, Zaire, Zambia. Van Outen will be doing the Inca Trek in Peru for Breast Cancer Care with Fearne Cotton and Alexandra Burke amongst six women with breast cancer.
A general testing is done on the soil content first. To do so, a sample of the soil is mixed into a clear container with some water, creating an almost completely saturated liquid. After
in the Western Hemisphere, along with that of Havana, and contains various architecture in traditional Chinese fashion. Local Chinese restaurants, called in Peruvian Spanish chifas, serve Chinese food with significant Peruvian influence and are popular in Chinatown among native Peruvians as well. right 300px (Image:José Watanabe.jpg) '''José Watanabe''' (1946-April 25, 2007) was a Peruvian poet who won a number of literary awards. Watanabe was born in Laredo, Peru Laredo
; Peru In Peru, the ''Licenciatura'' is not an academic degree, but rather a "Professional Title" within a specific profession. The difference between the two is that academic degrees allow you to further your career studies at universities, while Professional Titles allow you to work in positions outside academia or perform as an independent professional in the Republic of Peru. Certain professions require the ''Licenciatura'' or "Professional Title"
Terra Peru'', 18 November 2003, retrieved 2011-02-06 and participated in ''Reinado Internacional de las Flores 2003'' beauty contest where she because the first queen. She was one of the 10 semi-finalists in the Miss World 2003 contest. She eventually finished as a semi-finalist in the contest and also took home the award for best gown (The Fashion Award). Career Keith Kanashiro or Sensei was born on July 2nd 1977 in Toronto, Canada. His parents
studies are considered to be some of his best works. In Haiti, Botello developed his artistic career of woodworking and he's considered the father of the Haitian wood carvings and taught Haitian artists about it. Deprived of their traditional service, the nuns decided to act on a proposal they had long considered, namely, missionary service, about which they had learned from the periodicals issued by various missionary congregations. They wrote to ecclesiastical authorities in both
, which was known for extremely complex textiles, the Nazca produced an array of beautiful crafts and technologies such as ceramics, textiles, and geoglyphs (most commonly known as the Nazca lines (Nazca Lines)). They also built an impressive system of underground aqueducts, known as ''puquios'', that still function today. The Nazca Province in the Ica Region was named for this people. Nazca 6, and 7 include some of the earlier motifs but also emphasizes militaristic ones, suggesting a shift in social organization. The motifs in these phases include abstract elements as part of the design. Large numbers of rays and tassels are appended to many of the designs, particularly those depicting mythical subjects, producing a visual impression of almost infinitely multiplied elements, an impression which accounts for the use of the term 'proliferous' (Roark 1965:2). Art found on pottery in relation to Nazca phases 6 and 7 also display an influence from the Moche culture of north coastal Peru. Finally, Nazca 8 saw the introduction of completely disjointed figures and a geometric iconography which is difficult to decipher. Phases 8 and 9 are now believed to date to the Middle Horizon, reflecting a shift in power from the coast to the highlands with the advent of the Wari culture about 650 CE. (Silverman and Proulx, 2002). *2004 U.S. presidential election controversy: The U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary requests Ohio Secretary of State Ken Blackwell to respond to alleged voting irregularities (2004 U.S. presidential election controversy and irregularities). (House.gov (PDF)) *The Inter-American Court of Human Rights upholds Peru's conviction and continued imprisonment of U.S. citizen Lori Berenson on terrorism charges. (BBC) (AP) * A spokesman for George W. Bush requests that Myanmar release dissident opposition (Parliamentary opposition) leader Aung San Suu Kyi, whose house arrest was recently extended. (BBC) December 8, 2004 * Delegates from twelve South American countries meeting in Cuzco (Cusco), Peru, sign a deal creating the South American Community of Nations, a bloc modelled on the European Union. (BBC) * The Israeli government indicates that it will recognize same-sex partnerships for certain benefits, and will introduce legislation formalizing this status. (365gay.com) Despite the continuing controversy over which team is the most popular (between Alianza and Universitario) a survey of Apoyo Opinión y Mercado in 2006 revealed that 54% of Peruvians where soccer fans, and ensures that Alianza Lima owns 35% of the preferences, followed by Universitario (Universitario de Deportes), with 32%, and bit further away, Sporting Cristal with 17%, while the remaining teams have a combined 11%. Commons:Category:Peru
in the same street. So, if you once know the appropriate street when looking for something special, it shouldn't be no more problem to find it quite soon. Giving '''tips''' in restaurants (at least when basic or middle-range) is not very common but 10% for good service is polite. In the cities, you will always find some '''beggars (Begging)''', either sitting on the streets, or doing a musical number on the buses. Many of them really need help, especially the elderly and handicapped. Usual donations are about PEN0.10-0.20 (USD0.03-0.06). This is not much, but some unskilled workers don't get much more than PEN10 for a hard working day. Whether you want to give money to child beggars or not is your decision. But consider that doing so may make it more attractive for parents to send their children begging in the street instead of sending them to school. Buy them food instead, they ''do'' need it. Eat thumb Chanfainita is one of Peru's many beef organ dishes, mostly made of lungs (File:Chanfainita-palto típico peruano.jpg) thumb Peruvian purple corn is the base for many dishes and drinks, including the popular purple sweet custard (mazamorra morada) (File:Peruvian corn.jpg) Peruvian cuisine is among the most varied in the world. Not only does the country grow a variety of fruits and vegetables, but it does so throughout the year. Peruvian geography offers at least 8 different climates (desert along the coast, steep and high mountains, the Amazon basin). In Lima, due to its history as an important Spanish colonial port, the dishes are a mixture of amerindian, Spaniard, African, Asian and even Italian influences that contribute to the ever changing '''platos criollos''' (creole dishes). Rice is the staple foodstuff, and expect many dishes to include rice, in the Siera it's corn and potatoes, and in the Jungle yuca. '''Meat''' is traditionally included in most Peruvian dishes. Chicken (''pollo''), pork, sheep and beef are common. Alpacas are actually kept for wool, not for meat. Mostly, you will find that alpaca meat is rather tough. An Andean delicacy is guinea pig (''cuy''). Peruvian cuisine includes dishes which use various organs, including '''anticuchos''', a kebab made from very marinated and spicy beef heart, and '''cau-cau''' (sounds like cow-cow), made from cow stomach served in a yellow sauce with potatoes. Anticuchos are a standard street stall food, but be careful with it. '''Fish''' can be found along the coast (of course), but also in the jungle area since the rivers supply fresh fish (but beware of contamination in the area known as high jungle or selva alta, where most of the cocaine is made and strong chemicals get dumped into rivers; mining is a minor source of pollution in this area). In the Sierra, trout (''truchas'') are bred in several places. A very common fish dish is ceviche, raw fish prepared by marination in lime juice. Popular variations of the dish can include shellfish, and even sea urchin. The exact recipe and mode of preparation of ceviche will vary from region to region. Definitely worth a try, especially in summer, but cleanliness and sanitation make all the difference. Use care when buying from street vendors and remember that it is often served spicy. Throughout Peru there is a wide variety of potato dishes (''papas'', not ''patatas'' as in Spain), the traditional Andean vegetable. Papa a la Huancaina is a tasty dish of potato slices and diced boiled egg topped with a thin, creamy yellow sauce, and usually includes a lettuce leaf and an olive or two. (A similar green sauce, called Ocopa, can be served over potatoes or yuca.) Papa rellena is mashed potato reformed into a potato-like shape, but with meat, vegetables, and other spicy filling in the middle. Aji de gallina is shredded chicken in a thick, spicy, cheese-based sauce over sliced potatoes, often with an olive and slice of hard-boiled egg. Causa is mashed potato layered with mayonnaise-based tuna or chicken salad mixed with hot peppers. Many Peruvian dishes can contain strong condiments and be heavy, so if you have a weak stomach, proceed with caution. Nowadays, the transport routes from the flat jungle areas are good enough to supply all the country with vegetables and fruits. Nevertheless, '''vegetables''' still have the status of a garnish for the meat. '''Vegetarian restaurants''' exist in all cities, but are relatively rare. In most areas, there is a rich offering of '''tropical fruits''' and fresh squeezed juices. The natives typically eat in small restaurants or Chinese eateries ("chifas"); a menu there costs 5-8 Soles and includes a soup, a choice of main dish, and a drink. If you count on international fast food chains, you will be disappointed. You find them almost nowhere except in the largest cities, and the prices are uniformly astronomical. Peruvians are quite proud of their desserts, especially in Lima. Try them with care, since they tend to be extremely sweet and loaded with sugars, eggs yolks and similar ingredients. Try '''mazamorra morada''', or purple custard, made from the same purple corn used for chicha morada drink; together with '''arroz con leche''' (rice with sweetened condensed milk) is called a combinado (combination). '''Picarones''' are a sort of donut, made from fried yams dough and served with '''chancaca''', a very sweet sugarcane syrup. And the sweetest dessert '''suspiro Limeño''' is perfect if you are in sore need of a high-calorie glucose shock. Drink The Pisco-Nasca area is famous for wine cultivating. Their more expensive vintages compare favorably against Chilean imports. Beer is nice, stronger than American brands but less full bodied than European ones. Most of Peruvian beers are made by Backus, currently owned by SAB Miller. When drinking at bars and or restaurants, be aware that Peruvian "Happy Hour" is a little different than in most countries. Prices for drinks will usually be posted on the walls and be a little cheaper than normal. The real differences is that you will be served '''2''' drinks, instead of one, for the listed price -- giving a new meaning to the term "half price." This can be a great way to save money (if you are traveling with a group) or to meet locals (if you are traveling alone). It can also lead you to get completely falling-down-drunk by accident, so be careful. * '''Caliente''' is a hot alcoholic drink served during celebrations in Andean towns such as Tarma. Its basically a herbal tea with white rum for that added kick. * '''Chicha de Jora''', A cheap traditional alcoholic drink made from corn that is fermented and rather high in alcohol content for a non-distilled beverage. Not normally available at formal restaurants and quite uncommon in Lima outside of residential areas. Places that sell chicha have a long stick with a brightly-colored plastic bag on it propped up outside their door. * '''Chicha morada''', not to be confused with the previous one, is a soft drink made from boiled purple corn, with sugar and spices added (not a soda). Quite refreshing, it is widely available and very recommendable. Normally Peruvian cuisine restaurants will have their freshly made supply as part of the menu; it is also available from street vendors or diners, but take care with the water. Bottled or canned chicha morada is made from concentrates and not as pleasant as freshly-boiled chicha. * '''Coca Tea''' or ''Mate de Coca'', a tea made from the leaves of the coca plant. It is legal to drink this tea in Peru. It is great for adjusting to the altitude or after a heavy meal. It may be found cold but normally is served hot. * You can find many places that serve fresh fruit drinks. Peru has a wide variety of fruits since its natural variety, so if you get a good "jugueria" you will have lots of options to choose from. * The Peruvian amazon cities offer some typical drinks too as: '''masato, chuchuhuasi, hidromiel''' and others. * '''Coffee'''. Peru is the world's largest producer of organic coffee. Ask for 'cafe pasado', the essence produced by pouring boiling hot water over fresh ground coffee from places like Chanchamayo. * All of Peru's wines are inexpensive. Tacama, Ocucaje and Santiago Queirolo branded wines are the most reliable. * '''Emoliente'''. Another popular drink in Peru, often sold in the streets by vendors for 50 centimos. Served hot, its flavor is best described as a thick, viscous tea, but surprisingly refreshing - depending on what herb and fruit extracts you choose to put into it, of course. Normally the vendor's mix will be good enough if you choose not to say anything, but you're free to select the mix yourself. Normally sold hot, is the usual after-party drink, as a "reconstituyente", but it can be drunk cold too. * Commons:Category:Peru
the entire history of human occupation in what is now Peru. Highlights include the Raimondi Stela and the Tello Obelisk from Chavín de Huantar, and an impressive scale model of the Inca citadel, Machu Picchu. '''''Dendrophryniscus''''' is a genus of true toads (Bufonidae) in the Bufonidae family endemic (endemism) to the atlantic forests of Brazil, amazonian Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and the Guianas. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. The '''Museum of the Nation''' '''(Museo de la Nación)''' is one of two major museums of Peruvian history (History of Peru) in Lima, Peru. It is much larger than the other main museum in Lima, the Peruvian National Museum of Archaeology, Anthropology, and History. Trips Recent years have seen educational visits to France, Italy, and Germany, including various exchanges, as well as slightly less adventurous trips to places such as The Globe Theatre, Chessington World of Adventures, the Phoenix Theatre, Whipsinade Zoo and The British Museum. Groups of senior students went to Peru on a World Challenge Expedition (World Challenge) in 2005, to Mongolia in July 2007 an then to Zambia and Botswana in 2010. The School also hold more recreational visits, such as recent Rugby Tours to Canada and South Africa, and the Annual Ski Trip to Italy, as well as an additional ski trip to Canada in 2011. The school has also taken pupils to canoe down the Ardèche (Ardèche (river)) and has taken pupils scuba diving in Gozo. In spring of 2008 pupils went to Spain. The Senior Rugby Team toured to Los Angeles, New Zealand and Hong Kong in the Summer of 2011. In the summer of 2013 there will be an expedition to Bolivia and Peru. Until the dedication of the Orlando Florida Temple in October 1994 members of the church in the Caribbean also came to the Atlanta Temple. During the first decade of the Atlanta Temple's operation it was not unusual for Latter-day Saints from Venezuela and other South American countries to come to the Atlanta Temple (Flights to Atlanta were often cheaper than those to Mexico City, Lima Peru, or Guatemala City where the church dedicated temples in the early 1980s. Temples were dedicated in Bogotá, Colombia in April 1999 and Caracas Venezuela in August 2000). '''Huaca de la Luna''' ("Temple Shrine of the Moon") is a large adobe brick structure built mainly by the Moche people of northern Peru Commons:Category:Peru
was ''PEI'' and its abbreviation in local use was "I ." The inti was divided into 100 céntimos. The inti replaced the inflation-stricken sol (Peruvian sol). The new currency was named after Inti, the Inca sun god. '''Manuel Pardo y Lavalle''' (August 9, 1834 – November 16, 1878) was a Peruvian politician and the first civilian President of Peru (List of Presidents of Peru). Description and habitat ''Byrsonima crassifolia'' is a slow-growing large shrub or tree to 33 ft (10 m). Sometimes cultivated for its edible fruits, the tree is native and abundant in the wild, sometimes in extensive stands, in open pine forests (Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests) and grassy savannas, from central Mexico, through Central America, to Peru, Bolivia and Brazil; it also occurs in Trinidad, Barbados, Curaçao, St. Martin, Dominica, Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and throughout Cuba and the Isle of Pines (Isla de la Juventud). The nance is limited to tropical and subtropical climates. In Central and South America, the tree ranges from sea-level to an altitude of 6,000 ft (1,800 m). It is highly drought-tolerant. A short time was spent in assisting a gentleman in Peru who was seeking to prove an Aryan affinity for the dialects spoken by the Indians of that country to publish his research, but in 1868 Maspero was back in France at more profitable work. In 1869 he became a teacher (''répétiteur'') of Egyptian language and archeology at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, and in 1874 he was appointed to the chair of Champollion at the Collège de France. He played a significant role in the historic dialogue in Latin America between Christianity and Marxism. (Guatemala: Occupied Country, Eduardo Galeano, Monthly Review Press, 1969) Blase Bonpane led investigative delegations to Nicaragua, Cuba, Mexico, Panama, Honduras, Costa Rica and Peru. He traveled through the conflictive zones of Chiapas, Mexico together with Bishop Samuel Ruiz on a series of peace missions and served on the board of SICSAL, a hemispheric ecumenical secretariat based in Mexico City. He also participated in peace missions to El Salvador, Colombia, Ecuador and Iraq. (See the Blase Bonpane Collection, Department of Special Collections, UCLA Research Library; Collection 1590). thumbnail Stone bridge (''Puente de piedra'') across the Rímac River (Image:Lima Río Rímac Bridge.jpg) left '''Rímac''' is a district in the Lima Province, Peru. It lies directly to the north of downtown Lima (Lima District), to which it is connected by six bridges over the Rímac River. The district also borders the Independencia (Independencia District, Lima), San Martín de Porres (San Martín de Porres District), and San Juan de Lurigancho (San Juan de Lurigancho District) districts. Vestiges of Lima's colonial heyday remain today in an area of the Rímac district known as the Historic centre of Lima, which was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. Downtown Rímac District has, like its southern counterpart, its eastern and western sides divided by Jirón Trujillo, which connects to Lima District's Jirón de la Unión through the ''Puente de Piedra'', the oldest bridge in the whole city. Rímac's East side features the Plaza de Acho, the most famous bullfighting arena in South America and one of the most well-known in the world. The '''1992 Peruvian constitutional crisis''', also known as the '''Autogolpe of 1992''' was a constitutional crisis that occurred in Peru in 1992, after President (President of Peru) Alberto Fujimori dissolved the Congress of Peru and assumed full legislative powers. '''La Molina''' is a district (Districts of Peru) of the Lima Province in Peru, and one of the upscale districts that comprise the city of Lima. Officially established as a district on February 6, 1962, the current mayor (''alcalde'') of La Molina is Juan Carlos Zurek. The district's postal code is '''12'''. :(Chile) Commons:Category:Peru
common_name Peru image_coat Escudo de armas del Perú.svg image_flag Flag of Peru.svg image_map Peru (orthographic projection).svg national_motto "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union" national_anthem other_symbol_type National seal (Seal (device)): other_symbol 80px link Great Seal of the State (File:Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg) languages_type Official languages a languages Spanish (Spanish language) (official) 84.1% Quechua (Quechuan languages) (official) 13% Aymara (Aymara language) (official) 1.7% (2007 Census) demonym Peruvian ethnic_groups 45% Amerindian (Indigenous peoples in Peru) 37% Mestizo 15% White (Peruvians of European descent) 2% others ethnic_groups_year 2013 capital Lima latd 12 latm 2.6 latNS S longd 77 longm 1.7 longEW W largest_city Lima government_type Unitary (Unitary state) presidential (Presidential system) constitutional (Constitution of Peru) republic leader_title1 President (List of Presidents of Peru) leader_name1 Ollanta Humala leader_title2 Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Peru) leader_name2 Ana Jara legislature Congress (Congress of the Republic of Peru) sovereignty_type Independence (Peruvian War of Independence) established_event1 Declared (Peruvian War of Independence) established_date1 28 July 1821 established_event2 Consolidated (Battle of Ayacucho) established_date2 9 December 1824 established_event3 Recognized (Chincha Islands War) established_date3 2 May 1866 area_rank 20th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,285,216 area_sq_mi 496,225 percent_water 0.41 population_estimate 31,151,643 population_estimate_rank 41st population_estimate_year 2015 population_census 28,220,764 population_census_year 2007 population_density_km2 23 population_density_sq_mi 57 population_density_rank 191st GDP_PPP $403.322 billion GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year 2015 GDP_PPP_per_capita $12,638 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank GDP_nominal $217.607 billion GDP_nominal_rank GDP_nominal_year 2015 GDP_nominal_per_capita $6,819 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank Gini_year 2012 Gini_change decrease Gini 45.3 Gini_ref Gini_rank 35th HDI_year 2014 HDI_change steady HDI 0.737 HDI_ref HDI_rank 82nd currency Nuevo sol (Peruvian nuevo sol) currency_code PEN time_zone PET (Time in Peru) date_format dd.mm.yyyy (CE (Common Era)) utc_offset −5 drives_on right calling_code +51 cctld .pe footnote_a Quechua (Quechua language), Aymara (Aymara language) and other indigenous languages (Languages of Peru) are co-official in the areas where they predominate.
'''Peru''' ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse (biodiversity) country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (ed.):Perú: País megaviverso
Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures (Ancient Peru) spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America (Pre-Columbian). The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty (Viceroyalty of Peru) with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies. Ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its Independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence. After achieving independence (Peruvian War of Independence), the country remained in recession and kept a low military profile until an economic rise based on the extraction of raw and maritime materials struck the country, which ended shortly before the war of the Pacific. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in of government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict (Internal conflict in Peru) as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Peru is a representative democratic (representative democracy) republic divided into 25 regions (Administrative divisions of Peru). It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 25.8 percent. UN: Peru Posts One of Region’s Best Reductions in Poverty in 2011. Andean Air Mail and Peruvian Times, 28 November 2012. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 30.4 million, is multiethnic (Multiethnic society), including Amerindians (Indigenous Peoples in Peru), Europeans (White Latin American), Africans (African Latin American) and Asians (Asian Latin American). The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua (Quechua languages) or other native languages (Indigenous languages of the Americas). This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.