and Perez Balladares administrations. After taking office, Torrijos passed a number of laws which made the government more transparent. He formed a National Anti-Corruption Council whose members represented the highest levels of government, as well as civil society, labor organizations, and religious leadership. In addition, many of his closest Cabinet ministers were non-political technocrats known for their support for the Torrijos government's anti-corruption aims. Despite the Torrijos
in the 18th century are referred to as ''Hoa''. Legal status The status of buccaneers as pirates or privateers was ambiguous. As a rule, the buccaneers called themselves privateers, and many sailed under the protection of a letter of marque granted by British, French or Dutch authorities. For example, Henry Morgan had some form of legal cover for all of his attacks, and expressed great indignation at being called a "corsair" by the governor of Panama. ref>
with standard US coinage in Panama. You may get a handful of change back with a conquistador on the quarter and an Indian on one of your pennies, but Lincoln on the other penny and Roosevelt on the dime. Panama also still mints half dollars. You may hear these half dollars called pesos, so don't think you've accidentally ended up in Mexico. Panama's coins are made by the US Mint. Incidentally, if you run short on change in the United States, Panamanian coins work in parking meters
up to nearly a foot long. De Iuliis and Cartelle (1999) This innovative approach to comic publication has seen the brand grow dramatically over the last few years, with Supa Strikas now reaching an estimated ten million readers a week worldwide. Today, the comic is available across Africa (Botswana, Cameroon, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Namibia, Nigeria, Réunion, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia); in Latin America (Brazil
in the crash There have been recent reports that Miss Bush has been living and working in Panama (w:Panama) as an intern for UNICEF (w:UNICEF). South America (w:South America), the current hot-spot for describing new frog (w:frog) species, may be in danger of seeing population declines due to an epidemic. A recent scientific paper has found the mysterious fungal disease, chytridiomycosis (w:chytridiomycosis), has begun to establish into eastward Panama (w:Panama), heading across the Panama Canal boundary towards Colombian amphibian (w:amphibian) populations. The publication predicts that at the current rate, the fungus will spread into Tortí (Panamá Province (w:Panama Province)) before 2012. The chytrid fungus is believed to be the leading cause of population mortality of amphibians. Species like the common rocket frog (w:Colostethus panamensis) (''Colostethus panamensis'') are succumbing to the effects of the pathogen at an alarming rate. For the last 30 years, the infection has decimated amphibian communities, mostly because of increased temperatures resulting from climate change (w:climate change).
Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, western
in Panama been dated to around 2140 BCE, from Tronadora in Costa Rica to around 1890 BCE, and from Barra in Guatemala to around 1682 BCE. Ceramics of the Purrón tradition in southcentral Mexico have been dated to around 1805 BCE, and from the Chajil tradition of northcentral Mexico, to around 1600 BCE. In US and Israeli service the VADS has rarely been needed in its intended purpose of providing defense against aerial threats
of dignity". The role played by the Panamanian ambassador to the UN, Miguel Moreno is also worth mentioning. Mr. Moreno is remembered for his strong speech against the United States at the UN General Assembly. Netherton enlisted in the Army during the Vietnam War era, and was sent to Panama. By that time, he had also chosen to pursue a career in music, singing with the Army and Air Force (United States Air Force) bands. He became a born again Christian when he listened to a sermon at a Baptist church in Panama. Upon leaving the service, he spent a year at the Bethany Fellowship Missionary Training Center in Bloomington, where after being torn between missionary service and a career in entertainment, chose to follow the same path taken by his idol Pat Boone, by being a Christian singer. Lord was born in the Bed-Stuy (Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn) section of Brooklyn and moved to Bayonne, New Jersey after his father was killed in Panama. He learned option-style football as a nine-year-old quarterback on the local Pop Warner (Pop Warner Little Scholars) team. He went on to high school where he was a first team all state quarterback along with Chris Simms. Lord played high school football at Bayonne High School, Jammal Lord, database Football. Accessed December 26, 2007. where he was also a three-year starter on the basketball team.
. The Kuna Indians of Panama use plantains. A characteristic feature of the beverage is that the starting material is cooked, chewed, and re-cooked prior to fermentation. As in the making of ''chicha'', enzymes from the saliva of the ''cauim'' maker breakdown the starches into fermentable sugars. ''Peristeria elata'' is the national flower of Panama and is extremely over-collected in its native habitat. This over collection has led to its status as a species threatened with extinction delineated in Appendix I of CITES. In its native habitat, Peristeria can usually be found growing near the edge of hardwood forests. In the fall, after the trees in the hardwood forest lose their leaves, the plants are exposed to full sun throughout the cool, dry winter. Species in this genus are either epiphytic (epiphyte) or terrestrial in growth habit. *1981 Major League Baseball strike: In New York, federal mediator Kenneth Moffett announced that the major league owners and players had agreed to end the strike. The All-Star game, set for August 9 in Cleveland, would mark the return of baseball, and regularly scheduled games would resume on August 10. "Baseball Pact Reached", ''Pittsburgh Press'', July 31, 1981, p1 *'''Died:''' General Omar Torrijos, 52, military leader of Panama, and head of state from 1972-1978. Torrijos and six other people had taken off from Penonomé (Penonomé, Coclé) in a storm, bound for Coclesito, and the plane crashed into the Cerro Julio mountain. "Panama Leader Torrijos Killed In Plane Crash", ''Pittsburgh Press'', August 2, 1981, pA-1 *'''Died:''' Joe Gqabi, African National Congress representative in Zimbabwe, was assassinated as he backed out of his driveway in Harare During the California Gold Rush, the ''Tennessee'' transported "49'ers" to the eastern shores of Panama and Nicaragua to travel to California's Sierra Nevada (Sierra Nevada (U.S.)) mountains. The ''Tennessee'' delivered the last group of "immigrants" volunteering as mercenary soldiers for William Walker (William Walker (filibuster)) in Nicaragua, and, after defeat of Walker's forces, took home hundreds of disconsolate, defeated survivors. Then-Lt. Perry succeeded Lt. Theodorus Mason in April 1885 as Chief Intelligence Officer of the ONI, and he fostered closer ties between the agency and the State Department, as they shared a mutual interest in Panama, Samoa and Hawaii. Distribution and habitat Of the hammerhead sharks, the smooth hammerhead is the species most tolerant of temperate water, and occurs worldwide to higher latitudes than any other species. In the Atlantic, it occurs from Nova Scotia to the Virgin Islands and from Brazil to southern Argentina in the west, and from the British Isles to Côte d'Ivoire, including the Mediterranean Sea, in the east. In the Indian Ocean, it is found off South Africa, India, and Sri Lanka. In the western Pacific, it occurs from the Gulf of Tonkin to southern Japan and Siberia, as well as off Australia and New Zealand. In the central and eastern Pacific, it occurs off the Hawaiian Islands, California, Panama, the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, and Chile. This species is usually considered to be amphitemperate (absent from the tropics) in distribution, though there are rare reports from tropical waters such as in the Gulf of Mannar off India, and off southern Mozambique. Its presence in the tropics is difficult to determine due to confusion with other hammerhead species.
'''Panama''' ( ), is the southernmost country of Central America and the whole of North America.
Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metro area is home to nearly half of the country's 3.6 million people.
Panama was inhabited by several indigenous tribes prior to settlement by the Spanish in the 16th century. It broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada (Viceroyalty of New Granada), Ecuador, and Venezuela named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the Panama Canal to be built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement (Torrijos–Carter Treaties) was signed for the total transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama by the end of the 20th century, which culminated on 31 December 1999.
Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce, banking, and tourism are major and growing sectors. Panama has the second largest economy in Central America (List of countries by GDP (PPP))