USD) in damage occurred. Lieutenant Commander Pratt's final Naval Academy tour took place in 1905–1908. He then was Executive Officer of the cruisers ''Saint Louis'' (USS St. Louis (C-20)) and ''California'' (USS California (ACR-6)). Promoted to the rank of Commander in 1910, Pratt was an instructor at the Naval War College in 1911–1913 and spent the next two years in the Atlantic Torpedo Flotilla, much of that as Commanding Officer of its flagship, the scout cruiser ''Birmingham'' (USS Birmingham (CL-2)). Captain Pratt was assigned to the Army (United States Army) in Panama and at the Army War College (United States Army War College) in 1915–1917. During the First World War (World War I) he served in Washington, D.C. as Assistant Chief of Naval Operations in 1918. Anderson's career ended in personal suffering and disgrace. He was hospitalized several times for alcoholism. He illegally operated the Commercial Exchange Bank of Anguilla, British West Indies (Anguilla), which had an unlicensed New York branch office. The bank lost $4.4 million and several investors lost their life savings in the mid 1980s. The bank also laundered large amounts of cash for drug traffickers. In 1987, Anderson pled guilty to criminal violations of the banking laws and to tax evasion, and was sentenced to prison. The Supreme Court of New York Appellate Division, in disbarring Anderson from the practice of law, called his disbarment "a sad but we think necessary end to the legal career of one who has in times less beclouded by poor and corrupt judgment served his country in high office as Secretary of Treasury, Deputy Secretary of the Navy and as Special Ambassador to Panama during the Panama Canal negotiations." Matter of Anderson, 142 A.D.2d 498, 536 N.Y.S.2d 765 (January 12, 1989). A story appeared in the Washington Times in 1984 describing the infiltration of the Medellín cartel's operations in Panama and Nicaragua. Barry Seal: The Leak The story was based on a leak from a congresswoman(Diane Feinstein), whom in turn had been briefed by Oliver North, who in turn claims he had been ordered to do so by a higher authority. The alleged purpose was to prove the Nicaraguan Sandinistas' involvement in the drug trade and to build support for the Contra (Contras) war effort. This leak and subsequent controversy eventually led to the Iran Contra Affair which unraveled a year later. Frontline: Oliver North Interview While working at the Army headquarters, Yudhoyono was sent to the United States again, this time to participate in the Infantry Officer Advanced Course (United States Army Infantry School) at Fort Benning and in training with the 82nd Airborne Division (82nd Airborne Division (United States)). Yudhoyono also spent time in Panama and went through the jungle warfare school. When Yudhoyono returned in 1983, he was made Commander of the Infantry Trainers' School. It was not long before he was abroad again, this time to Belgium and West Germany, to undertake the Antitank weapon
the most radical conservative president Colombia has had. Following the events of the Regeneration, the Conservative Party kept the government of Colombia until 1930. During this period the country experienced economical resurrection and sold Panama to the United States. Although the country was mostly peaceful, two violent episodes occurred in this period: the Thousand Days' War and the Banana massacre. During the Hegemony, the Conservative Party created the Bank of the Republic
's monumental painting ''Heart of the Andes'' (1859), now in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Heade travelled in Brazil from 1863 to 1864, where he painted an extensive series of small works, eventually numbering over forty, depicting hummingbirds. He intended the series for a planned book titled "The Gems of Brazil", but the book was never published due to financial difficulty and Heade's concerns about the quality of the reproductions. Heade
by his house in cars to shake his hand. He was imprisoned shortly thereafter and eventually given political asylum (refugee) in Venezuela. After spending 11 years of exile in various Latin American countries, Díaz returned to Panama. In 2004, he was chosen by the newly elected Panamanian president, Martín Torrijos, to be the country's ambassador to Peru. In June 1987, in an interview with Panama's leading opposition newspaper, "La Prensa", Colonel Díaz
: query.nytimes.com gst fullpage.html?res 9403E1D8153AF934A35752C1A96F958260 accessdate 2008-08-13 Three United States Governors, Daniel I. J. Thornton, Governor of Colorado from 1951 to 1955, John Burroughs (John Burroughs (governor)), Governor
: query.nytimes.com gst fullpage.html?res 9403E1D8153AF934A35752C1A96F958260 accessdate 2008-08-13 Three United States Governors, Daniel I. J. Thornton, Governor of Colorado from 1951 to 1955, John Burroughs (governor) John Burroughs
, Fairchild began his life-long love affair with nature collecting butterflies (butterfly) in the fields and forests where he lived. At the age of 15, as an avid butterfly collector, Fairchild was introduced to the intense, complex world of the American ("New World") tropical forests (Neotropic ecozone) by his father, David Fairchild, the famous botanist and plant explorer. Young Fairchild was given a week in Juan Mina, a long canoe ride up from civilization on the Chagres River in Panama, in 1921. The experience hooked Fairchild on tropical America (Americas) for good. After several more years travelling with his father on plant collecting expeditions, Fairchild realized he needed to focus on something likely to provide a paying job. ''Marcus'', after completion of her shakedown cruise, was assigned to destroyer squadron duty with the Pacific Fleet (U.S. Pacific Fleet). As a unit of Squadron 13, and later Squadron 12, she operated off the West Coast, her cruises ranging from Seattle, Washington to Panama. In early 1924, February–March, she joined other ships of the battle force in fleet maneuvers based on a simulated attack on the Panama Canal. From April through July 1925, she participated in fleet tactical problems in the Hawaiian Islands area. She then returned to her regular operations schedule until 1927. During March and April of that year she again sailed south to take part in Caribbean fleet maneuvers, following which she returned to the West Coast. Between 1927 and 1929, she made several voyages to Honolulu; one, a Naval Reserve training cruise, two others as carrier screen. The family Centrolenidae was proposed by Edward H. Taylor (Edward Harrison Taylor) in 1951. Between the 1950s and 1970s, most species of glass frogs were known from Central America, particularly from Costa Rica and Panama, where E. H. Taylor and Jay M. Savage extensively worked, and just a few species were known to occur in South America. In 1973, John D. Lynch and William E. Duellman, published a large revision of the glass frogs from Ecuador showing that the species richness of Centrolenidae was particularly concentrated in the Andes. Later contributions by authors like Juan Rivero, Jay Savage, William Duellman, John D. Lynch, Pedro Ruiz-Carranza and José Ayarzagüena increased the number of described taxa especially from Central America, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Distribution Centrolenidae is a diverse type of frogs distributed from southern Mexico to Panama, and through the Andes from Venezuela and the island of Tobago to Bolivia, with some species in the Amazon (Amazon River) and Orinoco River basins, the Guiana Shield region, southeastern Brazil, and northern Argentina. A year later, the town began rapid growth as the eastern terminus of a transport operation owned by American (United States) Cornelius Vanderbilt's Accessory Transit Company that carried thousands of travelers each month from the Atlantic (Atlantic Ocean) to the Pacific side of Central America on their way to San Francisco during the California Gold Rush. Sail and steam-ships traveled from New York City and New Orleans in the United States to Greytown. From there, small boats transported passengers up the San Juan River and across Lake Nicaragua. Then, mules, horses, or stagecoaches carried them over the small isthmus between the lake and San Juan del Sur, Rivas (Rivas, Nicaragua) on the Pacific where they would embark on ships traveling the coast between Panama and Nicaragua and California. The '''Sapayoa''' or '''Broad-billed Sapayoa''' (''Sapayoa aenigma'') is a suboscine passerine found in lowland rainforests in Panama and northwest South America. As the epithet ''aenigma'' ("the enigma (wiktionary:enigma)") implies, its relationships have long been elusive. It is easy to overlook, but appears to be common in a wide range and is not considered threatened by the IUCN. BLI (2004) '''Roberto Conrado (Gray) Kelly''' (born October 1, 1964) is a Panamanian (Panama) former professional baseball player and current coach. An outfielder during his playing career in Major League Baseball, Kelly is currently the first base coach for the San Francisco Giants. He previously managed the Giants' single-A (Minor league baseball#Class_A) team, the Augusta GreenJackets. Giants' motto: Without HRs, it's run, run, run Kelly played for several major league clubs. He was signed by the New York Yankees as an amateur free agent in 1982 (1982 in baseball) and went on to play for the New York Yankees (1987–92 and 2000), Cincinnati Reds (1993–94), Atlanta Braves (1994), Montreal Expos (1995), Los Angeles Dodgers (1995), Minnesota Twins (1996–97), Seattle Mariners (1997) and Texas Rangers (Texas Rangers (baseball)) (1998–99). During his playing days in Panama, he was known as ''La Sombra'', Spanish (Spanish language) for ''Shadow''. The two recognized subspecies are: *''Diphylla ecaudata centralis'' is found from western Panama to Mexico. *''Diphylla ecaudata ecaudata'' is found from Brazil and eastern Peru to eastern Panama. '''Olmedo Sáenz Sánchez''' (born October 8, 1970 in Chitré, Panama) is a former Major League Baseball player. Though primarily a pinch hitter, he occasionally played first base (first baseman) or third base (third baseman). World Baseball Classic He Played for Panama in the inaugural World Baseball Classic in
not believe any one else would develop it if I do not ... but I do hope to live long enough to prove I am a good business man by getting a dividend on my investment." Chandler The '''Panama Canal Railway Company''' (reporting mark '''PCRC''') is a railway line that links the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean across Panama in Central America. It is jointly owned by the Kansas City Southern Railway and Mi-Jack Products. Kansas City Southern Company Profiles The route stretches
tour of England in 1933, Headley signed as a professional at Haslingden (Haslingden Cricket Club) in the Lancashire League (Lancashire League (cricket)), where he played until the outbreak of war in 1939. Barksdale played significant roles in Operation Just Cause to restore democracy to Panama in December 1989, Operation Desert Shield (Gulf War#Operation Desert Shield) in August 1990 and Operation Desert Storm in January 1991. The first combat sortie of Desert Storm
of cockfighting is as popular as baseball and American football are in the United States.
: the SS ''California'', SS ''Panama'' and SS ''Oregon''. On October 5 1848 the Pacific Mail's first of these steamers (Steamboat), the SS ''California'', departed from New York City to run service from Panama to the West Coast, traveling around Cape Horn to San Francisco—coincidentally, the California Gold Rush began in January of that year, and the steamer
'''Panama''' ( ), is the southernmost country of Central America and the whole of North America.
Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metro area is home to nearly half of the country's 3.6 million people.
Panama was inhabited by several indigenous tribes prior to settlement by the Spanish in the 16th century. It broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada (Viceroyalty of New Granada), Ecuador, and Venezuela named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the Panama Canal to be built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement (Torrijos–Carter Treaties) was signed for the total transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama by the end of the 20th century, which culminated on 31 December 1999.
Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce, banking, and tourism are major and growing sectors. Panama has the second largest economy in Central America (List of countries by GDP (PPP))