The hundreds of individual figures range in complexity from simple lines to stylized hummingbirds, spiders, monkeys, fish, sharks, orcas, llamas
; Pulitzer.org Peru ordered 12 MIG-31BM for Peruvian Air Force in 2012. Maciste's debut set the tone for his later adventures. Including "Cabiria" itself, there have been at least 52 movies featuring Maciste, 27 of them being pre-1930 silent films starring Bartolomeo Pagano and the other 25 being a series of sound color films produced in the early 1960s. Typical plots involve
back to the colonial Peru (Viceroyalty of Peru) as a combination of traditional rural folk music and popular urban dance music. High-pitched vocals are accompanied by a variety of instruments, including quena (flute), harp, siku (Siku (panpipe)) (panpipe), accordion, saxophone, charango, lute, violin, guitar, and mandolin. Some elements of huayño originate in the music of the pre-Columbian (Christopher Columbus) Andes, especially on the territory of former
. The Peruvian Government tried to mediate the dispute by sending a diplomatic team to negotiate with the Chilean government, but the committee concluded that war was inevitable. Chile declared war on 5 April 1879. Almost five years of war ended with the loss of the department of Tarapacá and the provinces of Tacna and Arica, in the Atacama region. Two outstanding military leaders throughout the war were Francisco Bolognesi and Miguel Grau (Miguel Grau Seminario). Originally Chile
. The 'cultigen' had most likely been spread by local people to the Caribbean and South America by 2500 BC. Zhang ''et al.'' (1998) provided strong supporting evidence that the geographical zone postulated by Austin is the primary center of diversity. The much lower molecular diversity found in Peru–Ecuador suggests this region should be considered as secondary center of sweet potato diversity. In Peru, sweet potatoes are called 'camote' and are frequently served alongside ceviche. Sweet potato chips are also a commonly sold snack, be it on the street or in packaged foods. ''The Bridge of San Luis Rey'' (1927) tells the story of several unrelated people who happen to be on a bridge in Peru when it collapses, killing them. Philosophically, the book explores the problem of evil, or the question, of why unfortunate events occur to people who seem "innocent" or "undeserving". It won the Pulitzer Prize in 1928, and in 1998 it was selected by the editorial board of the American Modern Library as one of the 100 best novels of the twentieth century. The book was quoted by British Prime Minister Tony Blair during the memorial service for victims of the September 11 attacks in 2001. Commons:Category:Peru
;warheroes" Distribution and habitat Whiteleg shrimp are native to the eastern Pacific Ocean, from the Mexican (Mexico) state of Sonora as far south as northern Peru. It is restricted to areas where the water temperature remains
MovieNews 2007 11 14 4654236-sun.html edmontonsun.com – MovieNews – A rags-to-riches-to-rags-to-riches family story They married December 30, 1960, in San Francisco,
and satirical comedies. ''The Royal Hunt of the Sun'' (1964) presents the tragic conquest of Peru by the Spanish, while ''Black Comedy (Black Comedy (Play))'' (1965) takes a humorous look at the antics of a group of characters feeling their way around a pitch black room — although the stage is actually flooded with light. Starting in the early 1970s and throughout the 1980s, Europe saw the arrival of thousands of Chileans, many of whom were mestizos, seeking political refuge during
was among others to improve popular participation. NGOs played an important role in the decentralisation process and still influence local politics. ;Regions: style "background:none;" - * Amazonas Region Amazonas
coast by cultivating a maritime consciousness. Bolivia's Morales to take Chile sea dispute to court - BBC News, 24 Mar 2011. "''The demand for the return of its lost coastline is the subject of powerful national sentiment in Bolivia. The landlocked Andean nation maintains a small navy, and schoolchildren are taught that regaining access to the sea is a patriotic duty''." The Bolivian Navy takes part in many parades and government functions, but none more so than the ''Día Del Mar'' (Day of the Sea) in which Bolivia, every year, asks for the coast territories lost to Chile during the War of the Pacific which was fought between Peru and Bolivia against Chile from 1879 to 1884. The reconquest of its coastline is a point of honor for Bolivia, influencing many modern day political actions and trade decisions. thumb 200px right Eduardo Abaroa (File:Eduardo abaroa.png) Colonel '''Eduardo Abaroa Hidalgo''' (October 13, 1838 – March 23, 1879) was Bolivia's foremost hero of the War of the Pacific (1879–1883), which pitted Chile against Bolivia and Peru. He was one of the leaders of the civilian resistance to the Chilean invasion at the Battle of Topáter. In the early 1970s, Ridgway negotiated longstanding issues over fishing rights in Brazil, Peru and the Bahamas. This led to her appointment in 1976 as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and Fisheries. During her tenure, she negotiated the 200-mile (370 km) fishing rights treaty. Ridgway's subsequent negotiations led to the return of property of U.S. citizens from Czechoslovakia lima en tarapoto.jpg thumb Night view of the Lima Avenue. '''Tarapoto''', known as the "City of Palms", is a thriving commercial hub in northern Peru, an hour by plane from Lima, situated in the San Martín Province of the San Martín Region, located in the high jungle plateau to the east of what is known as the ''selva baja'' (low jungle). Although Moyobamba is the capital of the region, Tarapoto is the region's largest city, and is linked to the Upper Amazon and the historic city of Yurimaguas by a relatively well-maintained newly paved (2008–2009) ''transandean'' highway Tarapoto.com . In America some of the Native American (Indigenous peoples of the Americas) tribes give reverence to the rattlesnake as grandfather and king of snakes who is able to give fair winds or cause tempest. Among the Hopi of Arizona the serpent figures largely in one of the dances. The rattlesnake was worshipped in the Natchez temple of the sun and the Aztec deity Quetzalcoatl was a feathered serpent-god. In many MesoAmerican cultures, the serpent was regarded as a portal between two worlds. The tribes of Peru are said to have adored great snakes in the pre-Inca days and in Chile the Mapuche made a serpent figure in their deluge beliefs. The Mound Builders (Mound builder (people)) associated great mystical value to the serpent, as the Serpent Mound demonstrates, though we are unable to unravel the particular associations. History The business that would become W. R. Grace and Company was founded in 1854 in Peru by William Russell Grace, who left Ireland due to the potato famine. He went first to Peru to work as a ship's chandler (Ship chandler) to the merchantmen harvesting guano (from bird droppings, a fertilizer and gunpowder ingredient due to its high levels of phosphorus and nitrogen). His brother, Michael (Michael P. Grace) joined the business there and they would form Grace Brothers & Co. The company set up head office operations in New York City in 1865. Working in fertilizer and machinery, the company was formally chartered in 1872, and incorporated in 1895. ''"A Matter of Chemistry"'' - Time Inc. - Friday, Mar. 23, 1962 History The business that would become W. R. Grace and Company was founded in 1854 in Peru by William Russell Grace, who left Ireland due to the potato famine. He went first to Peru to work as a ship's chandler (Ship chandler) to the merchantmen harvesting guano (from bird droppings, a fertilizer and gunpowder ingredient due to its high levels of phosphorus and nitrogen). His brother, Michael (Michael P. Grace) joined the business there and they would form Grace Brothers & Co. The company set up head office operations in New York City in 1865. Working in fertilizer and machinery, the company was formally chartered in 1872, and incorporated in 1895. ''"A Matter of Chemistry"'' - Time Inc. - Friday, Mar. 23, 1962 Historical perspective Sometimes historians Commons:Category:Peru
common_name Peru image_coat Escudo de armas del Perú.svg image_flag Flag of Peru.svg image_map Peru (orthographic projection).svg national_motto "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union" national_anthem other_symbol_type National seal (Seal (device)): other_symbol 80px link Great Seal of the State (File:Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg) languages_type Official languages a languages Spanish (Spanish language) (official) 84.1% Quechua (Quechuan languages) (official) 13% Aymara (Aymara language) (official) 1.7% (2007 Census) demonym Peruvian ethnic_groups 45% Amerindian (Indigenous peoples in Peru) 37% Mestizo 15% White (Peruvians of European descent) 2% others ethnic_groups_year 2013 capital Lima latd 12 latm 2.6 latNS S longd 77 longm 1.7 longEW W largest_city Lima government_type Unitary (Unitary state) presidential (Presidential system) constitutional (Constitution of Peru) republic leader_title1 President (List of Presidents of Peru) leader_name1 Ollanta Humala leader_title2 Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Peru) leader_name2 Ana Jara legislature Congress (Congress of the Republic of Peru) sovereignty_type Independence (Peruvian War of Independence) established_event1 Declared (Peruvian War of Independence) established_date1 28 July 1821 established_event2 Consolidated (Battle of Ayacucho) established_date2 9 December 1824 established_event3 Recognized (Chincha Islands War) established_date3 2 May 1866 area_rank 20th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,285,216 area_sq_mi 496,225 percent_water 0.41 population_estimate 31,151,643 population_estimate_rank 41st population_estimate_year 2015 population_census 28,220,764 population_census_year 2007 population_density_km2 23 population_density_sq_mi 57 population_density_rank 191st GDP_PPP $403.322 billion GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year 2015 GDP_PPP_per_capita $12,638 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank GDP_nominal $217.607 billion GDP_nominal_rank GDP_nominal_year 2015 GDP_nominal_per_capita $6,819 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank Gini_year 2012 Gini_change decrease Gini 45.3 Gini_ref Gini_rank 35th HDI_year 2014 HDI_change steady HDI 0.737 HDI_ref HDI_rank 82nd currency Nuevo sol (Peruvian nuevo sol) currency_code PEN time_zone PET (Time in Peru) date_format dd.mm.yyyy (CE (Common Era)) utc_offset −5 drives_on right calling_code +51 cctld .pe footnote_a Quechua (Quechua language), Aymara (Aymara language) and other indigenous languages (Languages of Peru) are co-official in the areas where they predominate.
'''Peru''' ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse (biodiversity) country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (ed.):Perú: País megaviverso
Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures (Ancient Peru) spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America (Pre-Columbian). The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty (Viceroyalty of Peru) with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies. Ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its Independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence. After achieving independence (Peruvian War of Independence), the country remained in recession and kept a low military profile until an economic rise based on the extraction of raw and maritime materials struck the country, which ended shortly before the war of the Pacific. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in of government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict (Internal conflict in Peru) as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Peru is a representative democratic (representative democracy) republic divided into 25 regions (Administrative divisions of Peru). It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 25.8 percent. UN: Peru Posts One of Region’s Best Reductions in Poverty in 2011. Andean Air Mail and Peruvian Times, 28 November 2012. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 30.4 million, is multiethnic (Multiethnic society), including Amerindians (Indigenous Peoples in Peru), Europeans (White Latin American), Africans (African Latin American) and Asians (Asian Latin American). The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua (Quechua languages) or other native languages (Indigenous languages of the Americas). This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.