Family members pose in front of the Statue of Nemesio Canales at the town square in Jayuya. Canales co-founded with Luis Llorens Torres the "Revista de las Antillanas". He also wrote short novels and a comedy called "El Heroe Galopante" (The Traveling Hero), which debuted on stage in 1923 after his death. In 1914, he bought the newspaper "El Día" of Ponce (which later became "El Nuevo Día"). In his newspaper he had a column in which he wrote his
by his house in cars to shake his hand. He was imprisoned shortly thereafter and eventually given political asylum (refugee) in Venezuela. After spending 11 years of exile in various Latin American countries, Díaz returned to Panama. In 2004, he was chosen by the newly elected Panamanian president, Martín Torrijos, to be the country's ambassador to Peru. In June 1987, in an interview with Panama's leading opposition newspaper, "La Prensa", Colonel Díaz
of the Americas indigenous population of the isthmus at the time of the European conquest. Estimates range as high as two million people, but more recent studies place that number closer to 200,000. Archaeological finds as well as testimonials by early European explorers describe diverse native isthmian groups exhibiting cultural variety and suggesting people already conditioned by regular regional routes of commerce. When Panama was colonized, the indigenous peoples fled into the forest
weakened during the Great Depression; his mother, from a rich and influential family, was first cousin of Alfonso López Pumarejo who was twice President of Colombia. He grew up in Barranquilla and later attended the exclusive Gimnasio Moderno in Bogotá, D.C., ultimately culminating his secondary studies (Secondary education) at the Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts; he later attended University of Virginia before transferring to Georgetown University
- Big Stick diplomacy (Big stick Diplomacy): Theodore Roosevelt refers to U.S. policy as "speaking softly and carrying a big stick", applied the same year by assisting Panama's independence movement from Colombia. U.S. forces sought to protect American interests and lives during and following the Panamanian revolution over construction of the Isthmian Canal. U.S. Marines were stationed on the isthmus (1903–1914) * 1903 - Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty with Panama; leased strip of land increased to 10 miles (16 km) wide. * 1989 - End of Eastern Bloc; fall of Berlin Wall; all East European satellites break away from Moscow *1990 - Panama; America invades to oust Manuel Noriega *1991 - Gulf War; America leads a U.N.-authorized coalition to repel an Iraqi invasion out of neighboring Kuwait. thumb left 230px Vice-Admiral (File:Edward Vernon by Thomas Gainsborough.jpg) Edward Vernon (Admiral Vernon). War on Spain was declared by Great Britain on 23 October 1739, which has become known as the War of Jenkins' Ear. A plan was laid for combined operations against the Spanish colonies from east and west. One force, military and naval, was to assault them from the West Indies under Admiral Edward Vernon. Another, to be commanded by Commodore George Anson (George Anson, 1st Baron Anson), afterwards Lord Anson, was to round Cape Horn and to fall upon the Pacific coast of Latin America. Delays, bad preparations, dockyard corruption, and the squabbles of the naval and military officers concerned caused the failure of a hopeful scheme. On 21 November 1739 Admiral Vernon did however succeed in capturing the ill-defended Spanish harbour of Porto Bello (Porto Bello, Panama) in present-day Panama. When Vernon had been joined by Sir Chaloner Ogle with naval reinforcements and a strong body of troops, an attack was made on Cartagena (Battle of Cartagena de Indias) in what is now Colombia (9 March – 24 April 1741). The delay had given the Spanish admiral, Don Blas de Lezo (1687–1741), time to prepare, and the siege failed with a dreadful loss of life to the assailants mostly due to disease. De Soto sailed to the New World in 1514 with the first Governor of Panama, Pedrarias Dávila. Brave leadership, unwavering loyalty, and clever schemes for the extortion of native villages (Indigenous peoples of the Americas) for their captured chiefs became de Soto's hallmark during the Conquest of Central America (History of Panama). He gained fame as an excellent horseman, fighter, and tactician, but was notorious for his brutality. Moths also undertake migrations, an example being the uraniids (Uraniidae). ''Urania fulgens'' undergoes population explosions and massive migrations that may be not surpassed by any other insect in the Neotropics. In Costa Rica and Panama, the first population movements may begin in July and early August and, depending on the year, may be very massive, continuing unabated for as long as five months.
Telegram'' and the ''Dallas Morning News''. At the end of 2000, Tañón presented her musical spectacular at the Anayansi Theater in Panama, and toured the southeastern United States with Mexican singer Alejandro Fernández. In 2001, Tañón recorded a CD titled, "''Yo por Ti''" (Me for You), which won both American and Latin Grammys. The first single, ''Como Olvidar'', topped the U.S. Billboard Top Latin Tracks. The CD became a best-seller in Puerto Rico, Latin America, and among the Hispanic population in the United States. In 2002, Tañón toured many countries, including Venezuela, Panama and the United States. That year she became the first merengue artist to successfully score a chart topper in the Middle East when her partnership with Egyptian music singer Hakim (Hakim (Egyptian singer)) yielded the highly successful Arabian hit, ''Ah Ya Albi''. In 2003, Tañón toured Europe and made a total of ten recordings for WEA Latina. In 2003 she released ''Sobrevivir'' and won her fourth Grammy. She also married Billy Denizard, with whom she had two sons, Indiana Noa and Ian Nahir. - Panama Panama City '''Panamá''' '''Panamá''' Spanish (Spanish language) - thumb left alt Photo of a whitetip reef shark resting amongst many brightly colored corals, its head concealed in a cave The whitetip reef shark almost exclusively inhabits coral reefs. (Image:Triaenodon obesus malaysia.jpg) The whitetip reef shark is distributed widely across the entire Indo-Pacific region. In the Indian Ocean, it occurs from northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to the Red Sea and the Indian subcontinent, including Madagascar, Mauritius, the Comoros, the Aldabra Group, the Seychelles, Sri Lanka, and the Chagos Archipelago. In the western and central Pacific, it is occurs from off southern China, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Islands, to the Philippines, Southeast Asia, and Indonesia, to northern Australia, and is also found around numerous islands in Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia, as far as Hawaii to the north and the Pitcairn Islands to the southeast. In the eastern Pacific, it occurs from Costa Rica to Panama, and off the Galápagos Islands. The orchestra virtually disbanded in 1962 when Ismael Rivera was arrested for drug possession in Panama. According to later reports, various band members concealed illegal drug shipments regularly since they were rarely intervened with at Customs; in this particular occasion an inspection was indeed made, and Rivera willingly took the bulk of the rap for the entire group (including Cortijo, who was deeply affected by Rivera's plea and regretted it through the rest of his life). Rafael Ithier and other bandmates went on to found Puerto Rico's salsa group, "El Gran Combo". On December 11, 1941 the ''Struma'' (Struma (ship)) sailed from Constanţa, flying the Panamanian flag. The ''Struma'' was torpedoed and sunk by the Soviet (Soviet Union) submarine ''Shch-213 (Shchuka class submarine)'' on February 24, 1942. 770 lives were lost. There was one survivor. Genetic analysis According to the Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR), her closest kin are the Ngobe people (Ngöbe–Buglé people) of Panama, but she also shared genetic patterns found in people from Taiwan and Korea. Scientists at TIGR examined two mitochondrial DNA D loop sequences and found that Hypervariable region 1 (HV1) was consistent with Haplogroup A (Haplogroup A (mtDNA)), one of the four Native American gene groups. Hypervariable region 2 (HV2) included a unique sequence not found in any of the current mitochondrial DNA databases.
Miami on August 21, 1948. Cuba agreed to host the first series, which would feature the top team from each of the nations that were then CBC members – Cuba, Panama, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela – in a six-game round robin series to determine the winner. In the second year of activities, SAM’s wings grew and began to embrace the world of the nearest Colombian cities with flights to Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Planeta Rica and Barranquilla. The airline grew
of current world boxing champions world boxing champions : Guillermo Jones and Anselmo Moreno. Basketball is popular in Panama, there are regional teams as well as a squad that competes internationally. Among Panama's most prominent basketball players are Rolando Blackman (four-time NBA All-Star) and Harlem Globetrotters' star Kevin Daley. Long jumper Irving Saladino became the first Panamanian Olympic gold medalist in 2008. Other popular sports include volleyball, taekwondo, soccer, golf, and tennis. A long-distance hiking trail called the TransPanama Trail is being built from Colombia to Costa Rica. Other non-traditional sports in the country have had great importance such as the triathlon that has captured the attention of many athletes nationwide and the country has hosted international competitions. Flag football has also been growing in popularity in both men and women and with international participation in world of this discipline being among the best teams in the world, the sport was introduced by Americans residing in the Canal Zone for veterans and retirees who even had a festival called the Turkey Ball. Other popular sports are American football, rugby (rugby football), hockey, softball and other amateur sports including skateboarding, BMX and surfing, because the many beaches of Panama such as Santa Catalina and Venao that have hosted events the likes of ISA World Surfing Games. In 2012, eight different athletes represented Panama in the London 2012 Olympics. Irving Saladino in Long Jump, Alonso Edward in Track and Field, Andrea Ferris in Track and Field, Diego Castillo in Swimming, and the youngest on the team, Carolena Carstens who was 16 competing in the taekwondo. She was the first representative to compete for Panama in that sport. Education
venomous pitvipers (Crotalinae) found in eastern Panama and most of northern South America. The name is derived from the Greek (Greek language) words ''bothros'' for "pit", and ''-opsis'' for "face" or "appearance"; obviously an allusion to the heat-sensitive loreal pit organs. Seven species are currently recognized.
equipment to the Alaska oil pipeline (Trans-Alaska Pipeline System), becoming a minority owner of the Jacksonville Jaguars, buying a shoe company that sold footwear in Panama, and getting involved in a project selling water pumps in Nigeria. ''Louisiana'' embarked President (President of the United States) Theodore Roosevelt at Piney Point, Maryland on 8 November for a cruise to Panama to inspect work on the construction of the Panama Canal. Returning she briefly visited Puerto Rico, where the President studied the administration structure of the newly installed American colonial government there, before debarking him at Piney Point on 26 November. As a parasite The chytrid ''Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis'' (itself commonly known as "Chytrid" http: reporting.journalism.ku.edu fall06 fred-musser 2006 12 pandemic_fungus_killing_frogs.html ) is responsible for a recently discovered disease of amphibians, chytridiomycosis. Discovered in 1998 in Australia and Panama this disease is known to kill amphibians in large numbers, and has been suggested as a principal cause for the worldwide amphibian decline (Decline in frog populations). In one example an outbreak of the fungus was found responsible for killing much of the Kihansi Spray Toad population in its native habitat of Tanzania. Saving Tiny Toads Without a Home, by Cornelia Dean. The New York Times. February 1, 2010. The actual process leading to mortality is, however, unknown. A popular theory is the fungus hardens the skin of amphibians which hinders respiration. Inter-war period ''Kentucky'' entered Boston Navy Yard on 20 December for overhaul. She sailed on 18 March 1919 for refresher training out of Guantanamo Bay and then participated in fleet maneuvers and exercises ranging north from Norfolk to the New England coast. She arrived at Annapolis, Maryland on 29 May to embark midshipmen and got underway on 9 June for a summer practice cruise that took her to Cuba, the Virgin Islands, Panama, New York, Boston, and Provincetown. She returned to Annapolis on 27 August to debark her midshipmen and entered Philadelphia Navy Yard on 30 August. She remained there until decommissioning on 29 May 1920. ''Kentucky'' was sold for scrap to Dravo Construction Company of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on 23 January 1924 in compliance with US commitments under the Washington Naval Treaty. In addition to Mexico, ''Memín'' remains a popular magazine in the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Panama, Colombia, and other countries. At its peak, it had a weekly circulation of one and a half million issues in Mexico; as of mid-2005 it sells over 100,000 issues a week.
'''Panama''' ( ), is the southernmost country of Central America and the whole of North America.
Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metro area is home to nearly half of the country's 3.6 million people.
Panama was inhabited by several indigenous tribes prior to settlement by the Spanish in the 16th century. It broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada (Viceroyalty of New Granada), Ecuador, and Venezuela named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the Panama Canal to be built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement (Torrijos–Carter Treaties) was signed for the total transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama by the end of the 20th century, which culminated on 31 December 1999.
Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce, banking, and tourism are major and growing sectors. Panama has the second largest economy in Central America (List of countries by GDP (PPP))