and in villages within the Darién jungle. Most of the people in Darien are fishermen or small-scale farmers growing crops such as bananas, rice and coffee as well as raising livestock. Other Afro-Panamanians descend from later migrants from the Caribbean who came to work on railroad-construction projects, commercial agricultural enterprises, and (especially) the canal. Important Afro-Caribbean community areas include towns and cities such as Colón (Colón, Panama), Cristobal and Balboa, in the former Canal Zone, as well as the Río Abajo area of Panama City. Another region with a large Afro-Caribbean population is the province of Bocas del Toro on the Caribbean coast just south of Costa Rica.
of severe torture, as is quoted in Gary Webb's p.227, Dark Alliance: The CIA, The Contras, And The Crack Cocaine Explosion. Gary Webb. 1998-1999. book, Dark Alliance: "His body bore evidence of unimaginable tortures. The thigh muscles had been neatly sliced so he could not close his legs, and then something had been jammed up his rectum, tearing it apart. His testicles were swollen horribly, the result of prolonged garroting, his ribs were broken, and then, while
''' started as the vision of Clarence W. Jones, a musician, graduate of Moody Bible Institute, and the son of a Salvation Army minister. Following his graduation from Moody, Jones worked under evangelist Paul Rader (Paul Rader (evangelist)) and was part of the founding staff of the Chicago Gospel Tabernacle where Jones assisted in leading music, working with youth and overseeing Rader's weekly radio ministry called "WJBT" ('''W'''here '''J'''esus '''B'''lesses '''T'''housands)<
, Guatemala, Mexico (as Miriam), Nicaragua (as both) Hurricane season 1988 Atlantic hurricane season 1988 Pacific hurricane season The first hurricane watches were issued for parts of Panama, and Providencia (Providencia Island) starting on October 18. The watch area was expanded to include Costa Rica and Nicaragua on October 19 as the watches were upgraded to warnings. These warnings provided several hours' worth of lead time, allowing evacuations
''. The hardback book, ''Life on Earth'' by David Attenborough, was a worldwide bestseller and its cover image of a Panamanian red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas), taken by Attenborough himself,
. Joseph Kobzon appeared with solo concerts in most cities of the former USSR. He was also bestowed the rare honour of performing international concerts tours as a representative of USSR in United States, Panama, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Argentina, Israel, Republic of the Congo, Zaire, Angola, Nigeria, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Germany, Greece, and Finland. Costa Rica The first
of the Americas indigenous population of the isthmus at the time of the European conquest. Estimates range as high as two million people, but more recent studies place that number closer to 200,000. Archaeological finds as well as testimonials by early European explorers describe diverse native isthmian groups exhibiting cultural variety and suggesting people already conditioned by regular regional routes of commerce. When Panama was colonized, the indigenous peoples fled into the forest
into the Pacific. These Pacific-oriented rivers are longer and slower running than those of the Caribbean side. Their basins are also more extensive. One of the longest is the Río Tuira which flows into the Golfo de San Miguel and is the nation's only river navigable by larger vessels. Harbors right thumbnail Extent of Panama's western EEZ (File:CarteLocal.png) in the Pacific The Caribbean coastline is marked by several good natural harbors. However, Cristóbal, at the Caribbean
. In the Republic of Panama a causeway connects the islands of Perico, Flamenco, and Naos to Panama City on the mainland. It also serves as a breakwater for ships entering the Panama Canal. Its English name ''causeway'' is sometimes confused with "Coastway", name of a touristic zone in Panama city. The Aztec city-state of Tenochtitlan had causeways supporting roads and aqueducts. The oldest engineered road yet discovered is the Sweet Track in England, dating from the 39th
, Lebanon, Cambodia and Kazakhstan. It is most commonly used in sparsely populated rural areas, where laying cables is not economically viable, although some companies may also offer MMDS services in urban (Urban area) areas. Political life In 1925, Arias returned to Panama and assumed leadership of the nationalistic organization Patriotic Communal Action. This organization tapped into a building current of discontent in Panama against the considerable influence
the United States exerted on the country. It formed the nucleus of the present-day Panameñista Party. Panama had been, for all intents and purposes, a U.S. (United States) protectorate since gaining independence in 1903. Political life In 1925, Arias returned to Panama and assumed leadership of the nationalistic organization Patriotic Communal Action. This organization tapped into a building current of discontent in Panama against the considerable influence
'''Panama''' ( ), is the southernmost country of Central America and the whole of North America.
Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metro area is home to nearly half of the country's 3.6 million people.
Panama was inhabited by several indigenous tribes prior to settlement by the Spanish in the 16th century. It broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada (Viceroyalty of New Granada), Ecuador, and Venezuela named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the Panama Canal to be built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement (Torrijos–Carter Treaties) was signed for the total transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama by the end of the 20th century, which culminated on 31 December 1999.
Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce, banking, and tourism are major and growing sectors. Panama has the second largest economy in Central America (List of countries by GDP (PPP))