Lachay National Park so it has extensive vegetation and wildlife. Some similarities between the Mesoamerican and the Andean cultures suggest that the two regions became a part of a wider world system, as a result of trade, by the 1st millennium BCE. Denemark 2000: 252 The current academic view is that the flow of goods across the Andean slopes was controlled by institutions distributing locations to local groups, who were then free to access them for trading. This trade across the Andean slopes - described sometimes as "vertical trade" - may have overshadowed the long distance trade between the people of the Andes and the neighboring forests. The Callawaya herbalists traded in tropical plants between 6th and the 10th centuries, while copper was dealt by specialized merchants in the Peruvian valley of Chincha (Chincha Alta). Long distance trade may have seen local elites resorting to struggle in order for manipulation and control. Denemark 2000: 239 * '''Paraguay''' - Juan Bautista Gill, President of Paraguay (1874–1877) * '''Peru''' - Manuel Pardo, President of Peru (1872–1876) *'''Uruguay''' - - Peru Peruvian Spanish Quechua language - The historical importance of Ombre in the field of playing cards is the fact that it was the first card game in which a trump suit was established by bidding rather than by the random process of turning the first card of the stock. This notion of bidding was adopted from Triomfi, though it was from L'Hombre that the idea of bidding was adopted into other card games such as Skat (Skat (card game)), and Tarot, which owes Hombre a good portion of its betting system as well. The game continued to be in vogue almost in every corner of Europe in the following century. As with most games, Hombre acquired many variations of increasing complexity over the years, until its popularity was eclipsed by the second quarter of the 18th century by a new four player French variant called Quadrille (Quadrille (card game)), later displaced by the English Whist. Other lines of descent and hybridization produced games like Preference (Preferans), Mediator (Mediator (card game)) and Twenty-five (Twenty-Five (solitaire)). Under the name Tresillo, it survived in parts of Spain during the nineteenth century, as Voltarete in Portugal and Brazil, as Rocambor in countries such as Bolivia, Peru, and Colombia in the twentieth century, and it is still played as L’Hombre in Denmark, mostly in Jutland and on the island of Funen, where it is organized by the L'Hombre Union. The song is particularly infamous in Peru for its association with Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path). In the early 1990s, a video of Sendero Luminoso's leadership dancing to the song was given to the media, showing that the organization's heads were hiding in Lima itself. * '''Paraguay''' - Juan Bautista Gill, President of Paraguay (1874–1877) * '''Peru''' - Manuel Pardo, President of Peru (1872–1876) *'''Uruguay''' - José Eugenio Ellauri, President of Uruguay (List of Presidents of Uruguay) (1873–1875) Under Stephenson, BSC directly influenced U.S. media (including newspaper columns by Walter Winchell and Drew Pearson (Drew Pearson (journalist))), and media in other hemisphere countries, toward pro-British and anti-Axis (Axis powers) views. Once the U.S. had entered the war, in 1941–44 BSC went on to train U.S. propagandists from the United States Office of War Information in Canada. BSC covert intelligence and propaganda efforts directly affected wartime developments in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Mexico, the Central American countries, Bermuda, Cuba and Puerto Rico. The '''Little Blue Heron''', ''Egretta caerulea'', is a small heron. It breeds from the Gulf states of the USA through Central America and the Caribbean south to Peru and Uruguay. It is a resident breeder in most of its range, but some northern breeders migrate (bird migration) to the southeastern USA or beyond in winter. There is post-breeding dispersal to well north of the nesting range, as far as the border between the US and Canada. nativename ''Patuá'' states Macau, Hong Kong, United States (California), Portugal, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Peru, Costa Rica speakers Unknown; perhaps several dozen in Macau and Hong Kong and several hundreds or more than a thousand among the Macanese Diaspora; virtually all speakers at least bilingual. Macanese is the now nearly extinct native language of the so-called Macanese people, Macau's Eurasian (Eurasian (mixed ancestry)) minority, which presently comprises some 8,000 residents in Macau (about 2% of its population), and an estimated 20,000 emigrants and their descendants, especially in Hong Kong, California, Canada, Peru, Brazil, Costa Rica, Australia, Portugal, the United Kingdom and Paria peninsula of Venezuela. Even within that community, Macanese is actively spoken by just several dozen elderly individuals, mostly women in their eighties or nineties, in Macau and Hong Kong, and only a few hundred people among the Macanese Diaspora overseas, namely in California. Habitat The mata mata inhabits slow moving, blackwater streams, stagnant (stagnant (water)) pools, marshes, and swamps ranging into northern Bolivia, eastern Peru, Ecuador, eastern Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, and northern and central Brazil. The mata mata is strictly an aquatic species but it prefers standing in shallow water where its snout can reach the surface to breathe. Commons:Category:Peru
, 1947. The crew made successful landfall and all returned safely. The voyage The ''Kon-Tiki'' left Callao, Peru, on the afternoon of April 28, 1947. It was initially towed 50 miles out — allowing it to bypass the treacherous currents close to shore (something any pre-Columbian sailors would have had to deal with) — by the Fleet Tug ''Guardian Rios'' of the Peruvian Navy. Having skipped what was arguably the most difficult part of the voyage, Commons:Category:Peru
for their neighbors in the shantytowns around Lima. Based in the northern Lima town of Carabayllo, SES is now Peru’s largest non-governmental health care organization, serving an estimated population of 700,000 inhabitants, many of whom have fled from poverty and political violence in Peru’s countryside. As a valued partner to Peru's Ministry of Health, SES has also had an impact on national policies for prevention and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV and provides important training
Tïcuna-Yuri .) It is a tonal language, and therefore the meaning of words with the same phonemes can vary greatly simply by changing the tone used to pronounce them. The species' natural habitat is restricted to the central coast of Peru, between the regions of Ica (Ica region) and Ancash. In the Lima region, a large portion of its coastal habitat has been negatively affected by urban development. Within the city of Lima, sightings were reported in 2004 in the Pantanos de Villa Reserved Zone, where the species may have found a good opportunity to survive. Large populations of this species are found in the ''lomas'' (fog-supported vegetation communities) of Pachacamac and Lachay (Lomas de Lachay). Commons:Category:Peru
in the Battle of Abtao and the Battle of El Callao under Admiral Casto Méndez Núñez against Peru and subsequently assumed a post at the Secretariat of the Admiralty. He was promoted to the rank of Commander in 1873. His new duties included commanding several warships in Havana's (Havana) naval station as well as those in the Río de la Plata. The '''Scarlet Macaw''' (''Ara macao'') is a large, colorful macaw. It is native to humid evergreen forests in the American tropics. Range extends from extreme south-eastern Mexico to Amazonian Peru, Bolivia and Brazil in lowlands up to Commons:Category:Peru
''Publimetro'' and the Spanish edition is named ''Metro Directo''. Another freesheet called '''Metro''' is published in twelve areas around Britain (UK) by Associated Newspapers: see Metro (Associated Metro Limited). Portabales continued to perform and perfect the guajira until he went to Puerto Rico in 1937. There he became enamoured of the neighboring island and stayed there for two years, singing in theaters, clubs and on the radio. In 1939, he married Puerto Rican Arah Mina
of International Business (BIB). The school has a research-oriented faculty and PhD program, and has won the Overall Institution Performance Award, for its research contribution, at the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada (ASAC) , in 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2010, among all Canadian business schools. The BIB program includes a mandatory language component and the third year is spent abroad. Possible year-abroad locations include Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Chile
web url http: www.sonoma.edu users w wallsd community-organizing.shtml last Walls first David authorlink David Walls (academic) title Power to the People: Thirty-five Years of Community Organizing work The Workbook month Summer year 1994 accessdate 2010-12-03 It filed for Chapter 7 (Chapter 7, Title 11, United States Code) liquidation on November 2, 2010, effectively closing the organization,
;Eso, eso, eso"'', written by tango (tango music) composers Virgilio and Homero Expósito, for RCA Records, which sold more than 100,000 copies in that country alone. They were part of the first broadcast ever by Argentina's television station, Canal 9, their personal appearances were solidly attended, and their popularity ensured the success of a media campaign they did for the Argentine brewer (brewery), Cerveza Quilmes. Their group was also popular in Venezuela, Colombia
on a continent where disease, war and turmoil reigned. Indeed the settler-conquistadors knew the fury of the aroused Indian lords—voyagers, explorers, and the friars did not. Clendinnen, Inga (Inga Clendinnen); ''Ambivalent Conquests: Maya and Spaniard in Yucatán, 1517–1570''. (p. 83) ISBN 0-521-37981-4 Initially the encomienda system was devised to meet the needs of the early agricultural economies in the Caribbean. Later it was adopted to the mining economy of Peru and Upper Peru. The encomienda lasted from the beginning of the sixteenth century to the seventeenth century. In 1972, Chatwin interviewed the 93-year-old architect and designer Eileen Gray in her Paris salon, where he noticed a map of the area of South America called Patagonia, which she had painted. Commons:Category:Peru
common_name Peru image_coat Escudo de armas del Perú.svg image_flag Flag of Peru.svg image_map Peru (orthographic projection).svg national_motto "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union" national_anthem other_symbol_type National seal (Seal (device)): other_symbol 80px link Great Seal of the State (File:Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg) languages_type Official languages a languages Spanish (Spanish language) (official) 84.1% Quechua (Quechuan languages) (official) 13% Aymara (Aymara language) (official) 1.7% (2007 Census) demonym Peruvian ethnic_groups 45% Amerindian (Indigenous peoples in Peru) 37% Mestizo 15% White (Peruvians of European descent) 2% others ethnic_groups_year 2013 capital Lima latd 12 latm 2.6 latNS S longd 77 longm 1.7 longEW W largest_city Lima government_type Unitary (Unitary state) presidential (Presidential system) constitutional (Constitution of Peru) republic leader_title1 President (List of Presidents of Peru) leader_name1 Ollanta Humala leader_title2 Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Peru) leader_name2 Ana Jara legislature Congress (Congress of the Republic of Peru) sovereignty_type Independence (Peruvian War of Independence) established_event1 Declared (Peruvian War of Independence) established_date1 28 July 1821 established_event2 Consolidated (Battle of Ayacucho) established_date2 9 December 1824 established_event3 Recognized (Chincha Islands War) established_date3 2 May 1866 area_rank 20th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,285,216 area_sq_mi 496,225 percent_water 0.41 population_estimate 31,151,643 population_estimate_rank 41st population_estimate_year 2015 population_census 28,220,764 population_census_year 2007 population_density_km2 23 population_density_sq_mi 57 population_density_rank 191st GDP_PPP $403.322 billion GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year 2015 GDP_PPP_per_capita $12,638 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank GDP_nominal $217.607 billion GDP_nominal_rank GDP_nominal_year 2015 GDP_nominal_per_capita $6,819 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank Gini_year 2012 Gini_change decrease Gini 45.3 Gini_ref Gini_rank 35th HDI_year 2014 HDI_change steady HDI 0.737 HDI_ref HDI_rank 82nd currency Nuevo sol (Peruvian nuevo sol) currency_code PEN time_zone PET (Time in Peru) date_format dd.mm.yyyy (CE (Common Era)) utc_offset −5 drives_on right calling_code +51 cctld .pe footnote_a Quechua (Quechua language), Aymara (Aymara language) and other indigenous languages (Languages of Peru) are co-official in the areas where they predominate.
'''Peru''' ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse (biodiversity) country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (ed.):Perú: País megaviverso
Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures (Ancient Peru) spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America (Pre-Columbian). The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty (Viceroyalty of Peru) with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies. Ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its Independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence. After achieving independence (Peruvian War of Independence), the country remained in recession and kept a low military profile until an economic rise based on the extraction of raw and maritime materials struck the country, which ended shortly before the war of the Pacific. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in of government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict (Internal conflict in Peru) as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Peru is a representative democratic (representative democracy) republic divided into 25 regions (Administrative divisions of Peru). It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 25.8 percent. UN: Peru Posts One of Region’s Best Reductions in Poverty in 2011. Andean Air Mail and Peruvian Times, 28 November 2012. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 30.4 million, is multiethnic (Multiethnic society), including Amerindians (Indigenous Peoples in Peru), Europeans (White Latin American), Africans (African Latin American) and Asians (Asian Latin American). The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua (Quechua languages) or other native languages (Indigenous languages of the Americas). This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.