made. . He became famous in the 1940s as the creator of iconic World War II era pin-ups for ''Esquire'' magazine (Esquire magazine) known as "Vargas Girls." The nose art of many World War II aircraft was adapted from these ''Esquire'' pin-ups. date March April 2003 accessdate 2011-10
Gianella Neyra. The soap opera, which featured romantic, family and even mafia twists, became the number one show in many countries, such as the Dominican Republic, Chile, Panama and many other countries. This soap opera marked the beginning of a period in which Cernadas began to be recognized as a teen idol by girls and young women outside Argentina as well. Personal life Segundo Cernadas married "Besame Tonto" co-star, Peruvian Gianella Neyra, in 2004 Commons:Category:Peru
of Peru. His wife's name is Elena Tasso Heredia, from an old Italian family established in Peru at the end of the 19th century. One of his other sons, Antauro Humala, a former army major, ran a rebellion against the government's policies in the Andean city of Andahuaylas in December 2004, in which a police station was seized and some people were killed. His eldest son, Ulises Humala, also ran for president in 2006, and currently occupies a full time position as a Professor at the National University of Engineering in Peru. '''Andahuaylas''' is a Peruvian city, capital of the Andahuaylas Province. It is known as the ''pradera de los celajes,'' the prairie of colored clouds. It's approximate population of 34,000 inhabitants makes it the second largest city in the region after the region's capital Abancay. '''Andahuaylas Airport''' Commons:Category:Peru
throughout Peru, in the southern part of Ecuador, and as far south as the middle of Bolivia. Its manners very much resemble those of the chamois of the European Alps; it is as vigilant, wild, and timid. The fiber is extremely delicate and soft, and highly valued for the purposes of weaving, but the quantity which each animal produces is minimal. Alpacas are descended from wild vicuna ancestors, while domesticated llamas are descended from wild guanaco ancestors, though
, monkeys, fish, sharks, orcas, llamas, and lizards. Multimillion dollar investments beginning in the 1990s by the World Bank have reclaimed desert and turned the Ica (Ica, Peru) Valley in Peru, one of the driest places on earth, into the largest supplier of asparagus in the world. However, the constant irrigation has caused a rapid drop in the water table, in some places as much as eight meters per year, one of the fastest rates of aquifer depletion
;ref Anti-government rioting spreads in Cameroon * 2008 - Haitian Price riots, Apr. 3, 4 killed 20 wounded., Les Cayes Haiti The setting and culture of ''The Emperor's New Groove'' are based on the Inca Empire that developed into what is now modern-day Peru. Along with the architecture, roads, intricate waterworks, sun worship, and llamas as domestic beasts
, 1947. The crew made successful landfall and all returned safely. The voyage The ''Kon-Tiki'' left Callao, Peru, on the afternoon of April 28, 1947. It was initially towed 50 miles out — allowing it to bypass the treacherous currents close to shore (something any pre-Columbian sailors would have had to deal with) — by the Fleet Tug ''Guardian Rios'' of the Peruvian Navy. Having skipped what was arguably the most difficult part of the voyage, Commons:Category:Peru
''. Focus of all fighting would become a small outpost called ''Tiwintza'' by the Ecuadorians (and ''Tiwinza'' or ''Tihuintsa'' by the Peruvians) until the signing of a ceasefire. Career In 1994, after participating in the TV show ''Montaña Rusa'' and the play ''Juego de sociedad'' he decided to move to Mexico. There, he obtained small roles in two telenovelas with Televisa and in 1996 he starred in ''Cañaveral de pasiones'' which became the most successful production of that year. He then joined the cast of Verónica Castro's telenovela ''Pueblo chico, infierno grande'', and the Mexican production (P.D. Tu gato ha muerto) of the play ''P.S. Your Cat Is Dead'' as Eddie, touring Mexico and the United States. He also appeared in the Peruvian telenovela ''María Emilia: Querida''. He returned to Mexico in 2000 and has made five telenovelas as of 2005, including ''Locura de Amor'' and ''Bajo La Misma Piel'', both of which co-starred Laisha Wilkins. Juan Soler appeared in the telenovela ''Apuesta por un Amor'' with Patricia Manterola in 2004, and it garnered him a best actor nomination. In 2006, he appeared in the popular Televisa hit ''La fea más bella''. '''Berocca''' is a tablet (Tablet (pharmacy)) containing a combination of B group vitamins and Vitamin C. Berocca is available in the United States, Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Finland, Uruguay, Peru, the European Union, Norway, Russia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, South Korea and New Zealand. The '''white-fronted capuchin''', ''Cebus albifrons'', is a species of capuchin monkey, a type of New World (New World monkey) primate, found in seven different countries in South America: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. The species is divided into several different subspecies, though the specific divisions are uncertain and controversial. This species has been studied in Colombia by Defler (Thomas Defler), in two different sites in Peru by Soini and Terborgh, in Trinidad by Phillips and in Ecuador by Matthews. Commons:Category:Peru
Randolph Hearst , and Frederick William Vanderbilt. He owned business interests throughout Utah and in parts of Montana, British Columbia, and South America. thumb left 150px Family members pose in front of the Statue of Nemesio Canales at the town square (Image:Nemesio Statue.jpg) in Jayuya. Canales co-founded with Luis Llorens Torres the "Revista de las Antillanas". He also wrote short novels and a comedy called "El Heroe Galopante" (The Traveling Hero), which debuted on stage in 1923 after his death. In 1914, he bought the newspaper "El Día" of Ponce (which later became "El Nuevo Día"). In his newspaper he had a column in which he wrote his "Paliques". In the "Paliques", he showed his understanding of the human nature with humor and insight. In his works, he makes an emphasis of the pride that he feels for things Puerto Rican. A collection of his essays, "Paliques" were published in 1913. Among his other works are the novels "Hacia Un Lejano Sol", "Mi Volutad Ha Muerto" and "La Leyenda Benaventina". Canales gave many lectures, among the countries he visited were Argentina, Peru, Uruguay, Panama and Venezuela. '''Laurence Adolph Steinhardt''' (1892–1950) was a United States diplomat. He served as the U.S. Minister to Sweden and U.S. Ambassador to Peru, the USSR, Turkey, Czechoslovakia, and Canada.'''Humboldt Current''' ( Commons:Category:Peru
). Remember, alcohol does not make tap water drinkable! '''Insect bites''' Avoiding insect bites reduces the risk of contracting diseases transmitted by mosquitos such as yellow fever, dengue fever, leishmaniosis and malaria. Wearing long sleeves is a good idea. Use insect repellent that contains DEET. Directly apply it to your skin and clothes. Use a mosquito sleeping net impregnated with repellent, as well as other anti-mosquitos stuff in your room or tent (spirals or electrical mosquito repellents) at night. '''Rabies''' In Peru there have been reported cases of rabies in animals even in small zoo parks, so you should avoid to touch or to play with any type of animal. Rabies is not only transmitted through biting, but also by scratches and licks. In case of wound, it is necessary to clean it with an antiseptic lotion. If the wound is deep it is recommendable to examine it by a doctor. Take some advice about antirabic vaccines before starting off, mainly if your trip is long. '''Heat and sun''' Do not expect to become quickly aclimated to the heat (specially in Amazonia). It will take at least 3 weeks to obtain it. During this period, avoid physical fatigue, use fresh clothes, mainly during the warmest hours of the day. Avoid direct exhibition to the sun.Use a solar cream and a hat. Thirst is a very poor indicator of the amount of water that human needs. It is very important to take a sufficient amount from liquid (not alcohol, coffee or tea, because they are diuretics and causes a greater loss of water). The best probe that you are well hydrated is when your body produces clear abundant urine. '''AIDS and other diseases''' As in any other country, please take the necessary precautions to avoid HIV infection and other sexual diseases. '''Accidents and injuries''' Accidents and injuries produce more deaths of travellers than diseases. Please be in constant alert. Do not drive in bad illuminated streets by night. Do not drive a bicycle or a motorcycle. Do not drive in a drunk condition and moderate your speed. If you take a taxi, ask the driver to go slowly. Use the security belt and, if you travel with children, use an adaptable chair Take a small medicinal kit: small wounds can become infected very easily. If the wound is deep it is recommendable to examine it by a doctor. '''Back to home''' If you have contracted malaria or another tropical disease, it is possible that the symptoms do not become evident until much after your return to home and you may not even associate them to your trip. Visit your physician and remember to tell him about your trip to Peru. Pharmacies Common medicines, like antibiotics, can be bought in pharmacies (''farmacias'' or ''boticas'') quite cheaply and without restrictions. However, make sure the expiration date has not been reached. Pharmacists are mostly very helpful and can be consulted if needed. For less serious illnesses, they may replace a doctor. Diarrhea Electrolytic drinks help guard against dehydration. You can get powders to dissolve in water in almost every pharmacy. If not, just dissolve sugar and salt in water. Bacterial diarrhea can be treated with antibiotics, if it doesn't vanish during a week. Usually, pharmacies are quite helpful. Food and drink If you stay in good hotels you may be able to avoid catching diarrhea, otherwise you might. Just don't worry too much about. There are some rules that could avoid the worst: *Avoid unboiled tap water, if possible. This can be difficult; If you eat a salad or drink some fruit juice, it will probably be prepared with tap water. Avoid ice in drinks if you can. *If you must drink tap water, use some purification like mikropur. *Don't eat food prepared in the street (if you can resist it). *When going to cheap restaurants, first have a smell and listen to what your nose says. *In some areas, refrigerators are rare. Just go to the meat section of a typical market hall and take a smell, you will understand. If you would rather eat vegetarian food, it can be hard to find. Chicken is worth a try, since they are mostly fresh. *Don't eat unpasteurized milk products. Altitude If you do not have experience with higher altitudes above 3,500m (12,000 ft), don't underestimate it! Collapses of unacclimatized tourists are not unusual. If coming from sea level, stay at medium height ca. 3,000 m (10,000 ft) for at least one week. Then, altitudes of around 4,500 m (15,000 ft) should not be a risk, although you still will strongly feel the height. See also: Altitude sickness Sunburn Since Peru is close to the equator, the sun can become dangerous for your skin and eyes. Especially in the Sierra, the strong UV radiation due to the height in combination with the rather cold air may burn your skin before you notice it. Sun-blockers are easy to get in drug stores (''boticas''). If your eyes are sensitive to light, better bring good sunglasses from home. Of course, you can buy sunglasses in Peru, too, but you should really be sure that they block the whole UV spectrum, otherwise, they might be worse than none. Sanitary facilities Outside of obviously well-set up restaurants and hotels in cities and towns, '''toilets''' are often quite primitive and sometimes really dirty. It's a good idea to bring your own paper with you,as Peruvian toilet paper maybe too rough as well as being one ply. It's usual. Toilet doors are marked with "''baño''", "S.H." or "SS.HH.". The latter two are abbreviations for ''servicio higienico'', which is the rather formal expression. Expect to pay no more than 20 centimos at public restrooms for paper, but usually the service to just enter the bathrooms are an extra 50 cents to 1 dollar. You will find it handy to keep a roll of toilet paper and a small bottle of hand sanitizer in your backpack. In hostels or budget hotels, you cannot rely on having water all the time. In the Andean region, it also can easily happen that '''showers''' have more or less hot water only in the afternoon since the water is heated by solar energy only. Electrically heated showers are widely spread, but the electric installation is sometimes really dangerous, since the water heater is mostly situated at the shower head. Have a look on it before turning on the shower, especially if you are tall enough that you could touch the cables or other metal during showering which can electrocute you. Don't be too paranoid though, an electric shock is mostly painful. As woman, if you use '''tampons''' during your period, you should bring them with you from home, because they are not very popular in Peru. In Lima, you'll be able to find them in supermarket chains like Tottus, Wong, Metro, Plaza Vea or at drug stores chemists, known as '''farmacias''' and '''boticas'''. When you find them, buy enough for the rest of the trip, they are virtually unknown in the rest of the country. Alternatively you could pack a menstrual cup because they are reusable and compact. Respect Don't use the word ''indio'', even though it's Spanish. For natives, it's very much like the English n-word, since it was used by Spanish conquerors. The politically correct way of speaking is ''el indígena'' or ''la indígena'' — although, like the n-word, very close people inside a circle of friends can get away with it. Another word to be careful with is ''cholo'', ''chola'', or ''cholita'', meaning ''indígena''. This may be used affectionately among indigenous people (it's a very common appellation for a child, for instance), but it's offensive coming from an outsider. The n-word is used, but in a funny playful way, so If you heard it in the street, don't be offended right away, because the Peruvians aren't racist in that way; they use it playfully between each other sometimes, so try to understand the way they said it so you know if they were using it in a playfull or bad mean way. Even if you have about 20 ''No Drugs'' t-shirts at home, accept that people — especially from the countryside — chew coca leaves. See it as a part of the culture with social and ritual components. Keep in mind that coca leaves are not cocaine and are legal. You can try them to experience the culture. If you don't like to chew them, try a ''mate de hojas de coca'' (also quite effective against altitude sickness). However, the use of coca leaf tea may lead to testing positive on North American drug tests within the next few weeks. Officially, most of the Peruvians are Roman Catholic, but especially in the countryside, the ancient pre-Hispanic religiosity is still alive. Respect that when visiting temple ruins or other ritual places and behave as if you were in a church. Connect In all but the smallest towns and villages, one can find '''public telephones''' for national and international calls. Most are in bars or stores. Some of them accept coins, but watch out for stuck coins or dodgy-looking coin receivers as these might make you lose your money. Don't worry if your 1 Nuevo Sol coins don't get through at first, just keep trying and it will eventually work. Many public phones can be expensive, and an attractive alternative is a '''Locutorio''', or "call-center". Typical rates include .2 Nuevo Sol minute for calls in the country, and .5 Nuevo Sol minute for most international calls. You also can buy '''phone cards''' with a 12 digit secret number on it. Using a phone card, first dial 147. When done so, you will be told how much your card is still valid and be asked (in Spanish, of course) for your secret number. After having typed it, you are asked for the phone number you want to connect to. Type it in. Then you get told how much time you can talk. After that, the connection is tried. For '''international calls''', it is often a good idea to go to an '''Internet café''' that offers Internet-based phone (Internet telephony) calls. You find them in the cities. '''Internet cafés''', called in Peru '''cabinas públicas''', grow like mushrooms in Peru and if you are not really on the countryside, it should not be a problem at all to find one. Even in a smaller town like Mancora or Chivay you can still find Internet cafés with 512kbit s ADSL. The connection is quite reliable and they are cheap (1.50-3 Soles, US$0.60-1.20 per hour). Just don't expect most of them to actually sell coffee - or anything at all but computer time or services like printing. It is not uncommon to find '''cabinas''' that burn CDs directly from SD, CF or Memory sticks. Many Internet cafés have headphones and microphones, for free or for an extra fee. Tourist offices * Commons:Category:Peru
being offered from La Paz Airport (El Alto International Airport). The domestic network had grown to extensive size, covering most airports in the country (still relying on multiple-stopover flights). More international routes had been added, with LAB now also offering flights to Chile, Argentina and Peru. The following destinations were served on a scheduled basis in 1964, using Douglas DC-3, DC-6 (Douglas DC-6) or Boeing B-17G (Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress) (the latter being
common_name Peru image_coat Escudo de armas del Perú.svg image_flag Flag of Peru.svg image_map Peru (orthographic projection).svg national_motto "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union" national_anthem other_symbol_type National seal (Seal (device)): other_symbol 80px link Great Seal of the State (File:Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg) languages_type Official languages a languages Spanish (Spanish language) (official) 84.1% Quechua (Quechuan languages) (official) 13% Aymara (Aymara language) (official) 1.7% (2007 Census) demonym Peruvian ethnic_groups 45% Amerindian (Indigenous peoples in Peru) 37% Mestizo 15% White (Peruvians of European descent) 2% others ethnic_groups_year 2013 capital Lima latd 12 latm 2.6 latNS S longd 77 longm 1.7 longEW W largest_city Lima government_type Unitary (Unitary state) presidential (Presidential system) constitutional (Constitution of Peru) republic leader_title1 President (List of Presidents of Peru) leader_name1 Ollanta Humala leader_title2 Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Peru) leader_name2 Ana Jara legislature Congress (Congress of the Republic of Peru) sovereignty_type Independence (Peruvian War of Independence) established_event1 Declared (Peruvian War of Independence) established_date1 28 July 1821 established_event2 Consolidated (Battle of Ayacucho) established_date2 9 December 1824 established_event3 Recognized (Chincha Islands War) established_date3 2 May 1866 area_rank 20th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,285,216 area_sq_mi 496,225 percent_water 0.41 population_estimate 31,151,643 population_estimate_rank 41st population_estimate_year 2015 population_census 28,220,764 population_census_year 2007 population_density_km2 23 population_density_sq_mi 57 population_density_rank 191st GDP_PPP $403.322 billion GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year 2015 GDP_PPP_per_capita $12,638 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank GDP_nominal $217.607 billion GDP_nominal_rank GDP_nominal_year 2015 GDP_nominal_per_capita $6,819 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank Gini_year 2012 Gini_change decrease Gini 45.3 Gini_ref Gini_rank 35th HDI_year 2014 HDI_change steady HDI 0.737 HDI_ref HDI_rank 82nd currency Nuevo sol (Peruvian nuevo sol) currency_code PEN time_zone PET (Time in Peru) date_format dd.mm.yyyy (CE (Common Era)) utc_offset −5 drives_on right calling_code +51 cctld .pe footnote_a Quechua (Quechua language), Aymara (Aymara language) and other indigenous languages (Languages of Peru) are co-official in the areas where they predominate.
'''Peru''' ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse (biodiversity) country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (ed.):Perú: País megaviverso
Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures (Ancient Peru) spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America (Pre-Columbian). The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty (Viceroyalty of Peru) with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies. Ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its Independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence. After achieving independence (Peruvian War of Independence), the country remained in recession and kept a low military profile until an economic rise based on the extraction of raw and maritime materials struck the country, which ended shortly before the war of the Pacific. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in of government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict (Internal conflict in Peru) as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Peru is a representative democratic (representative democracy) republic divided into 25 regions (Administrative divisions of Peru). It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 25.8 percent. UN: Peru Posts One of Region’s Best Reductions in Poverty in 2011. Andean Air Mail and Peruvian Times, 28 November 2012. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 30.4 million, is multiethnic (Multiethnic society), including Amerindians (Indigenous Peoples in Peru), Europeans (White Latin American), Africans (African Latin American) and Asians (Asian Latin American). The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua (Quechua languages) or other native languages (Indigenous languages of the Americas). This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.