, Fairchild began his life-long love affair with nature collecting butterflies (butterfly) in the fields and forests where he lived. At the age of 15, as an avid butterfly collector, Fairchild was introduced to the intense, complex world of the American ("New World") tropical forests (Neotropic ecozone) by his father, David Fairchild, the famous botanist and plant explorer. Young Fairchild was given a week in Juan Mina, a long canoe ride up from civilization on the Chagres River in Panama, in 1921. The experience hooked Fairchild on tropical America (Americas) for good. After several more years travelling with his father on plant collecting expeditions, Fairchild realized he needed to focus on something likely to provide a paying job. ''Marcus'', after completion of her shakedown cruise, was assigned to destroyer squadron duty with the Pacific Fleet (U.S. Pacific Fleet). As a unit of Squadron 13, and later Squadron 12, she operated off the West Coast, her cruises ranging from Seattle, Washington to Panama. In early 1924, February–March, she joined other ships of the battle force in fleet maneuvers based on a simulated attack on the Panama Canal. From April through July 1925, she participated in fleet tactical problems in the Hawaiian Islands area. She then returned to her regular operations schedule until 1927. During March and April of that year she again sailed south to take part in Caribbean fleet maneuvers, following which she returned to the West Coast. Between 1927 and 1929, she made several voyages to Honolulu; one, a Naval Reserve training cruise, two others as carrier screen. The family Centrolenidae was proposed by Edward H. Taylor (Edward Harrison Taylor) in 1951. Between the 1950s and 1970s, most species of glass frogs were known from Central America, particularly from Costa Rica and Panama, where E. H. Taylor and Jay M. Savage extensively worked, and just a few species were known to occur in South America. In 1973, John D. Lynch and William E. Duellman, published a large revision of the glass frogs from Ecuador showing that the species richness of Centrolenidae was particularly concentrated in the Andes. Later contributions by authors like Juan Rivero, Jay Savage, William Duellman, John D. Lynch, Pedro Ruiz-Carranza and José Ayarzagüena increased the number of described taxa especially from Central America, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Distribution Centrolenidae is a diverse type of frogs distributed from southern Mexico to Panama, and through the Andes from Venezuela and the island of Tobago to Bolivia, with some species in the Amazon (Amazon River) and Orinoco River basins, the Guiana Shield region, southeastern Brazil, and northern Argentina. A year later, the town began rapid growth as the eastern terminus of a transport operation owned by American (United States) Cornelius Vanderbilt's Accessory Transit Company that carried thousands of travelers each month from the Atlantic (Atlantic Ocean) to the Pacific side of Central America on their way to San Francisco during the California Gold Rush. Sail and steam-ships traveled from New York City and New Orleans in the United States to Greytown. From there, small boats transported passengers up the San Juan River and across Lake Nicaragua. Then, mules, horses, or stagecoaches carried them over the small isthmus between the lake and San Juan del Sur, Rivas (Rivas, Nicaragua) on the Pacific where they would embark on ships traveling the coast between Panama and Nicaragua and California. The '''Sapayoa''' or '''Broad-billed Sapayoa''' (''Sapayoa aenigma'') is a suboscine passerine found in lowland rainforests in Panama and northwest South America. As the epithet ''aenigma'' ("the enigma (wiktionary:enigma)") implies, its relationships have long been elusive. It is easy to overlook, but appears to be common in a wide range and is not considered threatened by the IUCN. BLI (2004) '''Roberto Conrado (Gray) Kelly''' (born October 1, 1964) is a Panamanian (Panama) former professional baseball player and current coach. An outfielder during his playing career in Major League Baseball, Kelly is currently the first base coach for the San Francisco Giants. He previously managed the Giants' single-A (Minor league baseball#Class_A) team, the Augusta GreenJackets. Giants' motto: Without HRs, it's run, run, run Kelly played for several major league clubs. He was signed by the New York Yankees as an amateur free agent in 1982 (1982 in baseball) and went on to play for the New York Yankees (1987–92 and 2000), Cincinnati Reds (1993–94), Atlanta Braves (1994), Montreal Expos (1995), Los Angeles Dodgers (1995), Minnesota Twins (1996–97), Seattle Mariners (1997) and Texas Rangers (Texas Rangers (baseball)) (1998–99). During his playing days in Panama, he was known as ''La Sombra'', Spanish (Spanish language) for ''Shadow''. The two recognized subspecies are: *''Diphylla ecaudata centralis'' is found from western Panama to Mexico. *''Diphylla ecaudata ecaudata'' is found from Brazil and eastern Peru to eastern Panama. '''Olmedo Sáenz Sánchez''' (born October 8, 1970 in Chitré, Panama) is a former Major League Baseball player. Though primarily a pinch hitter, he occasionally played first base (first baseman) or third base (third baseman). World Baseball Classic He Played for Panama in the inaugural World Baseball Classic in
he was still alive, his head had been sawed off with a butcher's knife." His head was never found. President Nicolás Ardito Barletta tried to set up a commission to investigate the murder but was forced to resign by Noriega, which increased suspicions that the military ordered the beheading. But having traversed the major basketball continents in his basketball career, Ginóbili is one of the few players who have enjoyed success under both the physical, one-on-one play of the NBA and the more technical, jump-shooting rule set of the FIBA. He is one of only two players in basketball history along with Bill Bradley to win the Euroleague, In Bradley's era, top European club teams competed for the European Champions Cup; the name "Euroleague" was not used in Bradley's day, though it was later used by the competition's organizer, FIBA Europe. The term "Euroleague" was never trademarked by FIBA Europe, enabling ULEB to register it for its rival competition, which was launched in 2000–01; ULEB and FIBA Europe unified the two competitions under the Euroleague banner the following season. ULEB recognizes the European Champions Cup as part of the Euroleague's history (FIBA European Champions Cup and Euroleague history), and considers Champions Cup titles fully equivalent to Euroleague titles. an Olympic (Basketball at the Summer Olympics) gold medal, and an NBA Championship ring. "Emanuel Ginobili" - Para Tí magazine
tour of England in 1933, Headley signed as a professional at Haslingden (Haslingden Cricket Club) in the Lancashire League (Lancashire League (cricket)), where he played until the outbreak of war in 1939. Barksdale played significant roles in Operation Just Cause to restore democracy to Panama in December 1989, Operation Desert Shield (Gulf War#Operation Desert Shield) in August 1990 and Operation Desert Storm in January 1991. The first combat sortie of Desert Storm
place. El Salvador won two games and lost three out of its the five played. A match for third place between Colombia and El Salvador was scheduled but was cancelled due to bad physical state of the players. El Salvador finished in fourth place by goal difference.
aimed to make a modern film that also featured classic cinema motifs: a vintage Douglas DC-3 was used for a flight sequence, and Dennis Gassner's set designs are reminiscent of Ken Adam's work on several early Bond films. Taking a course away from the usual Bond villains (List of James Bond villains), Forster rejected any grotesque appearance for the character Dominic Greene to emphasise the hidden and secret nature of the film's contemporary villains. '''Ancón''' is a "
first original band recording at the age of 17. The '''Pied Water Tyrant''', ''Fluvicola pica'', is a small passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. It breeds in tropical South America from Panama and Trinidad south to Bolivia and Argentina. Grupo Bimbo products are sold in 19 countries and two continents worldwide including: Mexico, Brasil, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, United States, China, Spain and Portugal on 3 continents: Americas, Asia and Europe. Operates 156 plants (41 in Mexico and 115 abroad), 2 trading agencies and 5 joint ventures. His scientific travels took him through Africa, Asia, North America, South America, and Central America, among other regions. He particularly enjoyed Panama, Costa Rica, and Cuba, which he visited at length on at least thirty occasions beginning in 1908, generally staying in Soledad at the Harvard Botanical Gardens. Barbour served as custodian of these gardens from 1927 until his death in 1946. Barbour 1946. Dustjacket back flap. In his book, ''Naturalist in Cuba'', Barbour writes, "I suspect that I am the only living American naturalist who has visited all parts of the island again and again, for I am not only a Cuban by adoption, but a devoted friend of the land and its people." In addition to the expected scientific discussion of the island's flora and fauna, Barbour provides a description of Cuban society and culture. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1916.
''. The hardback book, ''Life on Earth'' by David Attenborough, was a worldwide bestseller and its cover image of a Panamanian red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas), taken by Attenborough himself,
, Florida . This production was named by the National Foundation of Popular Culture as one the top 20 productions of the year. The record went platinum and Tañón earned her first Grammy Award. On August 2000, Tañón sold out 12 shows in the Antonio Paoli Hall (Antonio Paoli) at the Luis A. Ferre Center of the Fine Arts in San Juan. Later that same month, she debuted in the Bass Performance Hall in Fort Worth, Texas. Her performances received rave reviews in the ''Fort Worth Star Telegram'' and the ''Dallas Morning News''. At the end of 2000, Tañón presented her musical spectacular at the Anayansi Theater in Panama, and toured the southeastern United States with Mexican singer Alejandro Fernández. In 2001, Tañón recorded a CD titled, "''Yo por Ti''" (Me for You), which won both American and Latin Grammys. The first single, ''Como Olvidar'', topped the U.S. Billboard Top Latin Tracks. The CD became a best-seller in Puerto Rico, Latin America, and among the Hispanic population in the United States. In 2002, Tañón toured many countries, including Venezuela, Panama and the United States. That year she became the first merengue artist to successfully score a chart topper in the Middle East when her partnership with Egyptian music singer Hakim (Hakim (Egyptian singer)) yielded the highly successful Arabian hit, ''Ah Ya Albi''. In 2003, Tañón toured Europe and made a total of ten recordings for WEA Latina. In 2003 she released ''Sobrevivir'' and won her fourth Grammy. She also married Billy Denizard, with whom she had two sons, Indiana Noa and Ian Nahir. - Panama Panama City '''Panamá''' '''Panamá''' Spanish (Spanish language) - thumb left alt Photo of a whitetip reef shark resting amongst many brightly colored corals, its head concealed in a cave The whitetip reef shark almost exclusively inhabits coral reefs. (Image:Triaenodon obesus malaysia.jpg) The whitetip reef shark is distributed widely across the entire Indo-Pacific region. In the Indian Ocean, it occurs from northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to the Red Sea and the Indian subcontinent, including Madagascar, Mauritius, the Comoros, the Aldabra Group, the Seychelles, Sri Lanka, and the Chagos Archipelago. In the western and central Pacific, it is occurs from off southern China, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Islands, to the Philippines, Southeast Asia, and Indonesia, to northern Australia, and is also found around numerous islands in Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia, as far as Hawaii to the north and the Pitcairn Islands to the southeast. In the eastern Pacific, it occurs from Costa Rica to Panama, and off the Galápagos Islands. The orchestra virtually disbanded in 1962 when Ismael Rivera was arrested for drug possession in Panama. According to later reports, various band members concealed illegal drug shipments regularly since they were rarely intervened with at Customs; in this particular occasion an inspection was indeed made, and Rivera willingly took the bulk of the rap for the entire group (including Cortijo, who was deeply affected by Rivera's plea and regretted it through the rest of his life). Rafael Ithier and other bandmates went on to found Puerto Rico's salsa group, "El Gran Combo". On December 11, 1941 the ''Struma'' (Struma (ship)) sailed from Constanţa, flying the Panamanian flag. The ''Struma'' was torpedoed and sunk by the Soviet (Soviet Union) submarine ''Shch-213 (Shchuka class submarine)'' on February 24, 1942. 770 lives were lost. There was one survivor. Genetic analysis According to the Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR), her closest kin are the Ngobe people (Ngöbe–Buglé people) of Panama, but she also shared genetic patterns found in people from Taiwan and Korea. Scientists at TIGR examined two mitochondrial DNA D loop sequences and found that Hypervariable region 1 (HV1) was consistent with Haplogroup A (Haplogroup A (mtDNA)), one of the four Native American gene groups. Hypervariable region 2 (HV2) included a unique sequence not found in any of the current mitochondrial DNA databases.
Nations currently party to the convention are: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Chile, China (seat originally belonged to the Republic of China but was replaced by People's Republic of China upon the PRC's entrance into the United Nations), Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominica, Finland, France, Germany, Grenada, Guinea, India, Ireland (Republic of Ireland), Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Panama, Peru, Poland, Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Cameroon, Canada, People's Republic of China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, European Union, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Ireland (Republic of Ireland), Italy, Japan, South Korea, Liberia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, People's Republic of China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, European Union, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Ireland (Republic of Ireland), Italy, Japan, South Korea, Liberia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela *1949 – Luis Muñoz Marín becomes the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico *1955 – Panamanian president José Antonio Remón Cantera is assassinated *1959 – ''Luna 1'', the first
, Vietnam thumb right 160px Newcastle enjoyed a close but at times strained relationship with his brother Henry Pelham (Image:Henry Pelham.jpg). The two men formed a formidable political partnership following the fall of Walpole, and together dominated British politics until Henry's death in 1754. The British opened the war with a victory, capturing Porto Bello (Battle of Porto Bello) in Panama. This led to an outbreak of patriotic fervour, and further increased the pressure on Walpole and Newcastle for their perceived unwilling prosecution of the war. Rodger ''Command of the Ocean'' p.236–37 Newcastle tried to combat this by cultivating a reputation as the leading "patriot" of the cabinet. He took on additional military responsibilities and, for the first two years of war, served as a ''de facto'' Minister of War. Browning p.94–97 One of his most notable suggestions during the period was the recruitment of large numbers of troops drawn from the American colonies (British America), whose growing manpower had previously gone largely untapped. In the breeding season the Red Knot has a circumpolar (wikt:circumpolar) distribution in the high Arctic, then migrates to coasts around the world from 50° N to 58° S. The red knot has one of the longest migrations of any bird. Every year it travels more than 9,000 miles from the Arctic to the southern tip of South America. "Red Knot Fact Sheet, Lincoln Park Zoo" The exact migration routes and wintering grounds of individual subspecies are still somewhat uncertain. The nominate race ''C. c. canutus'' breeds in the Taymyr Peninsula and possibly Yakutia (Sakha Republic) and migrates to the Western Europe and then down to western and southern Africa. ''C. c. rogersi'' breeds in the Chukchi Peninsula in eastern Siberia, and winters in eastern Australia and New Zealand.
'''Panama''' ( ), is the southernmost country of Central America and the whole of North America.
Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metro area is home to nearly half of the country's 3.6 million people.
Panama was inhabited by several indigenous tribes prior to settlement by the Spanish in the 16th century. It broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada (Viceroyalty of New Granada), Ecuador, and Venezuela named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the Panama Canal to be built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement (Torrijos–Carter Treaties) was signed for the total transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama by the end of the 20th century, which culminated on 31 December 1999.
Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce, banking, and tourism are major and growing sectors. Panama has the second largest economy in Central America (List of countries by GDP (PPP))