the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, permitting tribal nations to reorganize with self-government. It encouraged a model of elected representative governments and elected tribal chairmen or presidents, with written constitutions, further eroding the traditional hereditary leaders of the clan system. The Oglala Sioux Tribe developed a tribal government along such lines, with a chairman to be elected for a two-year term. This short term makes it difficult for leaders to accomplish longer-term
projects, but the tribe has not changed its constitution. The BIA still has had the ability to oversee some tribal operations, including the police, who were often assigned from other Indian tribes rather than representing local people. Many traditionalists among the Oglala Lakota never supported the new style of government; tribal elders were still respected, and there were multiple lines of authority and influence among different groups on the reservation. Political factions also formed between those who were mixed-bloods (mixed race) or had urban experiences, and those who were full-bloods and tended to be more traditional in practices and culture. ''Ruling Pine Ridge: Oglala Lakota Politics from the IRA to Wounded Knee'', Texas Tech University Press, 2007 The people continued to be under assimilation pressure: through the early part of the century, many children were sent away to Indian boarding schools where they were usually required to speak English and were prohibited from speaking Lakota. They were usually expected to practice Christianity rather than native religions. Many institutions were found to have had staff who abused the children in their care. "Wounded Knee", ''We Shall Remain'', PBS: American Experience, accessed 29 June 2011 Taking of Badlands Bombing Range thumb 100px right Dewey Beard A model for (File:Indian Head Buffalo Obverse.png) the Indian Head Nickel, or Buffalo Nickel, had his home taken when the Badlands Bombing Range was seized. In 1942 the Badlands Bombing Range of The '''Wounded Knee incident''' began February 27, 1973 when about 200 Oglala Lakota and followers of the American Indian Movement (AIM) seized and occupied the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The grassroots protest followed the failure of their effort to impeach the elected tribal president Richard Wilson (Dick Wilson (tribal chairman)), whom they accused of corruption and abuse of opponents; they also protested the United States government's failure to fulfill treaties with Indian peoples and demanded the reopening of treaty negotiations. Occupation On February 27, AIM leaders Russell Means (Oglala Sioux) and Carter Camp (Ponca), together with 200 activists and Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux) of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation who opposed Oglala tribal chairman Richard Wilson (Dick Wilson (tribal chairman)), occupied the town of Wounded Knee in protest against Wilson's administration, as well as against the federal government's persistent failures to honor its treaties with Native American nations. The U.S. government law enforcement, including FBI agents, surrounded Wounded Knee the same day with armed reinforcements. They gradually gained more arms. "Wounded Knee Incident." United States Marshals Service. Retrieved May 10, 2007. The video is focused on the case for Leonard Peltier, who was one of the leaders of the American Indian Movement (AIM). The band is performing live in a small venue throughout the video. During the video, footage from the Peltier case is examined and detailed with shots of Peltier and other members of AIM. There is also a reenactment of what took place on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The footage of this reenactment is from Michael Apted's 1992 documentary ''Incident at Oglala''. * After the Ghost Dance (w:Ghost Dance) spread across the Rockies to the Plains tribes it ran amok. ...The fervor attacked the Plains tribes virulently, particularly the Sioux, who were at that time the largest and the most intransigent or them all. The Sioux had been forced to submit to a series of land grabs and to indignities that are almost unbelievable when read about today. ...they were being systematically starved into submission—by the White Bureaucracy—on the little that was left of their reservation in South Dakota. ...From Rosebud (w:Rosebud Indian Reservation), the Ghost Dance spread like prairie fire to the Pine Ridge (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) Sioux and finally to Sitting Bull's people at Standing Rock (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation). The Sioux rebelled; the result was the death of Sitting Bull (w:Sitting Bull#Death and burial) and the massacre of the Indians (despite their ghost shirts) at Wounded Knee (w:Wounded Knee Massacre) in 1890. ** Peter Farb, ''Man's Rise to Civilization'' (1968) * The Sioux had been forced to submit to a series of land grabs and to indignities that are almost unbelievable when read about today. ...they were being systematically starved into submission—by the White Bureaucracy—on the little that was left of their reservation in South Dakota. ...From Rosebud (w:Rosebud Indian Reservation), the Ghost Dance spread like prairie fire to the Pine Ridge (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) Sioux and finally to Sitting Bull's people at Standing Rock (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation). The Sioux rebelled; the result was the death of Sitting Bull (w:Sitting Bull#Death and burial) and the massacre of the Indians (despite their ghost shirts (w:Ghost shirt)) at Wounded Knee (w:Wounded Knee Massacre) in 1890. Despite those rejections, Archer said that the Pine Ridge Reservation (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation)'s council may "consider the proposal." A representative for the Standing Rock Reservation (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation)'s council has said that that reservation is also considering Lakotah Oyate's proposal. Lakotah Oyate have also been holding discussions with "about 150" other indigenous organizations in the U.S. and mentioned particularly the Native Hawaiians (w:Native Hawaiians).
;Grace Lichtenstein. 1975, June 28. "16 Sioux Sought by F.B.I. in Slaying of 2 Agents". ''New York Times''. p. 59. At the trial in 1976, Kunstler subpoenaed prominent government officials to testify about the existence of a Counter-Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO) (COINTELPRO) against Native American activists. ''New York Times''. 1976, June 9. "Two Indians Go on Trial in Deaths of F.B.I. Agents". p. 16. District Judge Edward Joseph McManus
the reburial ceremonies. His activities resulted in the states of Kentucky and Indiana passing strict legislation against grave desecration. Russell Means, a notable American Indian (Indigenous peoples of the Americas) activist, serves on AIM's Elders (American Indian elder) Council. In 1999 he held a press conference in Denver with Robert Pictou-Branscombe, a maternal cousin of Anna Mae Pictou Aquash, the high-ranking AIM woman who was murdered in December
to bring together the affected parties in facilitated communication, together with members of the community; to settle on a form of reparation or compensation by the offender that is satisfactory to the victim, which may include money, public apology, and or community service work; and to bring the offender quickly back within the community with its support for the future. As the process is being used at Kahnawake, a Mohawk (Mohawk people) reserve in Canada, the First Nation community
works to intervene and settle issues before arrest. Susan Haslip, "The (Re)Introduction of Restorative Justice in Kahnawake: 'Beyond Indigenization'", ''E Law,'' Vol. 9 No. 1 (March 2002), Murdoch University, accessed 3 June 2011 Social issues and economy 300px thumb Pine Ridge Indian Health Service Hospital (File:Pine Ridge Indian Health Service Hospital.jpg) Pine Ridge is the eighth
Knee on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in 1973. Other events during the 1970s were designed to achieve the goal of gaining public attention. They ensured AIM would be noticed to highlight what they saw as the erosion of Indian rights and sovereignty. Banks, pp. 108-113; Leonard Crow Dog; Richard Erdoes. ''Crow Dog: Four Generations of Sioux Medicine Men'' (New York: Harper Perennial, 1996), pp. 170-171 ISBN 978-0-06-092682-3 ref name "Crow Dog and Erdoes
the goal of gaining public attention. They ensured AIM would be noticed to highlight what they saw as the erosion of Indian rights and sovereignty. Banks, pp. 108-113; Leonard Crow Dog; Richard Erdoes. ''Crow Dog: Four Generations of Sioux Medicine Men'' (New York: Harper Perennial, 1996), pp. 170-171 ISBN 978-0-06-092682-3 Mary Crow Dog; Richard Erdoes. ''Lakota Woman'' (New York: HarperPerennial, 1990) p. 88 ISBN 978-0-06
occurred on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek (Lakota (Lakota language): ''Cankpe Opi Wakpala''). On the day before, a detachment of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment (7th Cavalry Regiment (United States)) commanded by Major Samuel Whitside Samuel M
''' happened on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek (Lakota (Lakota language): ''Čhaŋkpé Ópi Wakpála'') on the Lakota (Lakota people) Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. On the day before, a detachment of the 7th Cavalry Regiment
epoch . History 19th century Great Sioux Reservation thumb Map showing the Great Sioux Reservation (File:Siouxreservationmap.png), subsequent loss of land to the federal government, and current holdings of the various Sioux reservations ;Red Cloud Agency As stipulated in the Fort Laramie Treaty (1868), the U.S. government built Indian agencies for the various Lakota and other Plains tribes. These were forerunners to the modern Indian reservations. The Red Cloud
died by friendly fire, as the shooting took place at close range in chaotic conditions. 20th century The White Clay
abstract.html?res F40616FA38551A7493CAAB178FD85F478785F9 title Shot Kills Indian At Wounded Knee publisher Select.nytimes.com date 1973-04-28 accessdate 2010-08-22 first Martin last Waldron In June 1975, two FBI agents seeking to make an armed robbery arrest at Pine Ridge Reservation were wounded in a firefight, and killed at close range. The AIM activist Leonard Peltier was sentenced in 1976 to two consecutive terms of life in prison in the FBI deaths.
when he was twelve years old and was raised by his grandmother. Mills took up running while attending the Haskell Institute, which is now known as Haskell Indian Nations University in Lawrence, Kansas. Both a boxer and a runner in his youth, Mills gave up boxing to focus on running. Early life Means was born in Wanblee, South Dakota, a community located in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, to Theodora Feather and Harold "Hank" Means. ref name "biodata"
Laurier University thumb left ''From a Native Son (File:FromaNativeSon.jpg)'' book cover Churchill's ''Indians Are Us?'' (1994), a sequel to ''Fantasies of the Master Race'', further explores American Indian (Native Americans in the United States) issues in popular culture and politics. He examines the movie ''Black Robe (Black Robe (film)),'' the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation killings, the prosecution of Leonard Peltier, sports mascots, the Indian Arts
The '''Pine Ridge Indian Reservation''' ('''''Wazí Aháŋhaŋ Oyáŋke''''' in Lakota (Lakota language), also called '''Pine Ridge Agency''') is an Oglala Lakota Native American (Native Americans in the United States) reservation (Indian reservation) located in the U.S. state of South Dakota. Originally included within the territory of the Great Sioux Reservation, Pine Ridge was established in 1889 in the southwest corner of South Dakota on the Nebraska border. Today it consists of 3,468.85 sq mi (8,984.306 km 2 ) of land area and is the eighth-largest reservation in the United States, larger than Delaware and Rhode Island combined.
The reservation encompasses the entirety of Shannon County (Shannon County, South Dakota), the southern half of Jackson County (Jackson County, South Dakota) and the northwest portion of Bennett County (Bennett County, South Dakota). Of the 3,143 counties in the United States, these are among the poorest (Lowest-income counties in the United States). Only of land are suitable for agriculture. Extensive off-reservation trust lands are held mostly scattered throughout Bennett County (all of Bennett County was part of Pine Ridge until May 1910), Paul Prucha: ''Atlas of American Indian Affairs'', p. 110) "Historical Allotment Legislation", Indiana Government and also extend into adjacent Pine Ridge (Whiteclay), Nebraska (Whiteclay, Nebraska) in Sheridan County (Sheridan County, Nebraska), just south of the community of Pine Ridge, South Dakota, the administrative center and largest community within the reservation. The 2000 census (United States Census, 2000) population of the reservation was 15,521; but a study conducted by Colorado State University and accepted by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development has estimated the resident population to reach 28,787. "Indian Housing Block Grant Formula", U.S. Housing and Urban Development
Pine Ridge is the site of several events that marked tragic milestones in the history between the Sioux of the area and the United States (U.S.) government. Stronghold Table—a mesa in what is today the Oglala-administered portion of Badlands National Park—was the location of the last of the Ghost Dances. The U.S. authorities' attempt to repress this movement eventually led to the Wounded Knee Massacre on December 29, 1890. A mixed band of Miniconjou Lakota and Hunkpapa Sioux, led by Chief Spotted Elk (Spotted Elk), sought sanctuary at Pine Ridge after fleeing the Standing Rock Agency, where Sitting Bull had been killed during efforts to arrest him. The families were intercepted by a heavily armed detachment of the Seventh Cavalry, which attacked them, killing many women and children as well as warriors. This was the last large engagement between U.S. forces and Native Americans (Indigenous peoples of the Americas) and marked the end of the western frontier.
Changes accumulated in the last quarter of the 20th century; in 1971 the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) started Oglala Lakota College, a tribal college (Tribal colleges and universities), which offers 4-year degrees. In 1973 decades of discontent at the Pine Ridge Reservation resulted in a grassroots protest that escalated into the Wounded Knee Incident, gaining national attention. Members of the Oglala Lakota, the American Indian Movement, and supporters occupied the town in defiance of federal and state law enforcement in a protest that turned into an armed standoff lasting 71 days. This event inspired American Indians across the country and gradually led to changes at the reservation, with a revival of some cultural traditions. In 1981 the Lakota Tim Giago started the ''Lakota Times'' at Pine Ridge, the first independent Native American newspaper in the nation, which he published until selling it in 1998.
At the southern end of the Badlands, the reservation is part of the mixed grass prairie, an ecological transition zone between the short-grass and tall-grass prairies; all are part of the Great Plains. A great variety of plant and animal life flourishes on and adjacent to the reservation, including the endangered black-footed ferret. The area is also important in the field of paleontology; it contains deposits of Pierre Shale formed on the seafloor of the Western Interior Seaway, evidence of the marine Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary (Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary), and one of the largest deposits of fossils of extinct mammals from the Oligocene epoch (Oligocene).