: Ediciones Cátedra. p.46. ISBN 84-376-1856-8. While in Madrid, some of Brull's early poetry was published in Paris in a French translation. ** West Indies—the island territories of the Caribbean. * South America—contains the nations of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela, and the French (France) overseas department of French Guiana. Also
is credited with more than 80 new plant species discoveries. BRIT research is divided into three programs: Floras, Plants and Peoples, and Landscape Ecology. Floras encompasses the discovery, classification, and characterization of plants and vegetation. Plants and Peoples explores the relationship people have developed with plants over millennia. Landscape Ecology investigates plants and the environment. The "terror archives" listed 50,000 people murdered, 30,000 people forced
important legal and territorial changes and political events in Peru and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Peru. See also the list of Presidents of Peru. MT geothermal exploration measurements allow detection of resistivity anomalies associated with productive geothermal structures, including faults and the presence of a cap rock, and allow for estimation of geothermal reservoir temperatures at various depths.<
Tingfang, ''America, through the spectacles of an Oriental diplomat'' Stokes (1914) ; Bastian Books (2008) ISBN 0554326167. Documentary work with Beth Holloway On September 11, 2010, De Vries traveled to Lima, Peru with his television crew and Beth Holloway to visit Miguel Castro Castro prison where Joran van der Sloot was being held while awaiting trial for the murder and robbery of Stephany Tatiana Flores Ramírez. ref name "ABC-20100917-confronted"
birdwatching destination in the country. Famous examples are the San Felipe del Morro Castle (Fort San Felipe del Morro), located in San Juan, Puerto Rico, Sugar Loaf (Sugarloaf Mountain, Brazil) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Morro Solar in Lima, Peru and Morro Rock in California, USA. '''Maria Reiche''' (1903–1998) was a German (Germany)-born mathematician, archaeologist, and technical translator (technical translation) who is notable for her
with appetite." Maturin buys a pound and the coca leaf eventually comes to replace his opium habit in later novels. He carries the leaves in a pouch and lime (lime (mineral)) in a small silver box. When he feels the need for it, he rolls the leaves into a ball and pops them into his cheek with lime. The story now turns to Maturin's secret mission to Peru. He is put ashore to incite revolution against the Spanish colonial government and makes valuable contact among local military and government
12,000 runners. Biscayart, Eduardo (2009-10-12). Course record for Ikoki in Buenos Aires, de Pinho and Pereira take South American Marathon titles. IAAF. Retrieved on 2009-10-12. Overview In its initial season, the program included a cobra festival in India, jungles in Thailand, Borneo and the Galapagos Islands off the coast of Ecuador in South America. The following year, the program
featured Guyana, Australia and Tanzania. In its third season in 2005, Mexico and Peru were included, as well as Kenya and Uganda in Africa. While the program includes some North American settings, segments have included all the other continents except Antarctica. Four overarching language ideologies (language ideology) motivate decision making in language planning. The first, linguistic assimilation, is the belief
endangered mainly due to capture for human consumption and predation by introduced species (trouts), but also pollution. They somewhat resemble the related ''Telmatobius'', which also are native to the Andes. '''Frecuencia Latina''' (formerly '''Frecuencia 2'''), better known as '''Channel 2''', is a Peruvian television network. The network was founded on May 31, 1962 by the Cavero Family Group who turned the station into a network filled with Music video musical
programs and variety shows. Low ratings (Audience measurement) and financial problems led the Cavero Group to sell the station to a Spanish holding company (Movie Records) in the mid 1960s. The new station was renamed Teledos. Unfortunately, Teledos never achieved enough popularity to stay on the air. The competitor is America Television. The political turmoil in Peru during the 1970s and a bankruptcy crisis marked the end of the station for a decade. After the restoration
a considerable amount of hybridization (Hybrid (biology)) between the two species has occurred. Lizard symbolism plays important though rarely predominant roles in some cultures (e.g., Tarrotarro in Australian Aboriginal mythology). The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped animals and often depicted lizards in their art. Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. ''The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera (Larco Museum).'' New York
was ''PEI'' and its abbreviation in local use was "I ." The inti was divided into 100 céntimos. The inti replaced the inflation-stricken sol (Peruvian sol). The new currency was named after Inti, the Inca sun god. '''Manuel Pardo y Lavalle''' (August 9, 1834 – November 16, 1878) was a Peruvian politician and the first civilian President of Peru (List of Presidents of Peru). Description and habitat ''Byrsonima crassifolia'' is a slow-growing large shrub or tree to 33 ft (10 m). Sometimes cultivated for its edible fruits, the tree is native and abundant in the wild, sometimes in extensive stands, in open pine forests (Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests) and grassy savannas, from central Mexico, through Central America, to Peru, Bolivia and Brazil; it also occurs in Trinidad, Barbados, Curaçao, St. Martin, Dominica, Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and throughout Cuba and the Isle of Pines (Isla de la Juventud). The nance is limited to tropical and subtropical climates. In Central and South America, the tree ranges from sea-level to an altitude of 6,000 ft (1,800 m). It is highly drought-tolerant. A short time was spent in assisting a gentleman in Peru who was seeking to prove an Aryan affinity for the dialects spoken by the Indians of that country to publish his research, but in 1868 Maspero was back in France at more profitable work. In 1869 he became a teacher (''répétiteur'') of Egyptian language and archeology at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, and in 1874 he was appointed to the chair of Champollion at the Collège de France. He played a significant role in the historic dialogue in Latin America between Christianity and Marxism. (Guatemala: Occupied Country, Eduardo Galeano, Monthly Review Press, 1969) Blase Bonpane led investigative delegations to Nicaragua, Cuba, Mexico, Panama, Honduras, Costa Rica and Peru. He traveled through the conflictive zones of Chiapas, Mexico together with Bishop Samuel Ruiz on a series of peace missions and served on the board of SICSAL, a hemispheric ecumenical secretariat based in Mexico City. He also participated in peace missions to El Salvador, Colombia, Ecuador and Iraq. (See the Blase Bonpane Collection, Department of Special Collections, UCLA Research Library; Collection 1590). thumbnail Stone bridge (''Puente de piedra'') across the Rímac River (Image:Lima Río Rímac Bridge.jpg) left '''Rímac''' is a district in the Lima Province, Peru. It lies directly to the north of downtown Lima (Lima District), to which it is connected by six bridges over the Rímac River. The district also borders the Independencia (Independencia District, Lima), San Martín de Porres (San Martín de Porres District), and San Juan de Lurigancho (San Juan de Lurigancho District) districts. Vestiges of Lima's colonial heyday remain today in an area of the Rímac district known as the Historic centre of Lima, which was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. Downtown Rímac District has, like its southern counterpart, its eastern and western sides divided by Jirón Trujillo, which connects to Lima District's Jirón de la Unión through the ''Puente de Piedra'', the oldest bridge in the whole city. Rímac's East side features the Plaza de Acho, the most famous bullfighting arena in South America and one of the most well-known in the world. The '''1992 Peruvian constitutional crisis''', also known as the '''Autogolpe of 1992''' was a constitutional crisis that occurred in Peru in 1992, after President (President of Peru) Alberto Fujimori dissolved the Congress of Peru and assumed full legislative powers. '''La Molina''' is a district (Districts of Peru) of the Lima Province in Peru, and one of the upscale districts that comprise the city of Lima. Officially established as a district on February 6, 1962, the current mayor (''alcalde'') of La Molina is Juan Carlos Zurek. The district's postal code is '''12'''. :(Chile) Commons:Category:Peru
common_name Peru image_coat Escudo de armas del Perú.svg image_flag Flag of Peru.svg image_map Peru (orthographic projection).svg national_motto "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union" national_anthem other_symbol_type National seal (Seal (device)): other_symbol 80px link Great Seal of the State (File:Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg) languages_type Official languages a languages Spanish (Spanish language) (official) 84.1% Quechua (Quechuan languages) (official) 13% Aymara (Aymara language) (official) 1.7% (2007 Census) demonym Peruvian ethnic_groups 45% Amerindian (Indigenous peoples in Peru) 37% Mestizo 15% White (Peruvians of European descent) 2% others ethnic_groups_year 2013 capital Lima latd 12 latm 2.6 latNS S longd 77 longm 1.7 longEW W largest_city Lima government_type Unitary (Unitary state) presidential (Presidential system) constitutional (Constitution of Peru) republic leader_title1 President (List of Presidents of Peru) leader_name1 Ollanta Humala leader_title2 Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Peru) leader_name2 Ana Jara legislature Congress (Congress of the Republic of Peru) sovereignty_type Independence (Peruvian War of Independence) established_event1 Declared (Peruvian War of Independence) established_date1 28 July 1821 established_event2 Consolidated (Battle of Ayacucho) established_date2 9 December 1824 established_event3 Recognized (Chincha Islands War) established_date3 2 May 1866 area_rank 20th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,285,216 area_sq_mi 496,225 percent_water 0.41 population_estimate 31,151,643 population_estimate_rank 41st population_estimate_year 2015 population_census 28,220,764 population_census_year 2007 population_density_km2 23 population_density_sq_mi 57 population_density_rank 191st GDP_PPP $403.322 billion GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year 2015 GDP_PPP_per_capita $12,638 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank GDP_nominal $217.607 billion GDP_nominal_rank GDP_nominal_year 2015 GDP_nominal_per_capita $6,819 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank Gini_year 2012 Gini_change decrease Gini 45.3 Gini_ref Gini_rank 35th HDI_year 2014 HDI_change steady HDI 0.737 HDI_ref HDI_rank 82nd currency Nuevo sol (Peruvian nuevo sol) currency_code PEN time_zone PET (Time in Peru) date_format dd.mm.yyyy (CE (Common Era)) utc_offset −5 drives_on right calling_code +51 cctld .pe footnote_a Quechua (Quechua language), Aymara (Aymara language) and other indigenous languages (Languages of Peru) are co-official in the areas where they predominate.
'''Peru''' ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse (biodiversity) country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (ed.):Perú: País megaviverso
Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures (Ancient Peru) spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America (Pre-Columbian). The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty (Viceroyalty of Peru) with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies. Ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its Independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence. After achieving independence (Peruvian War of Independence), the country remained in recession and kept a low military profile until an economic rise based on the extraction of raw and maritime materials struck the country, which ended shortly before the war of the Pacific. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in of government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict (Internal conflict in Peru) as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Peru is a representative democratic (representative democracy) republic divided into 25 regions (Administrative divisions of Peru). It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 25.8 percent. UN: Peru Posts One of Region’s Best Reductions in Poverty in 2011. Andean Air Mail and Peruvian Times, 28 November 2012. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 30.4 million, is multiethnic (Multiethnic society), including Amerindians (Indigenous Peoples in Peru), Europeans (White Latin American), Africans (African Latin American) and Asians (Asian Latin American). The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua (Quechua languages) or other native languages (Indigenous languages of the Americas). This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.