was serving as Director of Nuclear Power and Reactors Division, IAEA. He was credited to be the "''technical father''" of Pakistan's atom project by a recent International Institute of Strategic Studies, London, (IISS) Dossier on history of the Pakistan's nuclear development, with Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as the father of Pakistan's nuclear developmental programme.
of senior scientists and engineers. Earlier, Munir Ahmad Khan was serving as Director of Nuclear Power and Reactors Division, IAEA. He was credited to be the "''technical father''" of Pakistan's atom project by a recent International Institute of Strategic Studies, London, (IISS) Dossier on history of the Pakistan's nuclear development, with Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as the father of Pakistan's nuclear developmental programme.<
of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission)) on January 20, 1972 at the Multan Conference of senior scientists and engineers. Earlier, Munir Ahmad Khan was serving as Director of Nuclear Power and Reactors Division, IAEA. He was credited to be the "''technical father''" of Pakistan's atom project by a recent International Institute of Strategic Studies, London, (IISS) Dossier on history
PAEC and the KRL. Following India's surprise nuclear test in 1971 by India — codename ''Smiling Buddha'' (Pokhran-I), the PAEC launched a secret uranium enrichment project, with Sultan Mahmood (Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood) as its project-director
program, at an early stage, was headed by world renowned scientist and Nobel Laureate in Physics (List of Nobel laureates in Physics) Dr. Abdus Salam, as he was the head of Theoretical Physics Group and Mathematical Physics Group at PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission). Dr. Abdus Salam, who as Science adviser (Ministry of Science and Technology (Pakistan)#Science Advisors) to the Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, led
then confronted her and were then able to turn her into a double agent spying on the Indian Embassy in Islamabad. According to the scientific data received and published by PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission), the Corps of Engineers (Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers), and Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL), in May 1998, Pakistan
This was known as the ''Multan meeting'' where senior scientists and engineers had attended. Formal research was launched under the administrative control of Bhutto, and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (or PAEC) under its chairman, Munir Ahmad Khan, was exploring the Plutonium route, at first, to developing an atomic device. Abdul Qadeer Khan did not join the atomic bomb project whereas had no knowledge or information of this integrated atomic project until May 1974, the controversy that doubts Abdul Qadeer Khan's "father-like" claim. On May 18, 1974, India conducted a surprise nuclear test, codenamed ''Smiling Buddha'', near Pakistan's eastern border (Pokaran) when Indian Premier (Prime minister of India) Indira Gandhi gave verbal authorization to the scientists at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) to conduct a test of a device that they had built, the preparation was completed under extreme secrecy. The test was conducted at the long-constructed Indian Army base, known as Pokhran Test Range (Pokhran#Pokhran Test Range) (PTR). It was only three years since Pakistan's humiliating defeat in the 1971 Indo-Pak ''Winter war'' (Indo-Pakistani War of 1971) and the Winter war had put Pakistan's mortal existence in great danger. This nuclear test, '' Smiling Buddha'', greatly alarmed the Government of Pakistan. In Pakistan, this test was greatly sensed and saw as last anticipation of Pakistan's death. Prime minister (Prime minister of Pakistan) Zulfikar Ali Bhutto quickly scrambled to establish a sustainable nuclear weapons capability in the shortest time possible. Sensing the importance of this test, Munir Ahmad Khan secretly launched the ''Project-706'', a secret uranium enrichment programme, under its first technical director nuclear engineer Sültan Bashiruddin Mahmood (Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood). Criticism Despite his extreme popularity, Khan is roundly criticized for being an opportunist and, also criticized for taking the credits of other scientists. Due to common public misconception and his extreme public popularity, Western (List of newspapers in Europe), American (Newspapers in the United States), and Pakistan's Media (Media of Pakistan) have always portraited Abdul Qadeer Khan as "Father of atomic bomb project (Pakistan and its Nuclear Detterent Program)". In fact, Abdul Qadeer Khan was the technical director of only one HEU based Gas-centrifuge (Zippe-type centrifuge) project, which was one part of Pakistan's uranium enrichment programme. Throughout his active role, Abdul Qadeer Khan's popularity overshadowed Zulifikar Ali Bhutto who gave birth to this programme, and Munir Ahmad Khan who was the driving force of leading the projects in the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear deterrence program. From the start of Pakistan's nuclear weapons program, nuclear development was under the supervision of its designated technical director and Pakistan
giant and ambitious programme. Since 1965, Khan had developed extremely close and trusted relationship with Bhutto, and even after his death, Benazir and Murtaza Bhutto were instructed by their father to keep in touch with Munir Ahmed Khan. In spring of 1976, Kahuta Research Facility (Kahuta Research Laboratories), then known as Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL), as part of codename ''Project-706'', was also established by Bhutto, and brought under nuclear scientist dr. Abdul
Commission PAEC ) as Bhutto realized that he would wanted an administrator who understood the scientific and economical needs of this such technologically giant and ambitious programme. Since 1965, Khan had developed extremely close and trusted relationship with Bhutto, and even after his death, Benazir and Murtaza Bhutto were instructed by their father to keep in touch with Munir Ahmed Khan. In spring of 1976, Kahuta Research Facility (Kahuta Research Laboratories), then known
working for the Indian embassy raised suspicions on an Indian woman who worked as a school teacher in an Indian School in Islamabad. Her enthusiastic and too friendly attitude gave her up. She was in reality an agent working for the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW). ISI monitored her movements to a hotel in Islamabad where she rendezvoused with a local Pakistani (Pakistani people) man who worked as an nuclear engineer for Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. ISI
PAEC Chairs Chairmen of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) class "wikitable sortable" - ! Order !! Individual authority!! Term start !! Termination !! Alma mater - 1 Nazir Ahmed (Nazir Ahmed (physicist)) 11 March 1956 21 May 1960 University of Manchester Aligarh Muslim University - 2 Ishrat Hussain Usmani 15 July 1960 10 January 1972 Imperial College London Aligarh Muslim University - 3 Munir Ahmad Khan 20 January 1972 19 March 1991 North Carolina State University Punjab University (University of the Punjab) - 4 Ishfaq Ahmad 7 April 1991 6 April 2001 Université de Montréal Punjab University (University of the Punjab) - 5 Parvez Butt 29 December 2001 5 April 2006 University of Toronto University of Engineering and Technology (University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore) - 6 Anwar Ali (Anwar Ali (scientist)) 1 May 2006 31 March 2009 University of Manchester Government College University (Government College University, Lahore) - 7 Ansar Pervaiz 7 April 2009 ''Present'' Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Quaid-i-Azam University Corporate management The PAEC is chaired by the appointed chairperson by the Government of Pakistan Government
chief2_position agency_type parent_agency child1_agency child2_agency keydocument1 website www.paec.gov.pk footnotes Note: PAEC is an autonomous agency that is free from jurisdiction of any ministry of Pakistan. It directly reported to Pakistan's Prime Minister Secretariat (Prime minister of Pakistan). map map_width map_caption The '''Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission''', (Urdu:
; popularize as '''PAEC'''), is an independent (:Category:Pakistan federal departments and agencies) governmental authority (Government of Pakistan) and a scientific (Science and technology in Pakistan) research institution, concerned with research and development of nuclear power, promotion of nuclear science (Atomic physics), energy conservation and the peaceful usage of nuclear technology.
of Nuclear Industry in Pakistan work Professor Aqeel Khan, professor of Political Science at the Ryerson University publisher Dr. Aqeel Khan of the Ryerson University and the Ryerson University Press date 7 June 2001 url http: www.scribd.com doc 9124256 A-short-research-paper-on-the-development-of-Pakistans-nuclear-program accessdate 15 August 2011 As the Energy Council Act went into full effect, Prime minister Huseyn Suhrawardy (Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy) established the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) in March 1956. Its first chair was the experimental physicist Nazir Ahmad (Dr. Nazir Ahmed). Other members of the PAEC included Technical member Dr. Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, an organic chemist at the University of Karachi, and Dr. Raziuddin Siddiqui, a mathematical physicist at the same univerwith. Together, they both took charge of the research and development directorates of the commission. In 1958, Dr. Abdus Salam of the University of the Punjab also joined the commission, along with Munir Ahmad Khan who initially lobbied for acquiring a pool-type reactor from the United States. In 1958, PAEC Chairman Nazir Ahmad proposed to the Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation to build a heavy water production facility with production capacity of 50 kg of heavy water (Deuterium) per day at Multan, but this proposal was not acted on. In 1960, Dr. I.H. Usmani (Ishrat Hussain Usmani) was elevated as PAEC's second chair with the transfer of Nazir Ahmad (Dr. Nazir Ahmed) at the Federal Bureau of Statistics. The reactor (Multan Heavy Water Production Facility) was built in 1962, financed by local fertilizer companies. In 2003, a team of Pakistani statisticians and mathematicians met the officials of Government of Pakistan where they had urged the government to established the Separate Division to mathematically modeled (Mathematical economics) the country (Pakistan)'s economy (Economy of Pakistan). The following years, the Statistics Division (Statistics Division of the Government of Pakistan) was established under the technical direction of Scientist Emeritus (Scientist) of PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission), dr. Asghar Qadir. As of today, Asif Bajwa is the current secretary-general of the Statistics Division. And, Minister responsible for the Division is Dr. Abdul Hafeez Shaikh, Finance Minister of Pakistan.
) and the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) had ingeniously built the extensive research infrastructure initiated by Bhutto. General Akbar's office was soon shifted at the Army Combatant Generals Headquarter (GHQ) and guided General Zia on key matters of nuclear science and the atomic bomb production, and was the first engineering officer to have acknowledge General Zia about the success of this energy project into the fully matured programme. On the recommendation of Akbar, Zia approved the appointment of Munir Ahmad Khan as the scientific director of the atomic bomb project, as Zia was convinced by Akbar that civilian scientists under Munir Khan's directorship were at their best to counter the international pressure. fields Theoretical physics workplaces Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) Punjab University (University of the Punjab) Imperial College, London Government College University University of Cambridge International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Comsats Institute of Technology (COMSATS) Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) Edward Bouchet Abdus Salam Institute alma_mater University of the Punjab Government College University St John's College, Cambridge Salam was a science advisor to the Government of Pakistan from 1960 till 1974, a position from which he played a major and influential role in Pakistan's science infrastructure. Salam was responsible for not only major development and contribution in theoretical and particle physics, but as well as promoting scientific research at maximum level in his country. Salam was the founding director of Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), and responsible for the establishment of the Theoretical Physics Group (Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology#Research Divisions) (TPG) in Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). In 2003, a team of Pakistani statisticians and mathematicians met the officials of Government of Pakistan where they had urged the government to established the Separate Division to mathematically modeled (Mathematical economics) the country (Pakistan)'s economy (Economy of Pakistan). The following years, the Statistics Division (Statistics Division of the Government of Pakistan) was established under the technical direction of Scientist Emeritus (Scientist) of PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission), dr. Asghar Qadir. As of today, Asif Bajwa is the current secretary-general of the Statistics Division. And, Minister responsible for the Division is Dr. Abdul Hafeez Shaikh, Finance Minister of Pakistan.
The '''Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission''', (Urdu:
Since its establishment in 1956, the PAEC has overseen the extensive development of nuclear infrastructure to support the economical uplift of Pakistan by founding institutions that focus on development on food irradiation and on nuclear medicine (Nuclear medicine in Pakistan) radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The PAEC organizes conferences and directs research at the country's leading universities (Higher education in Pakistan). title PAEC and Summer College on Physics work International Nathiagali Summer College publisher Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission url http: www.paec.gov.pk INSC Since 1960s, the PAEC is also a scientific research partner and sponsor of CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), where Pakistani scientists have contributed to developing particle accelerators and research on high-energy physics.
In 2001, the PAEC was integrated with the National Command Authority (Pakistan National Command Authority) which is now under Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Pakistan) Nawaz Sharif.