Peshawar

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innovative approach

are written by Sajid and arranged by Zeehsan, that vary from each other in terms of feel and expression. The group formed somewhere in the mid of 2003 and has scored two hits and critical praise for their innovative approach. - ODI 2324 6 Feb 2006 Inzamam-ul-Haq Rahul Dravid Arbab Niaz Stadium, Peshawar by 7 runs (D L (Duckworth-Lewis method)) - * Now


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(327 B.C.) by Alexander the Great. The region passed to Chandragupta, commons:Peshawar


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All these clues are very interesting and revealing. The region of Kabul Kapisa (Paropamisade) was the heartland of the Ashvakan (Asvakas) Kambojas who were especially engaged in horse-culture and cavalry profession. The linguistic traces of Kamboja have been found in plenty in ''Pull-i-Drunta'' and Lamghan (Laghman) valleys. Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 510, Dr GH. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; SAEA, p 66, n 12 We also know that just a century prior to Antiochus III's inroads into Kabul and Kapisa, the Aspasio and Assakenoi clans of the Kambojas had offered a stubborn resistance to his predecessors i.e the Alexander (Alexander the Great) of Macedon in the same very region where Sophagasenus of Polybius is said to have been ruling. It is an admitted fact that the Aspasio section of the Kambojas was more Iranian (Culture of Iran) than Indian in culture and customs but the Assakenoi section had been completely Indianized by this time. East and West, 1950, p 158, Art, Asian – 1950; cf: The Pathans, 1958, p 55, Olaf Caroe Based on the evidence of historians who had accompanied Alexander (Alexander the Great), Arrian calls the Ashvakas Assakenoi as Indians. Arrian Anabasis Book 4b, Ch XXV, XXVI This Indianization process was fully completed by 400 AD. Fourth century Chinese Pilgrim Fa-hien who visited Woo-chang (Udyana) and Soohoto (Swat) of Kamboja in 402 AD attests that the inhabitants were similar to Central Indians in language, religion, food and dress (Oriental Literature, The Travels of Fa-hien, p 222, Richard James Horatio Gottheil, Epiphanius Wilson) Even the name Kapisa, which constituted the heart of this region, is said by scholars to be another variant of Sanskrit (Swat, Pakistan) Kamboja (Kambojas). Evidence from Rock Edicts V and XIII of king Asoka, which were inscribed between 260 BC and 240 BC, locate the Yonas in Arachosia, the Gandharas (western Gandharas) in Peshawar valley, and the Kambojas in Paropamisade i.e in Kabul Kunar and Swat valleys south of Hindukush, as neighbors to Daradas. Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 610 617, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Commentary, Notes 14, 22, Dr B. N. Mukerjee Polybius's attestation about elephants being provided by Sophagasenus as a gift to Antiochus is in line with the preponderous evidence from several ancient Sanskrit and other sources that, like their horses, Kambojas were also noted for their celebrated war elephants. There are references to Kamboja kings (prince) presenting ''thousands of elephants'', besides blankets, cows, camels and horses etc as gifts to king Yudhishtra at the time of ''Rajasuya Yajna''. :'''Sanskrit''': Maurya Empire declined after 232 BC, after the strong arm of Asoka was withdrawn on his death. His successors were unable to keep possession of the outlying regions including Kamboja (Kambojas) (Kabul Kunar valleys), Yona (Arachosia) and western Gandhara (Peshawar valley). ''Asoka mentions Magadha, Pataliputra, Khalatikapavata, Kosambi, Lummini-gama, Kalinga, (including Tosali, Samapa, and Khepimgalapavata or Jauguda rock), Atavi (forest tract of Mid-India), Suvarna-giri, Isila, Ujjayini and Takshasila expressly being among the places which were under his rule. Among these, the vice-royalties of Tosali (Dhauli near Bhubneshwar in Orissa), Ujjayini (Ujjain in MP-Avanti), Suvarnagiri (Kanakagiri near Maski in Karnata or Erragudi in Andhra Pradesh) were definitely ruled by princely viceroys i.e. Aryaputras or Kumaras (princes of royal family). Separate Rock Edict (SRE-1) seems to indicate Takhasila or Takshasila as the capital of another province (Uttarapatha) ruled by a prince which is also attested by Divyavadana ('''"Rajno-sokasy-ottartrapathe- Takshasila nagarm"'''--Divyavadana). According to Buddhist literature, prince Asoka, prince Susima and later, prince Kunala ruled in that city in a viceregal capacity. Uttarapatha province included eastern Gandhara and probably lay between Indus and river Satluj. The western Gandhara lay on the west of Indus and included tribal territory of Peshawar valley with capital at Pushkalavati (Charasada). It did not form part of the province ruled by princely viceroy. Thus, all the territory west of river Indus which comprised nations of western Gandhara, Kamboja (Paropamisadae) and Yona (Arachosia) were outside the domain of regal provinces. They were governed by local rulers viceroys rather than Maurya princes but were subject to the jurisdiction of imperial officers, otherwise enjoying feudatory status and their people enjoyed semi-sovereignty or partial autonomy (See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 273, 617, 256, 273, 277, 279, 280, 281, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee)'' Bimbisāra to Aśoka: With an Appendix on the Later Mauryas‎, 1977, p 122, Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya - India. For two Gandharas-- one east of Indus and second to its west, see also: Foundations of Indian Culture, 1990, p 24, Govind Chandra Pande - India. '''NOTE''': Some scholars think that the Yonas, Kambojas, the Gandhara etc were outside the domain of the Mauryas (See: The Cambridge History of India, pp 514, 515, E, J. Rapson). But this may not be true since we have evidence from Asoka's Rock Edict V that Dhamama-Mahamataras (Ministers of religions) were active preaching Dhamma or Law of piety in the lands of the Yonas, Kambojas and the Gandhara These areas were inhabited by martial and freedom loving self-ruling people who seldom easily yielded to foreign control. Already during the heydays of Maurya empire, three revolts had occurred in eastern Gandhara alone—two during reign of Bindusara and one during later years of king Asoka. Divyavadana, pp 371-73; 407f; The Later Mauryas: 232 BC to 180 BC, 1980, p 130, Hekṭar Alahakōn, Hector Alahakoon We do not have any surviving records of the political conditions in the regions west of river Indus including Kamboja, but it is not too difficult to visualize that the areas west of Indus were even more impatient of foreign control. Not long ago, the same Ashvakas had assassinated Nicanor, the Greek Strap of Massaga in 326 BC while Alexander was still in Punjab. Arrian Anabasis, Book 5b, Chapter XX, CONQUEST OF THE GLAUSIANS.—EMBASSY FROM ABISARES. —PASSAGE OF THE ACESINES Hardly a few months had passed when the brave and indomitable Ashvakayanas rose and revolted against the Macedonians and assassinated Nicanor, the Greek governor of Massaga; and also reduced Sicikottos the Governor of Ora to such straights that it left him no alternative but to report the matter to Alexander while he was still in north Punjab (at Glansai), asking his immediate assistance. Alexander sent Phillipos and Tyriaspes to quell the Ashvakayana rebellion. How far they succeeded we have no means to know, but since Tyriaspes himself had soon to be replaced with Alexander's father-in-law Oxyartes, which shows that everything was not going well for Alexander in the land of the Ashvakas (See: History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 234, Editors Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi) Asoka’s Rock Edicts V and XIII amply prove that the nations of Kamboja (Kambojas), Yona, Gandhara (i.e. western Gandhara) etc were semi-sovereign and were ruled by their own community chieftains who enjoyed a feudatory status under the Mauryas. Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 256, 273, 277, 279, 280, 281; History of Indo-Pakistan, 1966, p 58, Mohammad Arshad, Hafiz Habibur Rahman; A Short History of the Indian People from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, 1936, p 71, y Tara Chand; Hindu Polity, A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p 117-121, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient India, 2003, pp 839-40, Dr V. D. Mahajan; Northern India, p 42, Dr Mehta Vasisitha Dev Mohan etc. ''The 'Ŕāja-Vişayas' of king Asoka's thirteenth Rock Edict, which include the Kambojas, Yonas, Nabhika, Bhojas, Andhras etc, were "the sovereign (self-ruling) states within the Maurya Empire"''. The Mauryan Polity, 1993, pp 68, 69, Dr V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar; The Greco-Sunga Period of Indian History Or The North-west India of the Second Century B.C, 1973, p 35; The North-west India of the Second Century B.C., 1974, p 35, Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Moha Dr H. C. Rachaudhury observers: “Kautiliya’s Arthashastra ( XI.1.1-4) refers a number of Sanghas i.e economic, military or political confederation evidently enjoying autonomy in certain matters e.g Kamboja, Saurashtra etc. The Kambojas find prominent mention as a nation in the Thirteenth Rock Edict of Ashoka. Rock Edict V alludes to various nations or people on western border (Aparanta) also in addition to those specifically named viz: the Yonas, Kambojas etc. Surashtra was also included among these nations which, judged by the title (raja) of its rulers, enjoyed a considerable autonomy. Tumaspa and Pushyagupta were employed by Mauryas as governors in Surashtra. Pushyagupta is described as Rashtriya or Rashtrika i.e a imperial high commissioner". M Boyce writes: ''"The Kambojas enjoyed a measure of autonomy...and were governed in some measure by the members of their own community on whom was laid the responsibility of transmitting to them the king's words, and having these engraved on stone"''. A History of Zoroastrianism, Vol III, 1991, p 136, M. Boyce, Frantz Grenet, Roger Beck The Mauryas, it seems, were content with the overlordship of the Indo-Iranian borderlands and allowed the Yonas, Kambojas and Western Gandharas to function more or less as vassal states under their local governors or rulers. The general structure of the Maurya empire was that of central power uniting under its rule a number of smaller nations to which they left a greater or less degree of autonomy according to place and circumstances. The Kambojas for example enjoyed a measure of autonomy.... and they were governed by the members of their community on whom was laid the responsibility of transmitting king’s word and having them engraved on stone stone (A History of Zoroastrianism, Vol III, ISBN 9004064818, 1991, pp 128-129, 136, Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet, Roger Beck. We have the case of Sibyrtios as a local ruler of Arachosia during time of Chandragupta and Whsu (Vakshu) a local ruler of Kamboja during time of king Asoka. Since the status of these border nations was midway between provincials proper and the unsubdued borders, Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 276, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee the moment these local feudatory rulers found a ripe opportunity to say good-bye to their nominal overlords, they did exactly so after the strong arm of king Asoka was withdrawn in 232 BC. According to Dr R. K. Mukerjee, Dr. Satyaketu Vidyalankar, Dr J. L. Kamboj etc, the Yonas, Kambojas, Gandharas etc became bolder after the powerful arm of king Asoka was withdrawn after 233 BC and they shook the Maurya yoke off their shoulders. These semi-sovereign border nations were mainly responsible for the eventual break-up and ultimate fall of the Maurya empire. Quoted in: Ancient India, 2003, p 311, Dr V. D. Mahajan; See also: Asoka, Dr R. K. Mukerjee; Mauryan Samrajya Ka Itihaas, Hindi, 1927, p 665-67 by Dr. Satyaketu Vidyalankar; Ancient Kambojas, People and the Country, 1981, Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 155-156, Kirpal Singh It is possible that Antiochus-Sophagasenus alliance which Polybius, the Greek historian, refers to may have been directed against the Imperial Mauryas of Pataliputra. Op Cit., p 312 22, H. C. Raychaudhury It may have been designed couple of years prior to 206 BC since Polybius does allude to Antiochus III's renewal of treaty with Sophagasenus. It appears likely that the Greeks intrigue played a part in the creation of an independent nation under Sophagasenus and ultimate disintegration of the Maurya empire before the Greek raids. Op cit, p 323, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury; Espionage in Ancient India, 1990, p 90, G. Chakraverty Thus, it seems reasonable to think that on finding the right opportunity to strike, the local ruling chieftain of the Ashavka Kambojas (Paropamisade) broke off with Magadha and carved out an independent kingdom of his own in Kabul Kapisa valley. We know that since Paropamisade was the heart of Kamboja land, the local ruler for these warlike and freedom loving people naturally may have been a Kamboja background. This may indeed be true since in the Rock Edicts V and XIII which were inscribed only a couple of decades ago, the Kambojas as a feudatory or semi-sovereign (self-ruling) nation finds most prominent position in the edicts of Asoka. Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 256, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; Asoka and His Inscriptions; 3d Ed , 1968, p 149, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa The same Kambojas a century earlier had played a very prominent role in the creation of Mauryan Empire by constituting an important component of Chandragupta's army of frontier-highlanders in 324-20 BC. Mudrarakshasa, Act II, Visakha Datta; Ancient India, 1956, pp 141-42, Dr R. K. Mukerjee; Political and Social Movements in Ancient Punjab, 1964, p 202, Dr Buddha Prakash All this evidence shows that the Kambojas had been very powerful during these centuries. Therefore, looking at time and space propinquity in the context of political scenario during time of Sophagasenus (Subhagasena), one is naturally led to infer that king Sophagasenus must have belonged to the Ashvakan Kshatrya branch of these powerful Kambojas of Kabul Kapisa region. This view is further reinforced by the fact that the coins of the Ashvaka Kambojas, bearing a legend "Vatasvaka" Varta-asvakas i.e Asvakas engaged in varta i.e horse-culture cattle culture. Another interpretation of term Vatasvka is taken as Vata (fig-tree) division of the Ashvaka Kambojas in Brahmi (Brāhmī script), have been found in north-west frontiers. Dr E. J. Rapson has dated these coins to at least 200 BC Indian Coins, 1897, p 14, Edward James Rapson - Numismatics which affirms that the Ashvakas were indeed the powerful rulers on west of Indus around 210 200 BC and that Indian king Sophagasenus of Polybius may indeed have been an Ashvaka Kamboja ruler. It is also tempting to link the Apraca branch of the kings of Bajaur to king Sophagasenus in this background. Scholars have linked the princes of Apraca dynasty (Apraca) of Bajaur to the Ashvaka clan. The Apracharajas : A History Based on Coins and Inscriptions, ISBN : 8173200742, 2007, Dr. Prashant Srivastava, Reader, Ancient Indian History and Archaeology, University of Lucknow And Yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuio (Kamboja (Kambojas)) mentioned in the Mathura Lion Capital '''Kharaosto yuvaraya Kamuio''' (See: inscription no E and E') appears to be connected with Apraca kings through Apracaraja Indravarman's Silver Reliquary(q.v.). An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the time of king Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Journal of American Oriental Society, Vol 116, No 3, July-Sept 1996, pp 424, 28, 442-43, Richard Saloman Later when Bactrian Greeks under Demetrius conquered Paropamisade and rest of Afghanistan, the ancestor of Apraca rulers of Kunar Bajaur finds reference with Greek king Menander in Shinkot reliquary inscriptions found from Bajaur in Kunar. Shinkot reliquary inscriptions of the time of king Menander and Vijayamitra, regnal(?) year 5, Sircar Select Inscs. Bearing on the Indian History and Civilization, Vol I, 1965, pp 102-06, Journal Asiatique, 281:61-138, Fussman; An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the time of king Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Journal of American Oriental Society, Vol 116, No 3, July-Sept 1996, pp 418-52, Richard Saloman Maurya Empire declined after 232 BC, after the strong arm of Asoka was withdrawn on his death. His successors were unable to keep possession of the outlying regions including Kamboja (Kambojas) (Kabul Kunar valleys), Yona (Arachosia) and western Gandhara (Peshawar valley). ''Asoka mentions Magadha, Pataliputra, Khalatikapavata, Kosambi, Lummini-gama, Kalinga, (including Tosali, Samapa, and Khepimgalapavata or Jauguda rock), Atavi (forest tract of Mid-India), Suvarna-giri, Isila, Ujjayini and Takshasila expressly being among the places which were under his rule. Among these, the vice-royalties of Tosali (Dhauli near Bhubneshwar in Orissa), Ujjayini (Ujjain in MP-Avanti), Suvarnagiri (Kanakagiri near Maski in Karnata or Erragudi in Andhra Pradesh) were definitely ruled by princely viceroys i.e. Aryaputras or Kumaras (princes of royal family). Separate Rock Edict (SRE-1) seems to indicate Takhasila or Takshasila as the capital of another province (Uttarapatha) ruled by a prince which is also attested by Divyavadana ('''"Rajno-sokasy-ottartrapathe- Takshasila nagarm"'''--Divyavadana). According to Buddhist literature, prince Asoka, prince Susima and later, prince Kunala ruled in that city in a viceregal capacity. Uttarapatha province included eastern Gandhara and probably lay between Indus and river Satluj. The western Gandhara lay on the west of Indus and included tribal territory of Peshawar valley with capital at Pushkalavati (Charasada). It did not form part of the province ruled by princely viceroy. Thus, all the territory west of river Indus which comprised nations of western Gandhara, Kamboja (Paropamisadae) and Yona (Arachosia) were outside the domain of regal provinces. They were governed by local rulers viceroys rather than Maurya princes but were subject to the jurisdiction of imperial officers, otherwise enjoying feudatory status and their people enjoyed semi-sovereignty or partial autonomy (See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 273, 617, 256, 273, 277, 279, 280, 281, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee)'' Bimbisāra to Aśoka: With an Appendix on the Later Mauryas‎, 1977, p 122, Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya - India. For two Gandharas-- one east of Indus and second to its west, see also: Foundations of Indian Culture, 1990, p 24, Govind Chandra Pande - India. '''NOTE''': Some scholars think that the Yonas, Kambojas, the Gandhara etc were outside the domain of the Mauryas (See: The Cambridge History of India, pp 514, 515, E, J. Rapson). But this may not be true since we have evidence from Asoka's Rock Edict V that Dhamama-Mahamataras (Ministers of religions) were active preaching Dhamma or Law of piety in the lands of the Yonas, Kambojas and the Gandhara These areas were inhabited by martial and freedom loving self-ruling people who seldom easily yielded to foreign control. Already during the heydays of Maurya empire, three revolts had occurred in eastern Gandhara alone—two during reign of Bindusara and one during later years of king Asoka. Divyavadana, pp 371-73; 407f; The Later Mauryas: 232 BC to 180 BC, 1980, p 130, Hekṭar Alahakōn, Hector Alahakoon We do not have any surviving records of the political conditions in the regions west of river Indus including Kamboja, but it is not too difficult to visualize that the areas west of Indus were even more impatient of foreign control. Not long ago, the same Ashvakas had assassinated Nicanor, the Greek Strap of Massaga in 326 BC while Alexander was still in Punjab. Arrian Anabasis, Book 5b, Chapter XX, CONQUEST OF THE GLAUSIANS.—EMBASSY FROM ABISARES. —PASSAGE OF THE ACESINES Hardly a few months had passed when the brave and indomitable Ashvakayanas rose and revolted against the Macedonians and assassinated Nicanor, the Greek governor of Massaga; and also reduced Sicikottos the Governor of Ora to such straights that it left him no alternative but to report the matter to Alexander while he was still in north Punjab (at Glansai), asking his immediate assistance. Alexander sent Phillipos and Tyriaspes to quell the Ashvakayana rebellion. How far they succeeded we have no means to know, but since Tyriaspes himself had soon to be replaced with Alexander's father-in-law Oxyartes, which shows that everything was not going well for Alexander in the land of the Ashvakas (See: History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 234, Editors Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi) Asoka’s Rock Edicts V and XIII amply prove that the nations of Kamboja (Kambojas), Yona, Gandhara (i.e. western Gandhara) etc were semi-sovereign and were ruled by their own community chieftains who enjoyed a feudatory status under the Mauryas. Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 256, 273, 277, 279, 280, 281; History of Indo-Pakistan, 1966, p 58, Mohammad Arshad, Hafiz Habibur Rahman; A Short History of the Indian People from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, 1936, p 71, y Tara Chand; Hindu Polity, A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p 117-121, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient India, 2003, pp 839-40, Dr V. D. Mahajan; Northern India, p 42, Dr Mehta Vasisitha Dev Mohan etc. ''The 'Ŕāja-Vişayas' of king Asoka's thirteenth Rock Edict, which include the Kambojas, Yonas, Nabhika, Bhojas, Andhras etc, were "the sovereign (self-ruling) states within the Maurya Empire"''. The Mauryan Polity, 1993, pp 68, 69, Dr V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar; The Greco-Sunga Period of Indian History Or The North-west India of the Second Century B.C, 1973, p 35; The North-west India of the Second Century B.C., 1974, p 35, Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Moha Dr H. C. Rachaudhury observers: “Kautiliya’s Arthashastra ( XI.1.1-4) refers a number of Sanghas i.e economic, military or political confederation evidently enjoying autonomy in certain matters e.g Kamboja, Saurashtra etc. The Kambojas find prominent mention as a nation in the Thirteenth Rock Edict of Ashoka. Rock Edict V alludes to various nations or people on western border (Aparanta) also in addition to those specifically named viz: the Yonas, Kambojas etc. Surashtra was also included among these nations which, judged by the title (raja) of its rulers, enjoyed a considerable autonomy. Tumaspa and Pushyagupta were employed by Mauryas as governors in Surashtra. Pushyagupta is described as Rashtriya or Rashtrika i.e a imperial high commissioner". M Boyce writes: ''"The Kambojas enjoyed a measure of autonomy...and were governed in some measure by the members of their own community on whom was laid the responsibility of transmitting to them the king's words, and having these engraved on stone"''. A History of Zoroastrianism, Vol III, 1991, p 136, M. Boyce, Frantz Grenet, Roger Beck The Mauryas, it seems, were content with the overlordship of the Indo-Iranian borderlands and allowed the Yonas, Kambojas and Western Gandharas to function more or less as vassal states under their local governors or rulers. The general structure of the Maurya empire was that of central power uniting under its rule a number of smaller nations to which they left a greater or less degree of autonomy according to place and circumstances. The Kambojas for example enjoyed a measure of autonomy.... and they were governed by the members of their community on whom was laid the responsibility of transmitting king’s word and having them engraved on stone stone (A History of Zoroastrianism, Vol III, ISBN 9004064818, 1991, pp 128-129, 136, Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet, Roger Beck. We have the case of Sibyrtios as a local ruler of Arachosia during time of Chandragupta and Whsu (Vakshu) a local ruler of Kamboja during time of king Asoka. Since the status of these border nations was midway between provincials proper and the unsubdued borders, Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 276, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee the moment these local feudatory rulers found a ripe opportunity to say good-bye to their nominal overlords, they did exactly so after the strong arm of king Asoka was withdrawn in 232 BC. According to Dr R. K. Mukerjee, Dr. Satyaketu Vidyalankar, Dr J. L. Kamboj etc, the Yonas, Kambojas, Gandharas etc became bolder after the powerful arm of king Asoka was withdrawn after 233 BC and they shook the Maurya yoke off their shoulders. These semi-sovereign border nations were mainly responsible for the eventual break-up and ultimate fall of the Maurya empire. Quoted in: Ancient India, 2003, p 311, Dr V. D. Mahajan; See also: Asoka, Dr R. K. Mukerjee; Mauryan Samrajya Ka Itihaas, Hindi, 1927, p 665-67 by Dr. Satyaketu Vidyalankar; Ancient Kambojas, People and the Country, 1981, Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 155-156, Kirpal Singh It is possible that Antiochus-Sophagasenus alliance which Polybius, the Greek historian, refers to may have been directed against the Imperial Mauryas of Pataliputra. Op Cit., p 312 22, H. C. Raychaudhury It may have been designed couple of years prior to 206 BC since Polybius does allude to Antiochus III's renewal of treaty with Sophagasenus. It appears likely that the Greeks intrigue played a part in the creation of an independent nation under Sophagasenus and ultimate disintegration of the Maurya empire before the Greek raids. Op cit, p 323, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury; Espionage in Ancient India, 1990, p 90, G. Chakraverty Thus, it seems reasonable to think that on finding the right opportunity to strike, the local ruling chieftain of the Ashavka Kambojas (Paropamisade) broke off with Magadha and carved out an independent kingdom of his own in Kabul Kapisa valley. We know that since Paropamisade was the heart of Kamboja land, the local ruler for these warlike and freedom loving people naturally may have been a Kamboja background. This may indeed be true since in the Rock Edicts V and XIII which were inscribed only a couple of decades ago, the Kambojas as a feudatory or semi-sovereign (self-ruling) nation finds most prominent position in the edicts of Asoka. Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 256, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; Asoka and His Inscriptions; 3d Ed , 1968, p 149, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa The same Kambojas a century earlier had played a very prominent role in the creation of Mauryan Empire by constituting an important component of Chandragupta's army of frontier-highlanders in 324-20 BC. Mudrarakshasa, Act II, Visakha Datta; Ancient India, 1956, pp 141-42, Dr R. K. Mukerjee; Political and Social Movements in Ancient Punjab, 1964, p 202, Dr Buddha Prakash All this evidence shows that the Kambojas had been very powerful during these centuries. Therefore, looking at time and space propinquity in the context of political scenario during time of Sophagasenus (Subhagasena), one is naturally led to infer that king Sophagasenus must have belonged to the Ashvakan Kshatrya branch of these powerful Kambojas of Kabul Kapisa region. This view is further reinforced by the fact that the coins of the Ashvaka Kambojas, bearing a legend "Vatasvaka" Varta-asvakas i.e Asvakas engaged in varta i.e horse-culture cattle culture. Another interpretation of term Vatasvka is taken as Vata (fig-tree) division of the Ashvaka Kambojas in Brahmi (Brāhmī script), have been found in north-west frontiers. Dr E. J. Rapson has dated these coins to at least 200 BC Indian Coins, 1897, p 14, Edward James Rapson - Numismatics which affirms that the Ashvakas were indeed the powerful rulers on west of Indus around 210 200 BC and that Indian king Sophagasenus of Polybius may indeed have been an Ashvaka Kamboja ruler. It is also tempting to link the Apraca branch of the kings of Bajaur to king Sophagasenus in this background. Scholars have linked the princes of Apraca dynasty (Apraca) of Bajaur to the Ashvaka clan. The Apracharajas : A History Based on Coins and Inscriptions, ISBN : 8173200742, 2007, Dr. Prashant Srivastava, Reader, Ancient Indian History and Archaeology, University of Lucknow And Yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuio (Kamboja (Kambojas)) mentioned in the Mathura Lion Capital '''Kharaosto yuvaraya Kamuio''' (See: inscription no E and E') appears to be connected with Apraca kings through Apracaraja Indravarman's Silver Reliquary(q.v.). An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the time of king Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Journal of American Oriental Society, Vol 116, No 3, July-Sept 1996, pp 424, 28, 442-43, Richard Saloman Later when Bactrian Greeks under Demetrius conquered Paropamisade and rest of Afghanistan, the ancestor of Apraca rulers of Kunar Bajaur finds reference with Greek king Menander in Shinkot reliquary inscriptions found from Bajaur in Kunar. Shinkot reliquary inscriptions of the time of king Menander and Vijayamitra, regnal(?) year 5, Sircar Select Inscs. Bearing on the Indian History and Civilization, Vol I, 1965, pp 102-06, Journal Asiatique, 281:61-138, Fussman; An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the time of king Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Journal of American Oriental Society, Vol 116, No 3, July-Sept 1996, pp 418-52, Richard Saloman '''Khalid Hasan''' (born July 14, 1937, Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa)) is a former Pakistani cricketer who played in one Test (Test cricket) in 1954. '''Haseeb Ahsan''' (born July 15, 1939, in Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa)) is a former Pakistani cricketer who played in 12 Tests (Test cricket) from 1958 to 1962. '''Farrukh Zaman''' (born April 2, 1956, Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa)) is a former Pakistani cricketer who played in one Test (Test cricket) in 1976. DATE OF BIRTH April 2, 1956 PLACE OF BIRTH Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Pakistan DATE OF DEATH The movement started prior to the Qissa Khwani bazaar massacre, when a demonstration of hundreds of non violent supporters were fired upon by British soldiers in Peshawar. Its low point and eventual dissipation was after Pakistan's independence in 1947 when the Muslim League (All-India Muslim League) Chief Minister Abdul Qayyum Khan banned the movement and launched a brutal crackdown on its members which culminated in the Babra Sharif massacre. At its peak the KK movement consisted of almost 100,000 members. '''Kohat Pass''' is a mountain pass in the North-West Frontier Province (North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan) of Pakistan, connecting Kohat with Peshawar, crossing the Khigana Mountains. In India He reached Delhi in about a year (1809). His journey took him through Rey (Rey, Iran), Tehran, and other provinces of Iran. He then traveled to the city of Herat in Afghanistan, followed by Kandahar, Kabul, and Peshawar. The great scholars of all these cities with whom he met would often test his knowledge in the sciences of Divine Law (shari'a) and Divine Awareness (ma`rifat), and those of logic, mathematics, and astronomy always found him immensely knowledgeable. *'''Frontier Corps''': The Frontier Corps, based in Peshawar, North West Frontier Province and Quetta, Balochistan (Balochistan (Pakistan)) is responsible for protecting the western border regions. The force is responsible to both the Ministry of States and Frontier Regions and to Army Headquarters. The Force comprises fourteen units based in the North-West Frontier (North-West Frontier (military history)) and sixteen units based in Balochistan (Balochistan (Pakistan)). Some of the local units have a long history such as the Chitral Scouts, the Khyber Rifles, Swat Levies, the Kurram Militia, the Tochi Scouts, the South Waziristan Scouts, the Zhob Militia, and the Gilgit Scouts. These histories date back to Colonial times and many of the regiments have distinguished combat records, e.g. the Khyber Rifles. These regiments can be "regularized" i.e. attached to regular Army as necessary. Khyber Rifles was in fact regularized during the 1965 war and fought with distinction in Kashmir. Recently, the plans to build the second Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre in Peshawar are underway. The construction work for the project is started and the hospital is expected to be functional in about 3 years. Funds are being raised for the cause and the government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province has donated 50 Canals of land for the hospital. Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre-Help Center. Retrieved on 27-12-2011 unit Infantry (4 12 FF Regiment (Frontier Force Regiment)) commands Vice Chief of General Staff (VCGS) 15th Infantry Division, Sialkot 7th Infantry Division (7th Infantry Division (Pakistan)), Peshawar Adjutant General (AG) 12th Infantry Division


world open

; ref During his career he won the World Open (World Open (squash)) six times and the British Open (British Open Squash Championships) a record ten times. Between 1981 and 1986, he was unbeaten in competitive play for five years. During that time he won 555 games consecutively, the longest winning streak (winning streak (sports)) by any athlete in top-level professional sports as recorded by Guinness World Records.

to be one of the greatest squash players of all time. During his career he won the World Open (World Open (squash)) a record eight times, and the British Open (British Open Squash Championships) six times. They may have risen to power during the 420s in Northern Afghanistan before conquering Peshawar and part of northwest India, then turning north to conquer Sogdiana in the 440s, before being cut from their Bactrian nomadic roots by the rise of the Hephthalites in the 450s. Many


live traditional

''', roof top Bar B Que with live traditional music. Behind Firdos Cenima, Main GT Road, Peshawar City * '''Habibi Restaurant''', (can be located in city and entrance to Hayatabad) for local and traditional foods. * '''Khyber friends''', a small restaurant located on university road near Orakzai plaza. the food of this restaurant is very delicious and on a reasonable price. the taste could be compared to CHERSEE TIKKA HOUSE. though the environment is not up to the mark. * Chapli ('sandal') Kabab


amp video

December 1925 – 24 September 2011) was a Bollywood film producer and President of the Film & Television Producers Guild of India from 1995 to 2001. His three sons, Boney (Boney Kapoor), Anil (Anil Kapoor) and Sanjay (Sanjay Kapoor), are also involved in the film industry. He was born in Peshawar, British India. His daughter, Reena, is married to Sandeep Marwah of Marwah Films & Video Studios. He is related to the Kapoor Family of Raj Kapoor


violent resistance

. The Frontier Town of Peshawar. A Brief History by Sayed Amjad Hussain. Where as before it was the Pashtuns and Mughals who beautified and brought culture to the region, until the Sikhs brought the city to shambles and deterioration. Peshawar was the scene of a non-violent resistance movement that was led by Ghaffar Khan, a disciple of Mohandas Gandhi. In April 1930, Khan led a large group of locals, in a peaceful protest in Qissa Khawani Bazaar, against discriminatory laws that had been enacted by the British rulers — hundreds were killed when British horses opened fire on the demonstrators (Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre). commons:Peshawar


including free

School The Para Training School was established at the PAF Academy Risalpur in 2003. It is the second parachute school in Pakistan after the Pakistan Army Para School located at Peshawar. Before its establishment, PAF personnel were trained at the Pakistan Army Para School. The school conducts various basic and advanced courses, including free fall training. Daily Times - Leading News Resource


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for various film shoots, and a part of the film ''Gandhi, My Father'' was shot here.


charity quot

Afghan Ops , November 20, 2001 He has been credited as having convinced Abdullah Azzam to abandon his life and devote himself to preaching jihad at this time. Meanwhile, another group known as the '''Islamic Benevolence Committee''' was founded in both Jeddah and Peshawar, Pakistan by Batterjee. The group was a "charity" that openly supported fighters against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Due to extensive road

Peshawar

image_flag flag_size image_seal seal_size image_shield shield_size image_blank_emblem blank_emblem_type blank_emblem_size image_map mapsize map_caption image_map1 mapsize1 map_caption1 image_dot_map dot_mapsize dot_map_caption dot_x dot_y pushpin_map Pakistan pushpin_label_position pushpin_map_caption Location within Pakistan pushpin_mapsize coordinates_display inline,title coordinates_region PK subdivision_type Country subdivision_name Pakistan subdivision_type1 Province subdivision_name1 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa subdivision_type2 District subdivision_name2 Peshawar District seat_type seat parts_type Union Councils (Union Councils of Pakistan) parts_style !-- list (for list), coll (for collapsed list), para (for paragraph format) Default is list if up to 5 items, coll if more than 5-- parts 25 p1 p2 government_footnotes government_type established_title established_date area_magnitude unit_pref area_footnotes area_total_km2 1257 area_land_km2 area_water_km2 area_total_sq_mi area_land_sq_mi area_water_sq_mi area_water_percent elevation_footnotes tags-- elevation_m 359 elevation_ft elevation_max_m elevation_max_ft elevation_min_m elevation_min_ft population_as_of 2010 population_footnotes population_note population_total 3,307,798 population_density_km2 auto population_density_sq_mi timezone PST (Pakistan Standard Time) utc_offset +5 timezone_DST utc_offset_DST coor_type latd 34 latm 01 lats latNS N longd 71 longm 35 longs longEW E postal_code_type postal_code 25000 Country_code 0092 area_code 091 website footnotes '''Peshawar''' ( Peshawar is situated in a large valley near the eastern end of the Khyber Pass, close to the Pak-Afghan border (Durand Line). Known as "City on the Frontier", Peshawar's strategic location on the crossroads of Central Asia and South Asia has made it one of the most culturally vibrant and lively cities in the greater region. Peshawar is irrigated by various canals of the Kabul River and by its right tributary, the Bara River.

Peshawar has evolved into one of Pakistan's most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities. In the last three decades, there has been a significant increase in urban population, in part due to internal migration of people in search of better employment opportunities, education, and services, and in part because of the influx of Afghans (Afghans in Pakistan) and other people internally displaced (internally displaced person) due to military operations and civil unrest in neighboring regions. Peshawar is the major educational, political, and business center of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Peshawar's recorded history goes back as far as at least 539 BC, making it one of the oldest living cities in South Asia. Peshawar: Oldest continuously inhabited City in South Asia. DAWN.com. Retrieved 17 October 2014.

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