姚讚), however, were able to capture and kill Yao Hui quickly as well. In 408, believing that Later Qin was growing weaker, he built a castle at Kanglang Mountain (嵻崀山, in modern Lanzhou, Gansu) to both prepare to defend himself against Later Qin's enemies and against a potential Later Qin campaign against him. In 409, he captured Fuhan from the Later Qin rebel Peng Xi'nian (彭奚念) and secretly sent messengers to inform Qifu Gangui of this. Qifu Gangui, who was then attending Yao Xing at Pingliang (平涼, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), then escaped and fled back to Wanchuan to join him. Soon, Qifu Gangui moved his home base to Dujianshan (度堅山, in modern Baiyin, Gansu) but left Qifu Chipan in command of Fuhan. Late that year, Qifu Gangui redeclared independence with the title Prince of Qin, and he created Qifu Chipan crown prince again. In 416, with Later Qin, now under the rule of Yao Xing's son Yao Hong, under a major attack by the Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)) general Liu Yu (Emperor Wu of Liu Song), Helian Bobo believed that Later Qin would fall to Jin, but that Jin would not be easily able to hold Later Qin's capital region -- Guanzhong. He therefore intensified his own attacks on Later Qin as well, and preparing to use the opportunity of Later Qin's destruction to seize more territory. As Later Qin neared destruction, Helian Bobo seized its western territory, centering Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), and then prepared for an eventual confrontation with Jin forces, which destroyed Later Qin in 417 and captured its capital Chang'an. In 428, Daxi and Qiudun Dui, trying to capture Helian Chang, instead became trapped by Helian Chang in the city of Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu). However, Daxi's subordinates Weichi Juan (尉遲眷) and Anchi Jia (安遲頡) made a surprise attack and captured Helian Chang. Helian Ding took over as the emperor of Xia. Meanwhile, Emperor Taiwu treated Helian Chang as an honored guest, supplying Helian Chang with the same supplies that he himself used, and he married his sister Princess Shiping to Helian Chang and created him the Duke of Kuaiji; he also rewarded Weichi and Anchi greatly and created them dukes. Subsequently, Daxi, humiliated that his subordinates captured Helian Chang and he himself appeared helpless, aggressively pursued Helian Ding, but instead was defeated and captured by Helian Ding. In fear, Qiudun and Tuoba Li (拓拔禮) the Prince of Gaoliang abandoned Chang'an as well and fled to Puban, allowing Xia to recapture Chang'an. In anger, although Qiudun had been a high level official for him since the days that he was crown prince, he had Anchi execute Qiudun and take over his position. For the time being, Emperor Taiwu left Helian Ding alone, while preparing an assault on Rouran instead, since Rouran had been harassing the northern border region. At this time, Western Qin not only had to face Northern Liang attacks, but had suffered a major earthquake in late 429 and a major drought for most of 430 as well. Most of Qifu Mumo's people fled. He felt that his state could no longer stand. He sent his officials Wang Kai (王愷) and Wuna Tian (烏訥闐) to submit to Northern Wei, requesting Northern Wei troops to escort him to Northern Wei territory. Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei was pleased, and promised that after he can destroy Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)), he would bestow Xia's Pingliang (平涼) and Anding (安定) Commanderies (collectively roughly modern Pingliang, Gansu) as Qifu Mumo's domain. Qifu Mumo therefore destroyed his own royal treasury and set Fuhan ablaze, heading east with the only 15,000 households that remained under him, to try to join Northern Wei troops at Shanggui (上邽, in modern Tianshui, Gansu), but the Xia emperor Helian Ding (Helian Chang's brother and successor), upon hearing this, engaged him and stopped his advances, and he was forced to take up defensive position at Nan'an. By this point, Nan'an was all he could hold; all of his old territory in the west had been seized by Tuyuhun. In 416, after Helian Bobo had captured the Later Qin city Yinmi (陰密, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), he commissioned Helian Chang as the governor of Yong Province (雍州, roughly modern central and northern Shaanxi, but at that point still mostly in Later Qin hands) to defend Yinmi. Meanwhile, two other Northern Wei forces were attacking two other key Xia cities—the general Daxi Jin (達奚斤) was attacking Puban (蒲阪, in modern Yuncheng (Yuncheng, Shanxi), Shanxi), and the general Pu Ji (普幾) was attacking Shancheng (陝城, in modern Sanmenxia, Henan). Pu was quickly able to capture Shancheng and then advanced into the Chang'an region, but died of an illness on the way, and so his army withdrew. Meanwhile, when Daxi approached Puban, the Xia general defending Puban, Helian Yidou (赫連乙斗) sent a messenger to Tongwan requesting help—but when the messenger arrived at Tongwan, he saw Northern Wei forces attacking it, and he ran back to Puban, informing Helian Yidou incorrectly that Tongwan had fallen. Helian Yidou therefore abandoned Puban and fled to Chang'an, and after he arrived there, he and Helian Chang's brother Helian Zhuxing (赫連助興), who was defending Chang'an, abandoned it and fled to Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), and Northern Wei thus captured the southern half of Xia. In spring 428, after initially withdrawing further from Shanggui to Pingliang (平涼, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), Helian Chang went back on the offensive and sieged Daxi's army, which was then afflicted by illnesses, at Anding (安定, also in modern Pingliang). However, during the siege, the Northern Wei officers Anchi Jia (安遲頡) and Weichi Juan (尉遲眷) made a surprise attack on him, and he fell of his horse and was captured. Helian Ding gathered the remaining troops and withdrew to Pingliang. He took the throne himself. (Name unknown) was the wife of Helian Ding, the last emperor of the Chinese (History of China) Xiongnu state Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)). Very little is known about her—not even her name. Helian Ding took the throne in 428 after his brother Helian Chang was captured by rival Northern Wei's forces, and it was sometime after that he created her empress. When his brothers Helian Shegan (赫連社干) the Duke of Shanggu and Helian Duluogu (赫連度洛孤) the Duke of Guangyang surrendered his capital Pingliang (平涼, in modern Pingliang, Gansu) to Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei in 430, she was captured. Emperor Taiwu gave her to his general Doudai Tian (豆代田) as a concubine. Nothing further is known about her.


780

circles, as, unlike most other chancellors of the time, there were no records of any other ancestors of his serving as officials. All that were recorded about his great-grandfather Niu Tong (牛通), grandfather Niu Hui (牛會), and father Niu Yi (牛意) were their names. ''New Book of Tang'', vol. 75. spring 780, With Cui Youfu seriously ill at that point and Qiao having been removed by Emperor

prefectures lost to Tufan during and immediately after the Anshi Rebellion. However, his putting Li Huaiguang, known for being a harsh commander, in charge of the project caused a mutiny of the soldiers at Jingyuan Circuit (涇原, headquartered in modern Pingliang, Gansu) in 780. Emperor Dezong had the Jingyuan mutiny suppressed, to show resolve, but was forced to abandon the plans to act against Tufan. Around the new year 769, at the suggestion of the chancellor


408

and his son Yao Zan (姚讚), however, were able to capture and kill Yao Hui quickly as well. In 408, believing that Later Qin was growing weaker, he built a castle at Kanglang Mountain (嵻崀山, in modern Lanzhou, Gansu) to both prepare to defend himself against Later Qin's enemies and against a potential Later Qin campaign against him. In 409, he captured Fuhan from the Later Qin rebel Peng Xi'nian (彭奚念) and secretly sent messengers to inform Qifu Gangui of this. Qifu Gangui, who


military projects

Dezong due to incompetence, Yang was solely in charge of the government, and he revived major military projects that Yuan had advocated until his downfall — to rebuild Yuan Prefecture (原州, in modern Guyuan, Ningxia), formerly Tang territory but which had become part of the no man's land between territories held by Tang and Tufan, as a forward advance base for a campaign to recapture lands lost to Tufan; and to conscript labor from the regions of the two capitals (Chang'an


defensive position

defensive position at Nan'an. By this point, Nan'an was all he could hold; all of his old territory in the west had been seized by Tuyuhun. In 416, after Helian Bobo had captured the Later Qin city Yinmi (陰密, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), he commissioned Helian Chang as the governor of Yong Province (雍州, roughly modern central and northern Shaanxi, but at that point still mostly in Later Qin hands) to defend Yinmi. Meanwhile, two other Northern Wei forces were attacking two


228

in Pingliang, Gansu) forced Emperor Dezong to abandon Chang'an and flee to Fengtian (奉天, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi), Li Song accompanied Emperor Dezong to Fengtian, and was said to have personally protected Emperor Dezong during the journey to Fengtian, along with his younger brother Li Yi (李誼) the Prince of Pu. ''Zizhi Tongjian'', vol. 228 (:zh:s:資治通鑑 卷228). Li Yi was biologically the son of Emperor Dezong's younger brother Li Miao, but was adopted

Pingliang

'''Pingliang''' ( ) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Gansu province, People's Republic of China, bordering Shaanxi province to the south and east and the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region to the north. Pingliang is well known for the nearby Kongtong Mountains, which are sacred to Taoism and location of the mythical meeting place of the Yellow Emperor and Guangchengzi, an immortal.

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