depend on several factors, like medical antecedents and locations included in the trip. The most habitual vaccines needed to travel to Peru are against tétanos, diphtheria, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and B, yellow fever (it is obligatory to present the certificate of vaccination against yellow fever to enter in some countries of Africa), rabies and meningitis. Some of these vaccines require more than a dose or a major time to be effective. For that reason, there is recommendable to inquire on necessary vaccines with an advance of 6 to 8 weeks before your trip. Hepatitis A Recommended for all travelers. Typhoid fever Recommended for all travelers. Yellow fever Vaccination Center Perú The government of Peru recommends the vaccine for all travelers who are going to visit forest areas (Amazonia) below 2,300 m (7,546 ft). Travelers that only visit Lima, Cusco and Machu Picchu do not need vaccine for yellow fever. Vaccine for yellow fever is also required for all travelers who arrive from other countries infected with yellow fever in Africa and America. In recent years, there has been reported yellow fever in Cusco (Concepcion 2007), San Martin, Loreto, Pasco, Amazonas, Ancash, Ayacucho, Huánuco, Junín, Madre de Dios, Puno and Ucayali. Hepatitis B For Travelers who could have sexual relations with local people, especially if the visit is by more than 6 months. Rabies For travelers who could have near contact with animals and have not get access to medical services. Measles, Parotiditis, Rubella (SPR) If they have not been vaccinated before, two doses for all travelers are recommended. Tétanos - diphtheria Recommended re-vaccination every 10 years. '''What should I take in the suitcase?''' It is recommendable to travel with a small medical kit (Traveler Kit) that includes some basic medicines like antacid, analgesic pills, NSAIDs and antihistamine drugs. Also it is necessary to take some dehydrated solutions for oral hydratation in case of severe diarrhea. Also, It must include first aid articles as sterile strips, antiseptics and bandages. Do not forget to put some antibiotic against severe diarrhea or dysentery and other infections, as well as sterilized needles (because they are difficult to find in some isolated zones). Finally, you must put into your luggage scissors, clamps, a thermometer, lip balm, a suntan lotion, purifying water tablets and cleanliness equipment. If you use contact lenses or glasses, take an extra pair. You must also carry a small flashlight and a Swiss Army knife. The Traveler Kit must be prepared by your physician according to your health and destination. '''Malaria''' Malaria is a disease that can be fatal and is transmitted by mosquitoes. This mosquito specially pricks by night. If you are going to travel to Peru, it is very important to know what areas present a high prevalence of malaria. The prevention of the disease is made through a medication against the malaria (prophylaxis) and the protection against the punctures of insects. There are many antimalarial medicines. The optimal choice depends on the characteristics of the trip and the traveler. So, it is important to have some medical advice about the advantages and disadvantages of each medication. The more effective drugs are: MEFLOQUINE (LARIAM): very extended use. Side effects include visions, and more serious neurological reactions. Those people with psychiatric and neurological problems must not take this medication. DOXYCYCLINE: Side effects include cutaneous reactions by contact with the sun or the risk of fungal vaginitis in the women. MALARONE: highly effective, few side effects, expensive and difficult to obtain in Peru, only in specialized Travel Medicine CenterTravel Medicine Peru low risk of side effects and the most useful until years ago. Nowadays, they only have 50 60% of effectiveness for malaria in Peru (specially for the south zone where malaria falciparum has not been reported). Whatever your choice you need to take antimalarial medicine if you are going to travel to a zone affected by the disease, and continue with the medication beyond your return. The risk of malaria, or any other disease in Peru, is much greater for a tourist than for local people. Do not suspend your medication before the indicated period. In Peru there is no risk of malaria in the big cities. No risk in Lima and surrounding areas or in areas above the 1500 m (4,921 ft). There is a risk: On the coast north of the country (Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque). In the Amazon region: Loreto department (Iquitos) with 97% of cases of falciparum country, San Martin, Ucayali, Just as Amazon (chachapoyas), Cajamarca (Jaen).It was also reported cases of vivax malaria (falciparum not) in Cuzco Department (Province of Concepción away from the tourist area of Machu Picchu) and Madre de Dios. It is recommended that: The precautions to protect themselves from being bitten by mosquitoes are essential especially in the evening and night (especially when visiting rural or peripheral). Use a repellent (on exposed skin) containing DEET (N, N-diethylmetatoluamide to 30% -50% are effective for several hours) or Picaridina (7-15%). '''Basic cares about hygiene and food''' It is difficult to guarantee the security of food and drink, specially in developing countries. Nevertheless you may continue enjoying local meals, this is part of the pleasures of an international trip. Be selective. The diseases that you could get go from a small diarrhea or dysentery, to one more serious disease (e.g. Parasitic infection) that could ruin your trip. Therefore you should take certain precautions: Try to eat only cooked foods Avoid buffet or any other food that has been reheated and exposed to the contact with flies Avoid seafood in unknown places Crude fruits and vegetables are very difficult to sterilize: do not eat them unless you have the security that they have been washed in drinkable water or if they are possible to peel without touching the pulp. In the tropic the safest fruits are bananas and papayas. Be careful, you could reject any food you consider not safe, if it is necessary, ask for cooked food specially for you. Do not eat any food that offers few guarantees to you. '''Tap water.''' Drink water only when you are certain it is safe. Don't drink tap water. If you are using tap water to brush your teeth or rinse your mouth, spit as much out as possible. Tap water can be made drinkable by boiling it (bringing it to boiling point in a kettle should be sufficient) or by purification methods such as iodine tablets or UV light. Bottled water is cheap and tastes better than boiled water. Check the bottle to make sure that it has not been opened and refilled. In restaurants, (if you don't trust them) you could request the bottle to be opened in your presence and never take ice in your drinks (ice cubes are often made with tap water). Remember, alcohol does not make tap water drinkable! '''Insect bites''' Avoiding insect bites reduces the risk of contracting diseases transmitted by mosquitos such as yellow fever, dengue fever, leishmaniosis and malaria. Wearing long sleeves is a good idea. Use insect repellent that contains DEET. Directly apply it to your skin and clothes. Use a mosquito sleeping net impregnated with repellent, as well as other anti-mosquitos stuff in your room or tent (spirals or electrical mosquito repellents) at night. '''Rabies''' In Peru there have been reported cases of rabies in animals even in small zoo parks, so you should avoid to touch or to play with any type of animal. Rabies is not only transmitted through biting, but also by scratches and licks. In case of wound, it is necessary to clean it with an antiseptic lotion. If the wound is deep it is recommendable to examine it by a doctor. Take some advice about antirabic vaccines before starting off, mainly if your trip is long. '''Heat and sun''' Do not expect to become quickly aclimated to the heat (specially in Amazonia). It will take at least 3 weeks to obtain it. During this period, avoid physical fatigue, use fresh clothes, mainly during the warmest hours of the day. Avoid direct exhibition to the sun.Use a solar cream and a hat. Thirst is a very poor indicator of the amount of water that human needs. It is very important to take a sufficient amount from liquid (not alcohol, coffee or tea, because they are diuretics and causes a greater loss of water). The best probe that you are well hydrated is when your body produces clear abundant urine. '''AIDS and other diseases''' As in any other country, please take the necessary precautions to avoid HIV infection and other sexual diseases. '''Accidents and injuries''' Accidents and injuries produce more deaths of travellers than diseases. Please be in constant alert. Do not drive in bad illuminated streets by night. Do not drive a bicycle or a motorcycle. Do not drive in a drunk condition and moderate your speed. If you take a taxi, ask the driver to go slowly. Use the security belt and, if you travel with children, use an adaptable chair Take a small medicinal kit: small wounds can become infected very easily. If the wound is deep it is recommendable to examine it by a doctor. '''Back to home''' If you have contracted malaria or another tropical disease, it is possible that the symptoms do not become evident until much after your return to home and you may not even associate them to your trip. Visit your physician and remember to tell him about your trip to Peru. Pharmacies Common medicines, like antibiotics, can be bought in pharmacies (''farmacias'' or ''boticas'') quite cheaply and without restrictions. However, make sure the expiration date has not been reached. Pharmacists are mostly very helpful and can be consulted if needed. For less serious illnesses, they may replace a doctor. Diarrhea Electrolytic drinks help guard against dehydration. You can get powders to dissolve in water in almost every pharmacy. If not, just dissolve sugar and salt in water. Bacterial diarrhea can be treated with antibiotics, if it doesn't vanish during a week. Usually, pharmacies are quite helpful. Food and drink If you stay in good hotels you may be able to avoid catching diarrhea, otherwise you might. Just don't worry too much about. There are some rules that could avoid the worst: *Avoid unboiled tap water, if possible. This can be difficult; If you eat a salad or drink some fruit juice, it will probably be prepared with tap water. Avoid ice in drinks if you can. *If you must drink tap water, use some purification like mikropur. *Don't eat food prepared in the street (if you can resist it). *When going to cheap restaurants, first have a smell and listen to what your nose says. *In some areas, refrigerators are rare. Just go to the meat section of a typical market hall and take a smell, you will understand. If you would rather eat vegetarian food, it can be hard to find. Chicken is worth a try, since they are mostly fresh. *Don't eat unpasteurized milk products. Altitude If you do not have experience with higher altitudes above 3,500m (12,000 ft), don't underestimate it! Collapses of unacclimatized tourists are not unusual. If coming from sea level, stay at medium height ca. 3,000 m (10,000 ft) for at least one week. Then, altitudes of around 4,500 m (15,000 ft) should not be a risk, although you still will strongly feel the height. See also: Altitude sickness Sunburn Since Peru is close to the equator, the sun can become dangerous for your skin and eyes. Especially in the Sierra, the strong UV radiation due to the height in combination with the rather cold air may burn your skin before you notice it. Sun-blockers are easy to get in drug stores (''boticas''). If your eyes are sensitive to light, better bring good sunglasses from home. Of course, you can buy sunglasses in Peru, too, but you should really be sure that they block the whole UV spectrum, otherwise, they might be worse than none. Sanitary facilities Outside of obviously well-set up restaurants and hotels in cities and towns, '''toilets''' are often quite primitive and sometimes really dirty. It's a good idea to bring your own paper with you,as Peruvian toilet paper maybe too rough as well as being one ply. It's usual. Toilet doors are marked with "''baño''", "S.H." or "SS.HH.". The latter two are abbreviations for ''servicio higienico'', which is the rather formal expression. Expect to pay no more than 20 centimos at public restrooms for paper, but usually the service to just enter the bathrooms are an extra 50 cents to 1 dollar. You will find it handy to keep a roll of toilet paper and a small bottle of hand sanitizer in your backpack. In hostels or budget hotels, you cannot rely on having water all the time. In the Andean region, it also can easily happen that '''showers''' have more or less hot water only in the afternoon since the water is heated by solar energy only. Electrically heated showers are widely spread, but the electric installation is sometimes really dangerous, since the water heater is mostly situated at the shower head. Have a look on it before turning on the shower, especially if you are tall enough that you could touch the cables or other metal during showering which can electrocute you. Don't be too paranoid though, an electric shock is mostly painful. As woman, if you use '''tampons''' during your period, you should bring them with you from home, because they are not very popular in Peru. In Lima, you'll be able to find them in supermarket chains like Tottus, Wong, Metro, Plaza Vea or at drug stores chemists, known as '''farmacias''' and '''boticas'''. When you find them, buy enough for the rest of the trip, they are virtually unknown in the rest of the country. Alternatively you could pack a menstrual cup because they are reusable and compact. Respect Don't use the word ''indio'', even though it's Spanish. For natives, it's very much like the English n-word, since it was used by Spanish conquerors. The politically correct way of speaking is ''el indígena'' or ''la indígena'' — although, like the n-word, very close people inside a circle of friends can get away with it. Another word to be careful with is ''cholo'', ''chola'', or ''cholita'', meaning ''indígena''. This may be used affectionately among indigenous people (it's a very common appellation for a child, for instance), but it's offensive coming from an outsider. The n-word is used, but in a funny playful way, so If you heard it in the street, don't be offended right away, because the Peruvians aren't racist in that way; they use it playfully between each other sometimes, so try to understand the way they said it so you know if they were using it in a playfull or bad mean way. Even if you have about 20 ''No Drugs'' t-shirts at home, accept that people — especially from the countryside — chew coca leaves. See it as a part of the culture with social and ritual components. Keep in mind that coca leaves are not cocaine and are legal. You can try them to experience the culture. If you don't like to chew them, try a ''mate de hojas de coca'' (also quite effective against altitude sickness). However, the use of coca leaf tea may lead to testing positive on North American drug tests within the next few weeks. Officially, most of the Peruvians are Roman Catholic, but especially in the countryside, the ancient pre-Hispanic religiosity is still alive. Respect that when visiting temple ruins or other ritual places and behave as if you were in a church. Connect In all but the smallest towns and villages, one can find '''public telephones''' for national and international calls. Most are in bars or stores. Some of them accept coins, but watch out for stuck coins or dodgy-looking coin receivers as these might make you lose your money. Don't worry if your 1 Nuevo Sol coins don't get through at first, just keep trying and it will eventually work. Many public phones can be expensive, and an attractive alternative is a '''Locutorio''', or "call-center". Typical rates include .2 Nuevo Sol minute for calls in the country, and .5 Nuevo Sol minute for most international calls. You also can buy '''phone cards''' with a 12 digit secret number on it. Using a phone card, first dial 147. When done so, you will be told how much your card is still valid and be asked (in Spanish, of course) for your secret number. After having typed it, you are asked for the phone number you want to connect to. Type it in. Then you get told how much time you can talk. After that, the connection is tried. For '''international calls''', it is often a good idea to go to an '''Internet café''' that offers Internet-based phone (Internet telephony) calls. You find them in the cities. '''Internet cafés''', called in Peru '''cabinas públicas''', grow like mushrooms in Peru and if you are not really on the countryside, it should not be a problem at all to find one. Even in a smaller town like Mancora or Chivay you can still find Internet cafés with 512kbit s ADSL. The connection is quite reliable and they are cheap (1.50-3 Soles, US$0.60-1.20 per hour). Just don't expect most of them to actually sell coffee - or anything at all but computer time or services like printing. It is not uncommon to find '''cabinas''' that burn CDs directly from SD, CF or Memory sticks. Many Internet cafés have headphones and microphones, for free or for an extra fee. Tourist offices * Commons:Category:Peru
December 2009 '''Estadio Julio Lores Colán''' is a multi-use stadium in Huaral, Peru. It is currently used by football (football (soccer)) team Unión Huaral. The stadium holds 10,000 people. Commons:Category:Peru
was possible, built the raft ''Kon Tiki'' from balsa logs, and upon it he and his crew sailed the Pacific Ocean from Peru to the Polynesian Tuamotu Archipelago (Tuamotus) in 1947. Balsa wood is also a popular wood type used in the art of whittling. Rise and fall of Tiwanaku The city and its inhabitants left no written history, and modern local people know little about the city and its activities. An archaeologically based
theory asserts that around AD 400, Tiwanaku went from being a locally dominant force to a predatory state. Tiwanaku expanded its reaches into the Yungas and brought its culture and way of life to many other cultures in Peru, Bolivia, and Chile. However, Tiwanaku was not exclusively a violent culture. In order to expand its reach, Tiwanaku used politics to create colonies, negotiate trade agreements (which made the other cultures rather dependent), and establish state cults. McAndrews, Timothy L. et al. 'Regional Settlement Patterns in the Tiwanaku Valley of Bolivia'. ''Journal of Field Archaeology'' 24 (1997): 67-83. Many others were drawn into the Tiwanaku empire due to religious beliefs as Tiwanaku never ceased being a religious center. Force was rarely necessary for the empire to expand, but on the northern end of the Basin resistance was present. There is evidence that bases of some statues were taken from other cultures and carried all the way back to the capital city of Tiwanaku where the stones were placed in a subordinate position to the Gods of the Tiwanaku in order to display the power Tiwanaku held over many. Blom, Deborah E. and John W. Janusek. 'Making Place: Humans as Dedications in Tiwanaku'. ''World Archaeology'' (2004): 123-141. International Lakes in South America * Lake Titicaca (in Peru and Bolivia) * General Carrera Lake (in Chile and Argentina) In Spain Aguirre was born circa 1510 in the Araotz Valley (a valley and hamlet belonging to Oñati), close to Arantzazu (Sanctuary of Arantzazu) in the province of Gipuzkoa, northern Spain. He was the son of a nobleman, possibly from a family of court clerks. Aguirre was in his twenties and living in Seville when Hernando Pizarro returned from Peru and brought back the treasures of the Incas, inspiring Aguirre to follow in his footsteps. In the New World Aguirre probably enlisted himself in an expedition of 250 men chosen under Rodrigo Buran. He arrived in Peru in 1536 or 1537. In Cuzco (Cusco), Aguirre was responsible for the training of stallions, among other activities. As a conquistador, however, he soon became infamous for his violence, cruelty, and sedition. Aguirre and Melchor Verdugo had gone to Nicaragua sailing to Trujillo (Trujillo, Peru) with 33 men. Verdugo had conferred captain's rank on Rodrigo de Esquivel and Nuño de Guzmán, sergeant major rank on Aguirre and ''contador'' status to P. Henao. Henao would later participate in the expedition of Pedro de Ursúa to Omagua and El Dorado. However, in 1551, Aguirre returned to Potosí (then still part of Peru and now part of Bolivia). The judge, Francisco de Esquivel, arrested him and charged him with infraction of the laws for the protection of the Indians. The judge discounted Aguirre's reasons and his claims of gentry (Hidalgo (Spanish nobility)) and sentenced him to a public flogging. His pride wounded, Aguirre waited until the end of the judge's mandate. Fearing Aguirre's vengeance, the judge fled, changing his residence constantly. On 31 August 1947, the UNSCOP officially released its report. The only unanimous recommendation was that the United Kingdom terminate their mandate for Palestine and grant it independence at the earliest possible date. A majority of nations (Canada, Czechoslovakia, Guatemala, Netherlands, Peru, Sweden, Uruguay) recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states, with Jerusalem to be placed under international administration (Corpus separatum (Jerusalem)). A minority (India, Iran, Yugoslavia) supported the creation of a federal union (composed of an Arab state and a Jewish state) based upon the US Constitutional model. Today, although many indigenous languages have become critically endangered, others are now rigorously spoken. Several even have official status, such as Guaraní in Paraguay. In other cases official status is limited to certain regions where the languages are spoken, and even if enshrined in constitutions, they may have infrequent ''de facto'' official use: examples of this are the status of Quechua (Quechua people) in Peru and Aymara (Aymara people) in Bolivia, where in practice, Spanish is dominant in all formal contexts. In the Arctic region, Greenland in 2009 adopted Kalaallisut as its sole official language. In the United States, the Navajo language is the most spoken Native American language, with over 200,000 speakers in the Southwestern United States. The language was used by the Navajo Code Talkers during World War II to transmit secret US military messages, which neither the Germans and Japanese ever deciphered. Today, governments, universities, and indigenous peoples are continuing to work for the preservation and revitalization of indigenous American languages. It breeds in temperate South America from Ecuador and Peru to Chile and Argentina and east to Brazil; it has been introduced into Germany and the Netherlands (colony on the border, Zwilbrockervenn). There also a small population in Utah and California. Like all flamingos it lays a single chalky white egg on a mud mound. In the second year of activities, SAM’s wings grew and began to embrace the world of the nearest Colombian cities with flights to Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Planeta Rica and Barranquilla. The airline grew quickly. Industrial and commercial activity increased to the point that in 1950 the fleet comprised 18 cargo aircraft and the destinations were now far afield. SAM’s aircraft flew to and from Panama; San Juan de Puerto Rico; Lima and Talara in Peru; Kingston (Kingston, Jamaica) in Jamaica; Caracas and Maracaibo in Venezuela; La Habana in Cuba; Managua in Nicaragua; Quito in Ecuador; Curaçao; Guatemala; Mexico; Santiago de Chile; and Manaus in Brazil. Commons:Category:Peru
;Cuco" Peña , it became a big "hit" in Puerto Rico. Among the songs included in the album was the song "''Yo Perdi''" (I Lost). "''Yo Perdi''" made Puerto Rican musical history, when it became the "first" Puerto Rican song to be converted into a musical video, filmed in 35 mm. In 1983, Lunna married "Cuco" Peña, with whom she had three children, Gabriel, Juan and Angel (they later divorced). - Peru Lima - '''Lambayeque''' is a city in the Lambayeque region of northern Peru. It is notable for its exceptional museums featuring artefacts from local archaeological (archeology) sites. The Bruning Museum, established in the early 1900s, contains hundreds of gold and silver pieces, as well as textiles and ceramics, from the Vicus (Vicus (Peru)), Moche, Chimú, Lambeyeque and Inca cultures. The ''Tumba Real'' (Royal Tombs), established in 2002, contains artefacts from the tomb of the Lord of Sipan. '''Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira''' (or '''Neyra''') (1542 – October 1595) was a Spanish (Spain) navigator. Born in Congosto, in León (León (province)), he was the nephew of Lope García de Castro, viceroy of Peru. He is best known for the two voyages of discovery he led into the Pacific in 1567 and 1595 in search of Terra Australis. Historian Brett Hilder has written of “ardent spirits in Peru, inspiring three Spanish (Spain) voyages to the south west Pacific in the forty years from 1565 to 1605.” Hilder, B.(1980)'' The Voyage of Torres''. p.2 Queensland University Press, St. Lucia, Queensland. ISBN 0-7022-1275-X One of these ardent spirits was certainly Spanish soldier Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa who arrived in Peru in 1557. Sarmiento de Gamboa (Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa) developed an interest in Inca stories of gold and riches being collected from lands further to the west. Sarmiento's proposal for an expedition to find land in the Pacific was put to Governor Lope García de Castro, finding favour as it matched common Spanish belief in the existence of a great South Land. Historian Miriam Estensen argues Governor Castro also agreed as a way of maintaining peace and order. “Restless and disruptive” elements in the Spanish Americas were encouraged to join such journeys of exploration to remove them from colonial society. The lure of possible wealth made these expeditions attractive to such men, often drawn from the poorest levels of society. Estensen, M. (2006) ''Terra Australis Incognita; The Spanish Quest for the Mysterious Great South Land''. P.15. Allen & Unwin, Australia. ISBN 1-74175-054-7 Historian Brett Hilder has written of “ardent spirits in Peru, inspiring three Spanish (Spain) voyages to the south west Pacific in the forty years from 1565 to 1605.” Hilder, B.(1980)'' The Voyage of Torres''. p.2 Queensland University Press, St. Lucia, Queensland. ISBN 0-7022-1275-X One of these ardent spirits was certainly Spanish soldier Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa who arrived in Peru in 1557. Sarmiento de Gamboa (Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa) developed an interest in Inca stories of gold and riches being collected from lands further to the west. Sarmiento's proposal for an expedition to find land in the Pacific was put to Governor Lope García de Castro, finding favour as it matched common Spanish belief in the existence of a great South Land. Historian Miriam Estensen argues Governor Castro also agreed as a way of maintaining peace and order. “Restless and disruptive” elements in the Spanish Americas were encouraged to join such journeys of exploration to remove them from colonial society. The lure of possible wealth made these expeditions attractive to such men, often drawn from the poorest levels of society. Estensen, M. (2006) ''Terra Australis Incognita; The Spanish Quest for the Mysterious Great South Land''. P.15. Allen & Unwin, Australia. ISBN 1-74175-054-7 The four ships, ''San Geronimo'' (the Capitana), the ''Santa Isabel'' (the Almiranta), the smaller frigate ''Santa Catalina'' and the galiot ''San Felipe'' left Callao on 9 April 1595. Spirits were high in the first month, fifteen marriages being celebrated. Spate, O.H.K. (1979) p.128 Mendaña had Quirós prepare charts for his Captains that only showed Peru and the Solomon Islands. incorrectly marked as 1500 leagues west of Lima, as the Spanish underestimated the size of the Pacific. See Spate, O.H.K (1979) Of the 378 who sailed from Peru, about 100 survived, but ten more died shortly after arriving in Manila. Doña Isabel Barreto was honoured in Manila and Quirós was commended for his service and absolved of any responsibility for the killings on Santa Cruz. Three months later Doña Isabel married the Governor’s cousin. She continued to agitate for a return to the Solomon Islands. She died in 1612. Estensen, M. (2006) p.88-90 The Tigres adventure in the Libertadores included their first ever game in that tournament against Alianza Lima in Peru on February 15, 2005 (away, score: 0-0) and May 3, 2005 (home, score: 0-0). Their first ever win on the tournament, on February 23, 2005, against Caracas FC (Caracas Fútbol Club), from Venezuela (home, score: 3-1), and on April 13, 2005 (away, score: 2-5). This last game is the biggest-scoring game the team has had in its history on the tournament. thumb right 260px Mariátegui in 1928 (Image:José Carlos Mariátegui.jpg) '''José Carlos Mariátegui La Chira''' (14 June 1894– 16 April 1930) was a Peruvian journalist, political philosopher, and activist. A prolific writer before his early death at age 35, he is considered one of the most influential Latin American socialists of the 20th century. Mariátegui's most famous work, ''Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality'' (1928), is still widely read in South America. An avowed, self-taught Marxist, he insisted that a socialist revolution should evolve organically in Latin America on the basis of local conditions and practices, not the result of mechanically applying a European formula. The '''green terror''' (''Andinoacara rivulatus'') is a colorful freshwater fish in the cichlid family (Family (biology)). The fish originates from the Pacific (Pacific Ocean) side of South America in the coastal waters from the Tumbes River in Peru to the Esmeraldas River in Ecuador. Males and females may reach lengths of Commons:Category:Peru
Peru located on the banks of the Ucayali River, a major tributary of the Amazon River. It is the capital of the Ucayali region, the Coronel Portillo Province and the Calleria District. Cultural appropriation in Western music as a cultural economic phenomenon is inextricably linked with the invention of sound recording and the development of the international recording industry, but the background to its emergence covers the whole span of modern Western musical
history, and what some analysts have deemed the digital revolution. This is particularly evident among indigenous peoples and their musical genres, such as the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia who face many challenges in the face of globalization and the forces propelling cultural appropriation. Dean, Bartholomew. "digital vibes & radio waves in indigenous Peru." In ''Latin Indigenous Intellectual Property Rights: Legal Obstacles and Innovative
, the Moquegua Region on the southwest, and the Tacna Region on the south. Its capital is the city of Puno, which is located on Lake Titicaca in the geographical region known as the Altiplano or high sierra. '''Henry Ian Cusick''' (born April 17, 1967) is a Scottish (Scotland)-Peruvian actor of stage (theatre), television, and film. He is well known for his role as Desmond Hume on the United States television series '' Lost (TV series) Lost
, a large sugar cane farm in northern Peru. His father was a Japanese immigrant and his mother was a Peruvian of Andean origin. In a very intimate way, Watanabe fused his two deep cultural backgrounds in brief but intense poetic work. - Peru RJ11 - Spanish (Spanish language) Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica*, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea*, Guatemala*, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Spain, Uruguay, Venezuela ''Siempre Listo (para servir*)!'' Aymara has approximately 2.2 million speakers; 1.7 million in Bolivia, 350,000 in Peru, and the rest in Chile and Argentina. Jaqaru has approximately 725 speakers in central Peru, while Cauqui had 9 surviving speakers as of 2005. Cauqui is little documented, though its relationship with Jaqaru is extremely close. Initially they were considered by Dr Martha Hardman (on very limited data at the time) to be different languages, but all subsequent fieldwork and research has contradicted this and demonstrated that they are mutually intelligible but divergent dialects of a single language. As of 2008, there were Premonstratensian abbeys or priories throughout the world: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Peru, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom and USA. In 1883, an expedition of American astronomers traveled from Peru to Caroline Island aboard the ''USS Hartford'' to observe a total solar eclipse on May 6. A French expedition also observed the eclipse from Caroline, and the United States Navy mapped the atoll. Johann Palisa, a member of the expedition, discovered an asteroid later that year which he named Carolina (235 Carolina) "in remembrance of his visit to the island." Commons:Category:Peru
. Africans use the bulbs and leaves as poultices and decoctions for treating sores and digestive disorders, but in large dosages they are extremely poisonous. The Zulu (Zulu people) people of South Africa also use rhizomes of clivias as protective charms. In Peru, the Inca people frequently depicted flowers of Amaryllidaceae ''(Ismene, Pyolirion'' and ''Stenomesson'') on ceremonial drinking vessels. In southern Africa, however, indigenous art portraying plants is rare. The single known rock painting of a ''Brunsvigia'' species in Lesotho probably emphasizes how much the San people valued the bulbs for their psychoactive effects. '''Juliaca''' (Spanish: ''Juliaca'', Quechua (Quechua languages): ''Hullaqa'', Aymara: ''Hullaqa'') is San Roman's capital city in Puno Region, which is situated in southeastern Peru. It is the region's largest city with a population of 225,146 inhabitants (2007), http: censos.inei.gob.pe Censos2007 IndDem on the Altiplano, Juliaca ( Commons:Category:Peru
node 47682 Che Trippers by Lawrence Osborne, ''The New York Observer'', June 15, 2003 As Bernal experienced locales in Chile, Peru and Bolivia; with social conditions unchanged or worsened since Guevara passed through a half-century before, he took to heart Guevara's internationalist (Internationalism (politics)) assertion in a "fiction of nations." Bernal believes this process allowed him to "engage with Latin America", in much the same way he
. The core of the current sound economic performance of the country is a combination of: * Macroeconomic stability The '''Peruvian Armed Forces''' ( ) are the military services of Peru, comprising independent Army, Navy and Air Force components. Their primary mission is to safeguard the country's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity against any threat. As a secondary mission they participate in economic and social
, is more up-to-date for the countries it cover-- After a post-shakedown refit at her builders' yard, ''Worden'' shifted south to San Diego, reaching that port on 19 September, and commenced four years of operations from there as a unit of Destroyer Squadrons, Scouting Force. She performed valuable duty as a training ship for the Fleet Sound School, San Diego, and conducted the usual tactics and type training evolutions in local waters and in maneuvers that took her from Seward, Alaska
common_name Peru image_coat Escudo de armas del Perú.svg image_flag Flag of Peru.svg image_map Peru (orthographic projection).svg national_motto "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union" national_anthem other_symbol_type National seal (Seal (device)): other_symbol 80px link Great Seal of the State (File:Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg) languages_type Official languages a languages Spanish (Spanish language) (official) 84.1% Quechua (Quechuan languages) (official) 13% Aymara (Aymara language) (official) 1.7% (2007 Census) demonym Peruvian ethnic_groups 45% Amerindian (Indigenous peoples in Peru) 37% Mestizo 15% White (Peruvians of European descent) 2% others ethnic_groups_year 2013 capital Lima latd 12 latm 2.6 latNS S longd 77 longm 1.7 longEW W largest_city Lima government_type Unitary (Unitary state) presidential (Presidential system) constitutional (Constitution of Peru) republic leader_title1 President (List of Presidents of Peru) leader_name1 Ollanta Humala leader_title2 Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Peru) leader_name2 Ana Jara legislature Congress (Congress of the Republic of Peru) sovereignty_type Independence (Peruvian War of Independence) established_event1 Declared (Peruvian War of Independence) established_date1 28 July 1821 established_event2 Consolidated (Battle of Ayacucho) established_date2 9 December 1824 established_event3 Recognized (Chincha Islands War) established_date3 2 May 1866 area_rank 20th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,285,216 area_sq_mi 496,225 percent_water 0.41 population_estimate 31,151,643 population_estimate_rank 41st population_estimate_year 2015 population_census 28,220,764 population_census_year 2007 population_density_km2 23 population_density_sq_mi 57 population_density_rank 191st GDP_PPP $403.322 billion GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year 2015 GDP_PPP_per_capita $12,638 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank GDP_nominal $217.607 billion GDP_nominal_rank GDP_nominal_year 2015 GDP_nominal_per_capita $6,819 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank Gini_year 2012 Gini_change decrease Gini 45.3 Gini_ref Gini_rank 35th HDI_year 2014 HDI_change steady HDI 0.737 HDI_ref HDI_rank 82nd currency Nuevo sol (Peruvian nuevo sol) currency_code PEN time_zone PET (Time in Peru) date_format dd.mm.yyyy (CE (Common Era)) utc_offset −5 drives_on right calling_code +51 cctld .pe footnote_a Quechua (Quechua language), Aymara (Aymara language) and other indigenous languages (Languages of Peru) are co-official in the areas where they predominate.
'''Peru''' ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse (biodiversity) country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (ed.):Perú: País megaviverso
Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures (Ancient Peru) spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America (Pre-Columbian). The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty (Viceroyalty of Peru) with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies. Ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its Independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence. After achieving independence (Peruvian War of Independence), the country remained in recession and kept a low military profile until an economic rise based on the extraction of raw and maritime materials struck the country, which ended shortly before the war of the Pacific. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in of government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict (Internal conflict in Peru) as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Peru is a representative democratic (representative democracy) republic divided into 25 regions (Administrative divisions of Peru). It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 25.8 percent. UN: Peru Posts One of Region’s Best Reductions in Poverty in 2011. Andean Air Mail and Peruvian Times, 28 November 2012. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 30.4 million, is multiethnic (Multiethnic society), including Amerindians (Indigenous Peoples in Peru), Europeans (White Latin American), Africans (African Latin American) and Asians (Asian Latin American). The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua (Quechua languages) or other native languages (Indigenous languages of the Americas). This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.