a more abundant harvest once every four years. Wild herbs area generally harvested between August and November. Another product is the production of willow branches, which is supplied as raw material to communities such as Tequisquiapan for crafts. Mining, construction, and industry employ about twenty three percent of the population. Industry is mostly limited to the production of clothes in small workshops in Camargo, Los Encinos, San Lorenzo, Las
accessdate April 6, 2011 language Spanish trans_title The most loved.... The most beaten Because of the lack of employment, there is mass emigration from the area. Most rural people migrate to larger cities in Mexico or to the United States and many never return. During the last decades of the 20th and the first years of the 21st, the municipality has had about 3,500 people leave to find work and about 130 on average never return. Popular
traditional musical styles include corridors and Huapango, with a number of locally notable bands such as those led by Catarino Albarrán, Gerardo Hernández and Lidio Albarrán. Locally popular corridos include those dedicated to Taurino López and Genaro Hernández. Huapango is most often placed for traditional festivities. The cuisine of the area is traditional Mexican cuisine adapted to the food products of the Querétaro semi-desert
In 2001, it was added to the International Networks of Man and Biosphere (Man and the Biosphere Programme) of UNESCO as the thirteenth Mexican reserve on the list, occupying first place in regards to ecodiversity. It is also recognized as a Área de Importancia para la Conservación de las Aves (Area of Importance for the Conservation of Birds) by the Consejo Internacional para la Preservación de las Aves Mexicanas.
at 25,325.Over 93% of residents are Catholic. The first inhabitants of the region were hunter-gatherers as early as 6000 BC. Starting from the 13th century groups of Pames and Chichimeca Jonaz came to the area. Communities of these groups were still found in areas such as El Cuervo, Puerto de Vigas, El Rodezno, Tonatico, Escanela and others when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. Starting from 1534, the Spanish established the province
as jaripeos, a coronation of a queen and popular dance. Handcrafts produced in the town include a tool called a guingaro, used to accomplish much of the work in the fields. They also made embroidered belts (called pitiados) as well
. These paintings are found on the south side of a large hill which is situation over an even large one and has a natural opening similar to a window. During part of the year, the sun’s rays pass directly through the “window” onto the sun image. The only other surface water is the Saucello, Los Encinos, Higuerillas and Del Buey arroyos, which generally do not flow during the dry season from March to June. The climate is dry and semi hot with an average annual temperature of 22C. Winters are distinguishable and freezes occur on occasion. The hottest months are from May to August when temperatures can rise to up to 40C. The average temperature year round is 21.7C. Annual precipitation, mostly restricted to the rainy season in late summer and early fall is about 435mm. The lowest areas, between 1200 and 1400masl has the driest climate with an average rainfall of about 300 to 400 mm yearly. Temperatures range from 2 to 35C with an average temperature of 22C. Winters are well defined and freezes appear about once every ten years. Between 1500 and 1800 masl, the conditions begin to change from semi desert to temperate forest. Temperatures vary from -3 to 35C with an average of 20C. Between 2000 and 3000masl, temperatures vary from -5 to 25C and rainfall of between 500 and 600mm. The municipality experiences about sixty cloudy days each year. Most of the vegetation consists of mesquite (prosopis spp) along with some pine-holm oak forest in the east and desert scrub brush on the extreme south. Other plants that can be found in the municipality include palo bobo (Tessaria integrifolia), uña de gato, huisache (Vachellia farnesiana), granjeno, palo sishote as well as nopal, wild oregano and barrel cactus. Wildlife is mostly limited to that which can live in arid conditions such as doves, turtledoves (Dove), quail, rabbits, squirrels, skunks, weasels, cacomistle, raccoons, badgers, coyotes, foxes, armadillos and various types of snakes including the coral snake and the rattlesnake. In the La Higuera and Río Blanco rivers there are various types of fish such as trout, tilapia, catfish and carp. In the forested areas, there are white-tailed deer, temazate (Mazama temama), wild boar, and pumas (Cougar). The Tembladera Lookout Point is situated on the side of Highway 120. The site allows for views of “biznaga” cactus which grow to up to 2.3 meters in height as well as views of mountains such as the Cerro de Media Luna, Cerro de la Virgen, El Picacho, Cerro el Capanario as well as the Del Paraiso Canyon, and the Extoráz River. Demographics and culture The military campaigns of the mid 18th century wiped out most of the Chichimecas except for some small communities. Otomi (Otomi people) families were brought into the area into settlements such as El Paraíso, Adjuntas de Higueras, La Higuera, El Puerto de la Guitarra, Agua del Ángel, El Pilón La Tinaja, El Carrizal and La Mesa del Troje. However, at their peak they only numbered about 550 inhabitants. Since that time, most of these small groups assimilated into the mainstream culture, losing the Otomi language and many emigrated out of the area, especially in the 20th century. As of the 2005 census, only fifty people who spoke an indigenous language at all lived in the municipality. About 6% of the municipality’s population was Otomi in 1900, but near zero now. In 2001, it was added to the International Networks of Man and Biosphere (Man and the Biosphere Programme) of UNESCO as the thirteenth Mexican reserve on the list, occupying first place in regards to ecodiversity. It is also recognized as a Área de Importancia para la Conservación de las Aves (Area of Importance for the Conservation of Birds) by the Consejo Internacional para la Preservación de las Aves Mexicanas.
and traditions of the area, especially those related to the founding of the Spanish town in 1748 and after. Since it was the 18th century, the sun figure has eighteen rays. Another motif is that of a colonizer subjugating an indigenous person to represent the conquest of the Chichimecas. As thirty seven families moved in to found the town, there are thirty seven marked tombs, and a tree represents the distribution of lands. Eight palms in a walnut tree branch represent the most important annual celebration, that of the Virgin of the Assumption on August 15. The parish church is represented, and the mass of foundation is represented by a cross at the top of the coat of arms. The area which is now Peñamiller has been inhabited for more than 2000 years, which is shown in part by the petroglyphs where have been found along the Extoraz River. More artwork painted or chiseled in rock formations are found in de Río Blanco, El Soyatal, El Mirador, El Puerto del Cobre, La Mesa de los Chilitos, La Cueva del Caballo, and La Cruz del Milagro. In the pre Classic period, the area was dominated by the Serrana Culture, the same culture that built the sites of Las Ranas and Toluquillo. From this culture there are remains such as ceramic figures found in La Plazuela, Camargo and Alto Bonito, which date from the 7th century. These objects show Toltec influence. There also have been pre Hispanic tools likely related to mining found in the area, especially around Soyatal. Mining mostly focused on the extraction of mercury and cinnabar, with the latter extensively commercialized from 800 to 900 CE. The Pames arrived in the 13th century and mostly settled in the area around San Miguel Palmas. The Chichimeca Jonaz arrived in the 14th century and mainly settled in Tembladera, El Portugués and the areas around the Extoraz River and the Cerro de Media Luna, in the east where the land is less arid. The first Spanish in the region were led by Nicolás de San Luis Montañez in the mid 16th century. Because of their battles with the Chichimecas, San Luis Montañez was named “Capitan of the Chichimecas.” The Pames did not offer much resistance to Spanish incursion but the Chichimeca Jonaz did. In Pame lands, the San Miguel Palmas mission was founded relatively early, in 1691, when the indigenous peoples there requested that a priest be sent to them for evangelization purposes. It was abandoned briefly for unknown reasons in 1684. The mission church was completed in 1723. Río Blanco was founded as a mining camp in 1691 when deposits of mercury (Mercury (element)), silver, gold and water for processing were found by the Spanish. However, Peñamiller and the rest of the Sierra Gorda of Querétaro were not subdued and settled until the expedition of José de Escandón in the mid 18th century, culminating in the defeat of the Chichimeca Jonaz and allies at the Battle of Media Luna (in neighboring Pinal de Amoles) in 1748. The municipal seat was founded in 1748, at first with a military aim of a fortress against the scattered Chichimecas who had escaped the Battle of Media Luna. Soldiers and families were located strategically; both against the remaining Chichimecas and to make sure the indigenous among them did not rebel. This totaled thirty soldiers with their families along with one hundred others under the command of Captain Joseph Antonio Diaz Maldonado. A presidio was established as a sub prefecture of the district of Tolimán. The official foundation ceremony included a mass officiated by Friar Tomas Aquino Ramirez de Prado, and declared as the Villa de Peña Millera de la Santisima Virgen de la Asunción. The new settlement was traced out with a plaza, a church, monastery cemetery and gardens on the north side with lands partitioned out on the other sides. In addition, four official pasturelands for cattle were marked off in each of the cardinal directions. In 1825, the presidio became a Franciscan mission under the direction of San Pedro and San Pablo of Michoacán. By this time, the town has grown sufficiently that there were a number of large mansion homes, the most prominent belonging to Juan Sánchez, Luis Olvera, Lamberto Rodríguez, Aurora Requena and Alicia Sánchez. With the declaration of the first state constitution, Peñamiller belonged to the district of Tolimán, under the name of Santa María Peña Millera. Sometime from then to the present the named changed permanently to the current form, with “Peñamiller” first showing up in records as early as 1833. The last battle of the Rebellion of the Sierra Gorda was fought here in 1849. Eleuterio Quiroz, a principle leader of the movement, was captured by General Tomas Mejía and made a prisoner, then executed by firing squad. The body was embalmed, taken to Pinar de San Agustín and hung by the government as an example. During the government of Porfirio Díaz, a number of men amassed large estates and fortunes. In Peñamiller, the largest landholder was Rafael Olvera, who was cacique of all the Sierra Gorda and the richest man in Querétaro at that time. He was also governor from 1883 to 1887. His two main properties in Peñamiller were the Boquillas and Extoraz Haciendas, the latter the largest in the state at 41,036 hectares. During the Mexican Revolution in 1916, Peñamiller was separated from the district of Tolimán and joined to the municipality of Colón (Colón, Querétaro). Peñamiller was recognized as a town in 1917, under its modern name in 1917. In the same year, it was made part of the Colón municipality then back to Tolimán. The area was affected by a severe flu epidemic in 1918. From 1918 to 1920, the parish church of Santa María de la Asunción was remodeled and redecorated. In 1924, its status as a community in the municipality of Tolimán was reaffirmed. Much of the land from the haciendas were broken up from 1915 to 1930 and made into communally held lands called ejidos. While the initial declarations were made in 1915, their implementation was delayed until 1930. These ejidos include Extortas, Rio Blanco, Las Enramadas, Peña Blanco, San Lorenzo, La Plazuela, Maguey Verde, El Pilón, Los Encinos, Agua Fria, Molinitos de Orozco, El Portugues, Camargo, La Higuera, El Tequizquite and San Isidro Boquillas. In 1936, much of the Peñamiller area was reformed as the Villa Zapata delegation of the municipality of Tolimán. In 1936, a rebel group led by Taurino López burned the municipal archives of Peñamiller. However, this rebel leader was found the next day hanged. The main church of the town of Peñamiller became a parish in 1937, and then it was named as head of its own municipality in 1941. The tower of the parish church was built in 1955. Highway 120 was built through the municipality in the 1960s, but it was not paved until 1980. Basic modern infrastructure such as running water, electricity and a health center were constructed in 1962, but only in the municipal seat. A dirt road connecting the municipal seat with Tolimán was built in 1972. From 1960 to 1970, mining was at its height in the municipality with 128 mines extracting mostly mercury. However, mercury prices crashed in the 1970s and the boom ended. The municipal palace, an auditorium, a sports facility and a medical clinic were built in the mid-1980s. The parish church was remodeled again in the 1990s, with support from state and municipal authorities. At the same time, a “teatro del pueblo” or people’s theatre was constructed for social and religious events as well as sports. In 1994, the Colegio de Estudios Científicos y Tecnológicos del Estado de Querétaro, Peñamiller Campus was established, starting with 58 students. Distance high school education was begun in the rural delegation of Camargo. A similar program was installed in the San Miguel Palmas delegation in 2002. In 1998, Marcio Antonio Morales Sanchez was named the first “child municipal president” for Children’s day on 30 April, a tradition which has been repeated since. During the first decade of the 21st century, there were a number of remodeling projects on the facades of the historic center of the municipal seat, including the Santa María de la Asunción Church. During the latter 2000s, Peñamiller and the rest of the Sierra Gorda experienced a number of small earthquakes, in an area which is not prone to seismic activity. A large number of these small quakes were felt from the latter part of 2010 to the first months of 2011. A number of communities including Villa Emiliano Zapata, San Juanico, El Alamo and Peñamiller have reported smelling sulfur and other foul odors and seeing vapor in connection with the quakes. In 2001, it was added to the International Networks of Man and Biosphere (Man and the Biosphere Programme) of UNESCO as the thirteenth Mexican reserve on the list, occupying first place in regards to ecodiversity. It is also recognized as a Área de Importancia para la Conservación de las Aves (Area of Importance for the Conservation of Birds) by the Consejo Internacional para la Preservación de las Aves Mexicanas.
, research help, guided tours, story hours for children and digital services. In 2001, it was added to the International Networks of Man and Biosphere (Man and the Biosphere Programme) of UNESCO as the thirteenth Mexican reserve on the list, occupying first place in regards to ecodiversity. It is also recognized as a Área de Importancia para la Conservación de las Aves (Area of Importance for the Conservation of Birds) by the Consejo Internacional para la Preservación de las Aves Mexicanas.
del Río at about 4%. Two, Arroyo Seco (Arroyo Seco, Querétaro) and Peñamiller, have lost population in the previous decades. The capital city of Santiago de Querétaro has nearly half of the state’s population. ref>
Economy About 21% of the total population is economically active. About thirty four percent of the working population is dedicated to agriculture, livestock, forestry, fishing and hunting. 1,045 hectares of land are dedicated to irrigated farming, with 916 farmed only during the rainy season. The rest, about 70,000 is left wild due to its dryness. Irrigated land is limited to those closest to the Extoráz River and orchards that produce avocados, guavas, cherimoya, peaches, pomegranates, fig (Common fig)s, limes, lemons, mangos, oranges, nuts, papayas and more. The most profitable crop is nuts, including pecans and pine nuts, although the amount produced each year can vary. However, there is a total of fifty three products grown with significant harvest. Pine nuts, avocado and Mexican plums are grown at the Maguey Verde, La Higuera, Camargo, Los Encinos, Río Blanco, Agua Fría and Molinitos ejidos. There is relatively little livestock raised due to the harshness of the land, but most of the livestock is pigs followed by goats. There are 54,895 hectares used as natural pasture with 79 hectares are seeded. There are about 20,000 hectares of forest which can be cut and include species such as pine, oyamel, juniper, white cedar (Cupressus lusitanica) and red cedar (cedrus), oak, poplar, strawberry tree (Muntingia calabura)s, mesquite and more. In areas without logging, there are a number of species of plants with medicinal properties, including wild oregano, cat´s claws and more, which produce a harvest of about 500 tons per year. Wild foodstuffs include maguey, nopal cactus, pitayo fruit, yuccas and more, which usually give a more abundant harvest once every four years. Wild herbs area generally harvested between August and November. Another product is the production of willow branches, which is supplied as raw material to communities such as Tequisquiapan for crafts. Mining, construction, and industry employ about twenty three percent of the population. Industry is mostly limited to the production of clothes in small workshops in Camargo, Los Encinos, San Lorenzo, Las Enramadas, La Vega, Peñamiller and La Misión de Palmas, employing just over two hundred people. There is also a workshop in La Misión de Palmas that makes sandals with tire tread soles that employs twenty five people. Soccer balls stitched by hand are made by about 350 people working at home in about twenty communities, mostly by women and school-aged children to allow them to earn money without leaving home to supplement family income. Local handcrafts include belts decorated with a type of embroidery. Various articles are made with willow branches such as baskets and hats, mostly made in San Lorenzo and Villa Emiliano Zapata and sold in Tequisquiapan. Rope is made in Las Mesas, El Cobre, Agua de Pedro, Puerto de Ojo de Agua and Aposentos, with items such as baskets and brooms made from reeds in the municipal seat. There are various mineral deposits in the municipality with mercury having been the most extracted. There were 128 mines during the 1960s and early 1970s, but the demand for mercury steeply declined after the Vietnam War. There are still small deposits of gold, silver, copper, zinc antimony and bauxite. There are stone quarries which produce marble, onyx, and sandstone in various colors. About sixteen percent of the population is dedicated to commerce and services. Commerce is mostly limited to basic needs for the local population, including tianguis held in seven communities during the week. There is no municipal market. There are also eight businesses dedicated to buying forest products. The Sierra Gorda region has been promoted for tourism, especially ecotourism in recent decades. Peñamiller is promoted as the gateway to this region. ref name
'''Peñamiller''' is a town and municipality in the Mexican (Mexico) state of Querétaro. It is part of the Sierra Gorda region with about eighty percent of the territory belonging to the Sierra Gorda Biosphere of Querétaro. The municipality is on the southwest side of the Sierra Gorda, the highest mountains of which block most of the moisture coming in from the Gulf of Mexico. For this reason, most of the territory is arid, part of what is called the Querétaro “semi-desert” filled with cactus. There is a small portion on the far east side which has temperate forests and bodies of water, mostly related to the Extoraz River, in which fish are raised. The name of the town and municipality comes from a mountain called “El Picacho” but reminded town founder José de Escandón of the Peña Mellera in Spain. Over time, the name morphed into Peñamiller.