Indian government was that of maintaining cordial relations with China, reviving its ancient friendly ties. India was among the first nations to grant diplomatic recognition to the newly-created PRC. The unpreparedness of the army was blamed on Defence Minister (Minister of Defence (India)) Menon (V. K. Krishna Menon), who resigned his government post to allow for someone who might modernise India's military further. India's policy of weaponisation via indigenous sources and self-sufficiency was thus cemented. Sensing a weakened army, Pakistan, a close ally of China, began a policy of provocation against India by infiltrating (Operation Gibraltar) Jammu and Kashmir and ultimately triggering the Second Kashmir War with India in 1965 and Indo-Pakistani war of 1971. Attack of 1965 was successfully stopped and ceasefire was negotiated under international pressure. Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 In Indo-Pakistani war of 1971 India won a clear victory, resulting in liberation of Bangladesh (formerly East-Pakistan). http: www.subcontinent.com 1971war surrender.html http: www.sify.com news 1971-war-i-will-give-you-30-minutes-news-columns-jmqlV0fcjja.html left thumb 150px Sapphire from Madagascar (File:1szafir Madagaskar.jpg) Sapphires are mined from alluvial (alluvium) deposits or from primary underground workings. The mining locations include Burma, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Australia, Thailand, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tanzania, Kenya, and China. The Logan sapphire, the Star of India (Star of India (gem)), and the Star of Bombay originate from Sri Lankan mines. Madagascar is the world leader in sapphire production (as of 2007) specifically its deposits in and around the town of Ilakaka. lakaka gem deposit, Ilakaka Commune, Ranohira District, Horombe Region, Fianarantsoa Province, Madagascar Prior to the opening of the Ilakaka mines, Australia was the largest producer of sapphires (such as in 1987). Commons:Category:Pakistan WikiPedia:Pakistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan
recruited some of Ceylon's best talents - they were trained by Dodd and Wijemanne and were Ceylon's pioneering professional broadcasters. Millions of listeners tuned into Radio Ceylon. The station was the most popular radio station in South Asia in the 1950s and 1960s. Radio Ceylon ruled the airwaves in South Asia, the station was by far the most popular brand name in the Asian region and people listened to Radio Ceylon from Pakistan to Burma - sometimes the station was picked up
proceeded with its own test. According to practice also observed by North Korea, Iranian authorities announced to their Chinese allies on August 16, 2008 the imminent launch of a satellite. On August 17, 2008 on the occasion of the birthday anniversary of Shiites' 12th Imam Hazrat Mahdi (Muhammad al-Mahdi), Iran
Election Commission . After the assassination (assassination of Benazir Bhutto) of Benazir Bhutto in 2007, the PPP (Pakistan Peoples Party) secured Majority
, there were 241,326 housing units of one or two very small rooms. The degree of crowding was six persons per housing unit and three persons per room. For most of the housing units (approximately 76 per cent), the main construction material of outer walls is unbaked bricks whereas wood is used in 10 per cent and baked bricks or stones with mud bonding in 8 per cent housing units. A large number of families still live in jhugis or huts which are housing units formed with straws and thin wood-sticks. The wind storm proves these jhugis unsustainable all the times. But the poverty leaves no other option to these jhugiwalas (people living in jhugis). thumb left Topaz Mountain, Utah (File:TopazMountainByPhilKonstantin.jpg) Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural (Ural mountains) and Ilmen mountains of Russia, in Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Czech Republic, Germany, Norway, Pakistan, Italy, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, Flinders Island, Australia, Nigeria and the United States. thumb left Talc output in 2005 (File:2005talc.png) Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks, such as soapstone (a high-talc rock), and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States, the western European Alps especially in Italy, certain areas of the Musgrave Block, and some collisional orogens (Orogeny) such as the Himalayas which stretches along Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan. Although spoken Tibetan varies according to the region, the written language, based on Classical Tibetan, is consistent throughout. This is probably due to the long-standing influence of the Tibetan empire, whose rule embraced (and extended at times far beyond) the present Tibetan linguistic area, which runs from northern Pakistan in the west to Yunnan and Sichuan in the east, and from north of Qinghai Lake south as far as Bhutan. The Tibetan language has its own script (Tibetan script) which it shares with Ladakhi (Ladakhi language) and Dzongkha (Dzongkha language), and which is derived from the ancient Indian Brāhmī (Brāhmī script) script. Kapstein 2006, pg. 22 The Labour government (Labour Government 1945–1951) in the immediate post-war years initiated a radical programme of changes, with a significant impact on British society in the following decades. Commons:Category:Pakistan WikiPedia:Pakistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan
;), and Arab countries (Arab World) ("Halwa") is sometimes made with semolina scorched with sugar, butter, milk, and pine nuts. ''Basbousa'' (North African (North African Arabic) and Alexandrine (Alexandria) ''harisa'') is made chiefly of semolina. (Palestine)Semolina (Arabic:smeed)is the main ingredient in Nabulsi Kanafa. In some cultures, it is served at funerals, during special celebrations, or as a religious offering. In much of North Africa, durum semolina
. source Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan The day after the storm struck the coast, three Pakistani gunboats and a hospital ship carrying medical personnel and supplies left Chittagong for the islands of Hatia, Sandwip and Kutubdia. Teams from the Pakistani army reached many of the stricken areas in the two days following the landfall of the cyclone. Commons:Category:Pakistan WikiPedia:Pakistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan
troop carrier operations, tactical exercises, and humanitarian missions. The wing trained at McChord Air Force Base, Washington until late 1951 when it moved to Larson Air Force Base. From Larson the 62nd routinely performed troop carrier, air transport, and humanitarian missions on a global scale: fling mail to Japan for U.S. troops in Korea in 1952; bringing medical supplies to the flooded areas of Pakistan in 1954; and transporting French troops and equipment from France to Indochina as part of Operation Bali-Hai from April-May 1954. The wing airlifted radar equipment and supplies for the construction of the Distant Early Warning (Distant Early Warning Line) (DEW) Line in northern Alaska and Canada from, 1955–1956, and thereafter periodically resupplied DEW stations. During the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958, and subsequently through 1962 the wing supported scientific stations in the Arctic Ocean by airlanding and airdropping supplies on the drifting ice. It helped transport United Nations troops and supplies to the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo) in 1960. In 1963 the wing assumed responsibility for worldwide airlift of nuclear weapons and associated equipment, continuing this mission through early 1971. It also assumed airlift of Minuteman (Minuteman (missile)) missiles from depots to operating sites in April 1971. In 1972 it supported Presidential (President of the United States) trips to China and the Soviet Union. From 12 February to 1 April 1973 the wing transported former prisoners of war from North Vietnam to the Philippines and the United States. That same year it transported United Nations troops from Indonesia to Israel and Egypt as part of a peacekeeping effort. In the summer of 1975, the wing assumed control of the 36th Tactical Airlift Squadron (36th Airlift Squadron) (36 TAS) and their C-130E aircraft, which transferred from Langley AFB, Virginia following the transfer of all C-130 aircraft from Tactical Air Command (TAC) to Military Airlift Command (MAC), and the disestablishment of the 316th Tactical Airlift Wing (316th Wing) at Langley to make way for the arrival of the 1st Tactical Fighter Wing (1st Fighter Wing) (1 TFW) and their F-15A and F-15B aircraft. From October 1975 to October 1977, the 62 AW maintained a detachment of C-130Es in the Panama Canal Zone to support USAF needs in Central (Central America) and South America. The 62nd airlifted troops and supplies during invasion of Grenada and airlifted university students to safety from, October-November 1983. During 1988 62 AW aircraft were used to transport inspectors to the Soviet Union under terms of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. 62 AW aircraft were also used that year to transport firefighters and supplies to Wyoming to fight major forest fires in Yellowstone National Park. It participated in the airdrop of heavy equipment and personnel during military action in Panama, 20 December 1989. During Operation Desert Shield the 62nd airlifted personnel and equipment to Southwest Asia and operated airlift control elements at Zaragoza, Spain, to direct cargo and personnel destined for Southwest Asia from, August 1990-March 1991. Additionally, during 1991, 62 AW personnel and aircraft facilitated the evacuation of Clark Air Base and Subic Bay Naval Station following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines. '''Operation Red Wings''' (often incorrectly referred to as '''Operation Redwing''' and or '''Operation Red Wing''' Commons:Category:Pakistan WikiPedia:Pakistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan
of the National Assembly of Pakistan. Islamic States Today Islamic republic is the official name given to several Islamic modeled contemporary states Elliesie, Hatem. ''Rule of Law in Islamic Modeled States''. In: Matthias Koetter Gunnar Folke Schuppert (Eds.), Understanding of the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World: Working Paper Series Nr. 13 of SFB 700
: Governance in Limited Areas of Statehood, Berlin 2010. in the Muslim world, including the Islamic Republics of Pakistan, Iran Moschtaghi, Ramin. ''Rule of Law in Iran''. In: Matthias Koetter Gunnar Folke Schuppert (Eds.), Understanding of the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World: Working Paper Series Nr. 11 of SFB 700: Governance
in Limited Areas of Statehood, Berlin 2010. and Afghanistan. Elliesie, Hatem. ''Rule of Law in Afghanistan''. In: Matthias Koetter Gunnar Folke Schuppert (Eds.), Understanding of the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World: Working Paper Series Nr. 4 of SFB 700: Governance in Limited Areas of Statehood, Berlin 2010. Pakistan adopted the title under the constitution
PK.jpg right thumb Specimen Pakistan ID card In Pakistan, all adult citizens must register for the Computerized National Identity Card (CNIC), with a unique number, at age 18. CNIC serves as an identification document to authenticate an individual's identity as the citizen of Pakistan. Vision of future films In the same interview with ''New York'' magazine, when asked what he foresaw as the next wave of filmmaking, he responded, "Well, we were shooting out in Astoria
'''Pakistan''' ( coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest and China in the far northeast. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, and also shares a marine border with Oman.
The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was previously home to several ancient cultures (History of Pakistan#Prehistory), including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks (Indo-Greek Kingdom), Muslims (Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent), Turco-Mongols (Timurid dynasty), Afghan (Afghan (ethnonym))s and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander of Macedonia (Alexander the Great), the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and the British Empire (British Raj). As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the subcontinent (Indian Subcontinent)'s struggle for independence, Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent nation for Muslims from the regions in the east and west of Subcontinent where there was a Muslim majority. Initially a dominion (Dominion of Pakistan), Pakistan adopted a new constitution (Constitution of Pakistan) in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. A civil war (Bangladesh Liberation War) in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.
Pakistan is a federal (Federation) parliamentary republic consisting of four provinces and four federal territories (Administrative units of Pakistan). It is an ethnically (Ethnic groups in Pakistan) and linguistically (Languages of Pakistan) diverse country, with a similar variation in its geography (Geography of Pakistan) and wildlife (Fauna of Pakistan). A regional (Regional power) and middle power, Pakistan has the seventh largest standing armed forces (List of countries by number of troops) in the world and is also a nuclear power (Nuclear power in Pakistan) as well as a declared nuclear-weapons (List of states with nuclear weapons) state, being the only nation in the Muslim world, and the second in South Asia, to have that status. It has a semi-industrialised economy (Economy of Pakistan) with a well-integrated agriculture sector (Agriculture in Pakistan), its economy is the 26th largest (List of countries by GDP (PPP)) in the world in terms of purchasing power and 45th largest (List of countries by GDP (nominal)) in terms of nominal GDP and is also characterized among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world.
The post-independence history of Pakistan has been characterised by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with neighbouring India (Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts). The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation (Human overpopulation), terrorism (Terrorism in Pakistan), poverty (Poverty in Pakistan), illiteracy (Education in Pakistan#Literacy rate), and corruption (Corruption in Pakistan). It ranked 16th on the 2012 Happy Planet Index. Pakistan among top 20 happiest countries, beating India, US: Report It is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Next Eleven Economies (Next Eleven), ECO (Economic Cooperation Organisation), UfC (Uniting for Consensus), D8 (Developing Eight), Cairns Group, Kyoto Protocol, ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), RCD (Regional Cooperation for Development), UNCHR, Group of Eleven, CPFTA (China–Pakistan Free Trade Agreement), Group of 24, the G20 developing nations, ECOSOC, founding member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) and CERN. Thumbs up: Pakistan meets criteria for CERN