Limited isbn 978-1-85359-706-0 The population in 2000 was 16,557 distributed in 136 small communities, with about 95 percent considered to be rural. There were 17,007 in 2005. Ninety eight percent of the municipality is Catholic divided into four parishes, Santa Maria Peñamiller, San Miguel Palmas, San José Pinal de Amoles and Atargea in Guanajuato. In the past, families were large with up to twelve children but in the 20th century, family planning
of its exceptional variety of species and ecosystems. The reserve extends for about 400,000 hectares over the states of Querétaro and San Luis Potosí . It covers about 32% of the state of Querétaro and is roughly the size of Rhode Island .
to the rainy season, but there is significant production of livestock such as goats. There is also some forestry activity. Industry is not common, but some technically advanced factories exist. There are also maquiladoras, textile and recycling operations which primarily employ women. - 013 Peñamiller Peñamiller 694.9 56,553 81.4 0.7023 - File:Pinal de Amoles en Queretaro.svg thumb The municipality within the state
roofs. There are about fifty preschools, fifty eight primary schools and eleven middle schools (ten are distance learning and one is technical in the municipal seat). Colegio de Estudios Científicos y Tecnológicos del Estado de Querétaro (CECyTEQ) is the technical high school, offering careers in nursing and electrical work. There is also a distance education site in Camargo which offers high school level studies. Education for adults is offered
In 2001, it was added to the International Networks of Man and Biosphere (Man and the Biosphere Programme) of UNESCO as the thirteenth Mexican reserve on the list, occupying first place in regards to ecodiversity. It is also recognized as a Área de Importancia para la Conservación de las Aves (Area of Importance for the Conservation of Birds) by the Consejo Internacional para la Preservación de las Aves Mexicanas.
accessdate April 6, 2011 language Spanish trans_title The most loved.... The most beaten Because of the lack of employment, there is mass emigration from the area. Most rural people migrate to larger cities in Mexico or to the United States and many never return. During the last decades of the 20th and the first years of the 21st, the municipality has had about 3,500 people leave to find work and about 130 on average never return. Popular
traditional musical styles include corridors and Huapango, with a number of locally notable bands such as those led by Catarino Albarrán, Gerardo Hernández and Lidio Albarrán. Locally popular corridos include those dedicated to Taurino López and Genaro Hernández. Huapango is most often placed for traditional festivities. The cuisine of the area is traditional Mexican cuisine adapted to the food products of the Querétaro semi-desert
at 25,325.Over 93% of residents are Catholic. The first inhabitants of the region were hunter-gatherers as early as 6000 BC. Starting from the 13th century groups of Pames and Chichimeca Jonaz came to the area. Communities of these groups were still found in areas such as El Cuervo, Puerto de Vigas, El Rodezno, Tonatico, Escanela and others when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. Starting from 1534, the Spanish established the province
be sent to them for evangelization purposes. It was abandoned briefly for unknown reasons in 1684. The mission church was completed in 1723. Río Blanco was founded as a mining camp in 1691 when deposits of mercury (Mercury (element)), silver, gold and water for processing were found by the Spanish. However, Peñamiller and the rest of the Sierra Gorda of Querétaro were not subdued and settled until the expedition of José de Escandón in the mid 18th century, culminating in the defeat
rainbow trout in tanks and has forests and significant wildlife. It has a population of about 650 people. It has a church from the 19th century and remains of gold, silver and mercury mines from its heyday, and there are still deposits of gold, silver, lead and zinc. There nearly twenty abandoned mercury (mercury (element)) mines alone as well as caves and waterfalls. The village church is from the 19th century and dedicated to the Archangel Michael and contains a “Black Christ” image. There is also an old windmill built by Gregorio Aguilar Vargas which was used to separate gold from silver. On the nearby Cerro del Sombrerete, there is an eco-tourism park with camping in the territory of white-tailed deer . Villa Emiliano Zapata is twelve km from the municipal seat. In the municipality, it was the center of agrarian revolt during the Mexican Revolution, which resulted in the establishment of sixteen ejidos in the municipality. La Plazuela has about 650 people and is 25 km from the municipal seat. It originally was an indigenous settlement, with evidence of human occupation since the 8th century. The area was abandoned in the 13th century, but repopulated in the 20th as a mining community, which produced up to 14 tons of mercury weekly at its height. Camargo is thirty km from the municipal seat and has a population of about 1350. Its development is mostly due to the fact that it lies on the highway that connects the state capital with places such as Atarjea, Cadereyta de Montes and the Sierra Gorda. El Portugués is sixteen km from the municipal seat with a population of 525. It is a new community, having only been established in 1973. Agua Fría is a small community founded in the 20th century. The architecture of its buildings is modern, and many are made of pink sandstone. Las Piedras Encimadas de Agua Fría (The Stacked Stones of Agua Fría) is named after enormous blocks of basalt rock near the town. These stacks will emit a sound like a bell when struck. One of these formations is reminiscent of the head of an Indian. The community of Agua Fría also has a former gold mine at the Cerro del Huacancoro. As of 2005, there were 3,597 dwellings, of which all but about forty were privately owned. Most are built with cinderblock or stone, with half having cement floors and just over half have asbestos or metallic roofs. There are about fifty preschools, fifty eight primary schools and eleven middle schools (ten are distance learning and one is technical in the municipal seat). Colegio de Estudios Científicos y Tecnológicos del Estado de Querétaro (CECyTEQ) is the technical high school, offering careers in nursing and electrical work. There is also a distance education site in Camargo which offers high school level studies. Education for adults is offered at the primary and middle school level for those over age 15. Telephone service was spotty in the Sierra Gorda until the 1980s when a cell phone tower was placed in El Motoshí which allows service to more than 200 people. Most other phone service is still based on communal phone banks in various communities. Only the municipal seat and the community of San Juanico have inhome service. Mail service is limited to the municipal seat, Río Blanco and Misión de Palmas. Much of inter-governmental communication is done by radio. There are two former haciendas, one in Boquillas and the other in Villa Emiliano Zapata. The municipality has seven other churches which include those in Agua Caliente, Boquillas, Río Blanco, two in San Miguel Palmas and two in Villa Emiliano Zapata. Environment The municipality is located in the north of the state, in the Querétaro semi desert area. It is considered to be the gateway to the Sierra Gorda in Querétaro. Eighty percent of the municipality belongs to the Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve of Querétaro. The territory is very rugged with altitudes varying from between 1,280 and 3000 masl. The most important elevations include El Cerro del Piñon at 3000 masl, Mesa de Salinas at 2460masl, El Campanario at 2120 masl, La Tembladera at 2080 masl, El Piloncito at 1980 masl, El Cerro de Dios at 1900 masl and El Picacho at 1680masl. The municipality in the Extoráz River basin, which receives rainfall over a surface of 2,149 km2 and results in a river that moves 1,150,000m3 of water each year. This river is the main one in the municipality, and has carved out a large canyon called the Cañon del Paraíso (Paradise Canyon), located three km west of the town of Peñamiller. This canyon is barely ten meters wide, but it is 700 meters long with sides of black marble up to one hundred feet high. There are some caves and other capricious forms on the canyon walls, as well as petroglyphs and cave paintings done by ancient Chichimecas. The area has hiking trails with signs, mountain climbing, rappelling and camping. In 2001, it was added to the International Networks of Man and Biosphere (Man and the Biosphere Programme) of UNESCO as the thirteenth Mexican reserve on the list, occupying first place in regards to ecodiversity. It is also recognized as a Área de Importancia para la Conservación de las Aves (Area of Importance for the Conservation of Birds) by the Consejo Internacional para la Preservación de las Aves Mexicanas.
larvae are also eaten. Escamoles and maguey larvae are often eaten mixed together. Goat meat is popular as it is relatively easy to raise in the harsh climate. The most representative dish of the area is “chivo tapiado”, which is goat meat accompany by wild vegetables in season, especially various types of cactus. In the river areas, a number of fish species and caught and grown including trout, tilapia, catfish and carp. History thumb Adobe facade (File:AdobeFacadePeñamiller.JPG) The name was originally Peñamellera, given by José de Escandón, as the mountain formation east of town reminded him of a similar formation in Asturias, Spain in the Peñamellera Baja. It was officially named Santa María de Peñamillera when the area became a sub prefecture of Tolimán (Tolimán, Querétaro). Eventually, the name morphed to what it is today. The municipality’s coat of arms represents the history and traditions of the area, especially those related to the founding of the Spanish town in 1748 and after. Since it was the 18th century, the sun figure has eighteen rays. Another motif is that of a colonizer subjugating an indigenous person to represent the conquest of the Chichimecas. As thirty seven families moved in to found the town, there are thirty seven marked tombs, and a tree represents the distribution of lands. Eight palms in a walnut tree branch represent the most important annual celebration, that of the Virgin of the Assumption on August 15. The parish church is represented, and the mass of foundation is represented by a cross at the top of the coat of arms. The area which is now Peñamiller has been inhabited for more than 2000 years, which is shown in part by the petroglyphs where have been found along the Extoraz River. More artwork painted or chiseled in rock formations are found in de Río Blanco, El Soyatal, El Mirador, El Puerto del Cobre, La Mesa de los Chilitos, La Cueva del Caballo, and La Cruz del Milagro. In the pre Classic period, the area was dominated by the Serrana Culture, the same culture that built the sites of Las Ranas and Toluquillo. From this culture there are remains such as ceramic figures found in La Plazuela, Camargo and Alto Bonito, which date from the 7th century. These objects show Toltec influence. There also have been pre Hispanic tools likely related to mining found in the area, especially around Soyatal. Mining mostly focused on the extraction of mercury and cinnabar, with the latter extensively commercialized from 800 to 900 CE. The Pames arrived in the 13th century and mostly settled in the area around San Miguel Palmas. The Chichimeca Jonaz arrived in the 14th century and mainly settled in Tembladera, El Portugués and the areas around the Extoraz River and the Cerro de Media Luna, in the east where the land is less arid. The first Spanish in the region were led by Nicolás de San Luis Montañez in the mid 16th century. Because of their battles with the Chichimecas, San Luis Montañez was named “Capitan of the Chichimecas.” The Pames did not offer much resistance to Spanish incursion but the Chichimeca Jonaz did
'''Peñamiller''' is a town and municipality in the Mexican (Mexico) state of Querétaro. It is part of the Sierra Gorda region with about eighty percent of the territory belonging to the Sierra Gorda Biosphere of Querétaro. The municipality is on the southwest side of the Sierra Gorda, the highest mountains of which block most of the moisture coming in from the Gulf of Mexico. For this reason, most of the territory is arid, part of what is called the Querétaro “semi-desert” filled with cactus. There is a small portion on the far east side which has temperate forests and bodies of water, mostly related to the Extoraz River, in which fish are raised. The name of the town and municipality comes from a mountain called “El Picacho” but reminded town founder José de Escandón of the Peña Mellera in Spain. Over time, the name morphed into Peñamiller.