, Fairchild began his life-long love affair with nature collecting butterflies (butterfly) in the fields and forests where he lived. At the age of 15, as an avid butterfly collector, Fairchild was introduced to the intense, complex world of the American ("New World") tropical forests (Neotropic ecozone) by his father, David Fairchild, the famous botanist and plant explorer. Young Fairchild was given a week in Juan Mina, a long canoe ride up from civilization on the Chagres River in Panama, in 1921. The experience hooked Fairchild on tropical America (Americas) for good. After several more years travelling with his father on plant collecting expeditions, Fairchild realized he needed to focus on something likely to provide a paying job. ''Marcus'', after completion of her shakedown cruise, was assigned to destroyer squadron duty with the Pacific Fleet (U.S. Pacific Fleet). As a unit of Squadron 13, and later Squadron 12, she operated off the West Coast, her cruises ranging from Seattle, Washington to Panama. In early 1924, February–March, she joined other ships of the battle force in fleet maneuvers based on a simulated attack on the Panama Canal. From April through July 1925, she participated in fleet tactical problems in the Hawaiian Islands area. She then returned to her regular operations schedule until 1927. During March and April of that year she again sailed south to take part in Caribbean fleet maneuvers, following which she returned to the West Coast. Between 1927 and 1929, she made several voyages to Honolulu; one, a Naval Reserve training cruise, two others as carrier screen. The family Centrolenidae was proposed by Edward H. Taylor (Edward Harrison Taylor) in 1951. Between the 1950s and 1970s, most species of glass frogs were known from Central America, particularly from Costa Rica and Panama, where E. H. Taylor and Jay M. Savage extensively worked, and just a few species were known to occur in South America. In 1973, John D. Lynch and William E. Duellman, published a large revision of the glass frogs from Ecuador showing that the species richness of Centrolenidae was particularly concentrated in the Andes. Later contributions by authors like Juan Rivero, Jay Savage, William Duellman, John D. Lynch, Pedro Ruiz-Carranza and José Ayarzagüena increased the number of described taxa especially from Central America, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Distribution Centrolenidae is a diverse type of frogs distributed from southern Mexico to Panama, and through the Andes from Venezuela and the island of Tobago to Bolivia, with some species in the Amazon (Amazon River) and Orinoco River basins, the Guiana Shield region, southeastern Brazil, and northern Argentina. A year later, the town began rapid growth as the eastern terminus of a transport operation owned by American (United States) Cornelius Vanderbilt's Accessory Transit Company that carried thousands of travelers each month from the Atlantic (Atlantic Ocean) to the Pacific side of Central America on their way to San Francisco during the California Gold Rush. Sail and steam-ships traveled from New York City and New Orleans in the United States to Greytown. From there, small boats transported passengers up the San Juan River and across Lake Nicaragua. Then, mules, horses, or stagecoaches carried them over the small isthmus between the lake and San Juan del Sur, Rivas (Rivas, Nicaragua) on the Pacific where they would embark on ships traveling the coast between Panama and Nicaragua and California. The '''Sapayoa''' or '''Broad-billed Sapayoa''' (''Sapayoa aenigma'') is a suboscine passerine found in lowland rainforests in Panama and northwest South America. As the epithet ''aenigma'' ("the enigma (wiktionary:enigma)") implies, its relationships have long been elusive. It is easy to overlook, but appears to be common in a wide range and is not considered threatened by the IUCN. BLI (2004) '''Roberto Conrado (Gray) Kelly''' (born October 1, 1964) is a Panamanian (Panama) former professional baseball player and current coach. An outfielder during his playing career in Major League Baseball, Kelly is currently the first base coach for the San Francisco Giants. He previously managed the Giants' single-A (Minor league baseball#Class_A) team, the Augusta GreenJackets. Giants' motto: Without HRs, it's run, run, run Kelly played for several major league clubs. He was signed by the New York Yankees as an amateur free agent in 1982 (1982 in baseball) and went on to play for the New York Yankees (1987–92 and 2000), Cincinnati Reds (1993–94), Atlanta Braves (1994), Montreal Expos (1995), Los Angeles Dodgers (1995), Minnesota Twins (1996–97), Seattle Mariners (1997) and Texas Rangers (Texas Rangers (baseball)) (1998–99). During his playing days in Panama, he was known as ''La Sombra'', Spanish (Spanish language) for ''Shadow''. The two recognized subspecies are: *''Diphylla ecaudata centralis'' is found from western Panama to Mexico. *''Diphylla ecaudata ecaudata'' is found from Brazil and eastern Peru to eastern Panama. '''Olmedo Sáenz Sánchez''' (born October 8, 1970 in Chitré, Panama) is a former Major League Baseball player. Though primarily a pinch hitter, he occasionally played first base (first baseman) or third base (third baseman). World Baseball Classic He Played for Panama in the inaugural World Baseball Classic in
, Christopher Columbus visited the isthmus and established a short-lived settlement in the Darien (Darién Province). Vasco Núñez de Balboa's tortuous trek from the Atlantic to the Pacific in 1513 demonstrated that the Isthmus was, indeed, the path between the seas, and Panama quickly became the crossroads and marketplace of Spain's empire in the New World. Gold and silver were brought by ship from South America, hauled across the isthmus, and loaded aboard ships for Spain. The route became
: www.ttu.edu departments alumni.php accessdate 2008-07-31 Throughout Texas Tech's history, faculty, alumni, and former students have played prominent roles in many different fields. Among its Distinguished Alumni is Demetrio B. Lakas, President of the Republic of Panama (Panama) from 1969 to 1978.
;ref Throughout Arkansas's history, faculty, alumni, and former students have played prominent roles in many different fields. Among its Distinguished Alumni is Ricardo Martinelli, president of the Republic of Panama (Panama) who was elected in 2009.
'' was decommissioned at New York on 1 November 1904 for conversion to a presidential yacht. Throughout Texas Tech's history, alumni have played prominent roles in many different fields. Among the university's Distinguished Alumni is Demetrio B. Lakas, President of the Republic of Panama (Panama) from 1969 to 1978.
"Paliques". In the "Paliques", he showed his understanding of the human nature with humor and insight. In his works, he makes an emphasis of the pride that he feels for things Puerto Rican. A collection of his essays, "Paliques" were published in 1913. Among his other works are the novels "Hacia Un Lejano Sol", "Mi Volutad Ha Muerto" and "La Leyenda Benaventina". Canales gave many lectures, among the countries he visited were Argentina
''. The hardback book, ''Life on Earth'' by David Attenborough, was a worldwide bestseller and its cover image of a Panamanian red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas), taken by Attenborough himself,
of cockfighting is as popular as baseball and American football are in the United States.
culture is reflected in the traditional products, such as woodcarvings, ceremonial masks and pottery, as well as in its architecture, cuisine and festivals. In earlier times, baskets were woven for utilitarian uses, but now many villages rely almost exclusively on the baskets they produce for tourists. An example of undisturbed, unique culture in Panama is that of the Guna (Guna Yala) who are known for ''molas (mola (art form))''. ''Mola'' is the Guna word for blouse, but the term ''mola'' has come to mean the elaborate embroidered panels made by Guna women, that make up the front and back of a Guna woman's blouse. They are several layers of cloth, varying in color, that are loosely stitched together, made using an appliqué process referred to as "reverse appliqué". Festivities The Christmas parade, known as ''El desfile de Navidad'', is celebrated in the capital, Panama City. This holiday is celebrated on December 25. The floats in the parade are decorated with the Panamanian colors, and the women dress in dresses called ''Pollera'' while the men dress in the traditional ''Montuno''. In addition, the marching band in the parade, consisting of drummers, keeps the crowds entertained. In the city, a big Christmas tree is lit with Christmas lights, and everybody surrounds the tree and sings Christmas carols.
Institutions and created Gnostic centers in Mexico, Panama, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Venezuela. A "triangle" relationship was established between the Universal Gnostic Movement founded by Samael Aun Weor, the South American Liberation Action (ALAS) in Argentina headed by Francisco A. Propato Ph.D. Prof. Dr. Francisco A. Propato, Ph. D
, in the Andes from western Venezuela to southern Peru, the Santa Marta Mountains in Colombia and the Venezuelan Coastal Range. Its plumage is mostly green with multiple black and dark green stripes or bars, and it has a pale-horn coloured beak. The dark stripes vary in prominence between its two subspecies. Several colour mutants are available in aviculture. - Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic
Mountaingem , is found sympatrically. Systematics 6-8 species have been traditionally recognized, the main point of dispute being whether the southern forms, of the mountain range from Nicaragua over Costa Rica to Panama, are one ('''"Variable Mountain-gem"'''), two or three species. Analysis of biogeography and mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA sequences (DNA sequence) by García-Moreno ''et al.'' (2006) have largely confirmed the arrangement
'''Panama''' ( ), is the southernmost country of Central America and the whole of North America.
Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metro area is home to nearly half of the country's 3.6 million people.
Panama was inhabited by several indigenous tribes prior to settlement by the Spanish in the 16th century. It broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada (Viceroyalty of New Granada), Ecuador, and Venezuela named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the Panama Canal to be built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement (Torrijos–Carter Treaties) was signed for the total transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama by the end of the 20th century, which culminated on 31 December 1999.
Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce, banking, and tourism are major and growing sectors. Panama has the second largest economy in Central America (List of countries by GDP (PPP))