performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments. Thorp, p. 4. Although they have provided substantial revenue, self-sustained growth and a more egalitarian distribution of income have proven elusive. Thorp, p. 321. According to 2010 data, 31.3% of its total population is poor, including 9.8% that lives in extreme poverty. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, ''Evolución de la Pobreza en el Perú al 2010'', p. 38. Inflation in 2012 was the lowest in Latin America at only 1.8%, but increased in 2013 as oil and commodity prices rose; as of 2014 it stands at 2.5%. Commons:Category:Peru
works are the novels "Hacia Un Lejano Sol", "Mi Volutad Ha Muerto" and "La Leyenda Benaventina". Canales gave many lectures, among the countries he visited were Argentina, Peru, Uruguay, Panama and Venezuela. '''Laurence Adolph Steinhardt''' (1892–1950) was a United States diplomat. He served as the U.S. Minister to Sweden and U.S. Ambassador to Peru, the USSR, Turkey, Czechoslovakia, and Canada. http
, including the purchase of AT&T's Latin American operations, giving it presence in Colombia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay, and increased reach in the United States. In the same year, Telmex bought from MCI Brazil's largest and most important long distance operator, Embratel, acquired Chile's Chilesat, took control of Argentina's Techtel (operating in Argentina and Uruguay), of which it already owned 60%, by purchasing the remaining 40% from
an international success based on her extreme vocal range, which was said to be "well over four octaves" Ellen Highstein: 'Yma Sumac (Chavarri, Emperatriz)' Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy. (Accessed August 8, 2006) and was sometimes claimed to span even five octaves at her peak. Clarke Fountain, "Yma Sumac: Hollywood's Inca Princess (review). Allmovie, reproduced in ''The New York Times''. 1992.
of Peru. His wife's name is Elena Tasso Heredia, from an old Italian family established in Peru at the end of the 19th century. One of his other sons, Antauro Humala, a former army major, ran a rebellion against the government's policies in the Andean city of Andahuaylas in December 2004, in which a police station was seized and some people were killed. His eldest son, Ulises Humala, also ran for president in 2006, and currently occupies a full time position as a Professor at the National University of Engineering in Peru. '''Andahuaylas''' is a Peruvian city, capital of the Andahuaylas Province. It is known as the ''pradera de los celajes,'' the prairie of colored clouds. It's approximate population of 34,000 inhabitants makes it the second largest city in the region after the region's capital Abancay. '''Andahuaylas Airport''' Commons:Category:Peru
. The Peruvian Government tried to mediate the dispute by sending a diplomatic team to negotiate with the Chilean government, but the committee concluded that war was inevitable. Chile declared war on 5 April 1879. Almost five years of war ended with the loss of the department of Tarapacá and the provinces of Tacna and Arica, in the Atacama region. Two outstanding military leaders throughout the war were Francisco Bolognesi and Miguel Grau (Miguel Grau Seminario). Originally Chile
Henry, were killed while bartering for food on Fiji's Malolo Island. Wilkes retribution was swift and severe. According to an old man of Malolo Island, nearly 80 Fijians were killed in the incident. Rodríguez returned to America in 1823, using his name "Simón Rodríguez" again. In Colombia he established the first workshop-school in 1824. He was called to Peru by Simón Bolívar and became "Director for Public Education, Physical and Mathematical Sciences
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, total world capture fisheries (Wild fisheries of the world) production in 2000 was 86 million tons (FAO 2002). The top producing countries were, in order, the People's Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan), Peru, Japan, the United States, Chile, Indonesia, Russia, India, Thailand, Norway and Iceland. Those countries accounted for more than half of the world's production; China alone accounted for a third of the world's production. Of that production, over 90% was marine and less than 10% was inland. Bristol is the largest centre of culture, employment and education in the region. Its prosperity has been linked with the sea since its earliest days. The commercial Port of Bristol was originally in the city centre before being moved to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth; Royal Portbury Dock is on the western edge of the city boundary. In more recent years the economy has depended on the creative media, electronics and aerospace industries, and the city centre docks have been regenerated as a centre of heritage and culture. Commons:Category:Peru
in a language divide between the coast where Spanish is more predominant over the Amerindian languages, and the more diverse traditional Andean cultures of the mountains and highlands. The indigenous populations east of the Andes speak various languages and dialects. Some of these groups still adhere to traditional indigenous languages, while others have been almost completely assimilated into the Spanish language. There has been an increasing and organized effort to teach Quechua in public
;Eso, eso, eso"'', written by tango (tango music) composers Virgilio and Homero Expósito, for RCA Records, which sold more than 100,000 copies in that country alone. They were part of the first broadcast ever by Argentina's television station, Canal 9, their personal appearances were solidly attended, and their popularity ensured the success of a media campaign they did for the Argentine brewer (brewery), Cerveza Quilmes. Their group was also popular in Venezuela, Colombia
common_name Peru image_coat Escudo de armas del Perú.svg image_flag Flag of Peru.svg image_map Peru (orthographic projection).svg national_motto "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union" national_anthem other_symbol_type National seal (Seal (device)): other_symbol 80px link Great Seal of the State (File:Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg) languages_type Official languages a languages Spanish (Spanish language) (official) 84.1% Quechua (Quechuan languages) (official) 13% Aymara (Aymara language) (official) 1.7% (2007 Census) demonym Peruvian ethnic_groups 45% Amerindian (Indigenous peoples in Peru) 37% Mestizo 15% White (Peruvians of European descent) 2% others ethnic_groups_year 2013 capital Lima latd 12 latm 2.6 latNS S longd 77 longm 1.7 longEW W largest_city Lima government_type Unitary (Unitary state) presidential (Presidential system) constitutional (Constitution of Peru) republic leader_title1 President (List of Presidents of Peru) leader_name1 Ollanta Humala leader_title2 Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Peru) leader_name2 Ana Jara legislature Congress (Congress of the Republic of Peru) sovereignty_type Independence (Peruvian War of Independence) established_event1 Declared (Peruvian War of Independence) established_date1 28 July 1821 established_event2 Consolidated (Battle of Ayacucho) established_date2 9 December 1824 established_event3 Recognized (Chincha Islands War) established_date3 2 May 1866 area_rank 20th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,285,216 area_sq_mi 496,225 percent_water 0.41 population_estimate 31,151,643 population_estimate_rank 41st population_estimate_year 2015 population_census 28,220,764 population_census_year 2007 population_density_km2 23 population_density_sq_mi 57 population_density_rank 191st GDP_PPP $403.322 billion GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year 2015 GDP_PPP_per_capita $12,638 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank GDP_nominal $217.607 billion GDP_nominal_rank GDP_nominal_year 2015 GDP_nominal_per_capita $6,819 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank Gini_year 2012 Gini_change decrease Gini 45.3 Gini_ref Gini_rank 35th HDI_year 2014 HDI_change steady HDI 0.737 HDI_ref HDI_rank 82nd currency Nuevo sol (Peruvian nuevo sol) currency_code PEN time_zone PET (Time in Peru) date_format dd.mm.yyyy (CE (Common Era)) utc_offset −5 drives_on right calling_code +51 cctld .pe footnote_a Quechua (Quechua language), Aymara (Aymara language) and other indigenous languages (Languages of Peru) are co-official in the areas where they predominate.
'''Peru''' ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse (biodiversity) country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (ed.):Perú: País megaviverso
Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures (Ancient Peru) spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America (Pre-Columbian). The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty (Viceroyalty of Peru) with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies. Ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its Independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence. After achieving independence (Peruvian War of Independence), the country remained in recession and kept a low military profile until an economic rise based on the extraction of raw and maritime materials struck the country, which ended shortly before the war of the Pacific. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in of government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict (Internal conflict in Peru) as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Peru is a representative democratic (representative democracy) republic divided into 25 regions (Administrative divisions of Peru). It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 25.8 percent. UN: Peru Posts One of Region’s Best Reductions in Poverty in 2011. Andean Air Mail and Peruvian Times, 28 November 2012. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 30.4 million, is multiethnic (Multiethnic society), including Amerindians (Indigenous Peoples in Peru), Europeans (White Latin American), Africans (African Latin American) and Asians (Asian Latin American). The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua (Quechua languages) or other native languages (Indigenous languages of the Americas). This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.