to establish a private German University of Technology (German University of Technology in Oman) in Muscat (Muscat, Oman). Professors from Aachen aided at developing the curricula for the currently five study programs and scientific staff took over some of the first courses. Annual report 2007 2008 of the Chair of Computer Science 5 (Information Systems) ''(retrieved 2009-04-11) ref
Varzari, "Population History of the Dniester-Carpathians: Evidence from Alu Insertion and Y-Chromosome Polymorphisms" (2006) - 1. 14 November 2009 Muscat (Muscat, Oman), Oman '''1'''–1 2–1 2011 AFC Asian Cup qualification - thumb Gecko being handled by a human (File:Hemidactylus turcicus.jpg) The "med gecko" is one of the most successful
species of geckos in the world. Native to southern Europe, it has spread over much of the world and established stable populations far from its origins. Due to this it holds no threatened or endangered status. It can be found in Portugal, Spain, France, Italy (including Lampedusa island, Elba), Albania, Greece, (incl. Kalymnos, Paros, Antiparos, Despotiko, Lesbos, Chios, Limnos, Samos (Samos Island), Samothraki, Milos, Tinos
Aḥmad founded the Būyid confederation (Buyid dynasty). Originally a soldier in the service of the Ziyārīds (Ziyarids) of Ṭabaristān (Tabaristan), ‘Alī was able to recruit an army to defeat a Turkish general from Baghdad named Yāqūt (Yaqut) in 934. Over the next nine years the three brothers gained control of the remainder of the caliphate, while accepting the titular authority of the caliph in Baghdad. The Būyids made large territorial gains. Fars (Fars Province) and Jibal were
: ريال, international currency code '''OMR'''). One rial is made up of one thousand ''baisa'' (also written ''baiza'', Arabic: بيسة). The Omani rial is officially tied to the US dollar at OMR1 USD2.6008 making it one of the largest units of currency in the whole world; exchange rates on the streets are a percentage point or two lower. Banknotes that currently circulate are in OMR0.100 (physically a rather small, green banknote and not to be confused with the OMR20 note), OMR0.500, 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 rial denominations. There are ATMs at the airport and plenty of them in Muscat and every main town, although not all of them take foreign cards. You can change foreign currency at the counters inside the airport and at money exchanges throughout Oman. Shopping The Omani national symbol is the silver-sheathed dagger known as the ''khanjar''. These vary widely in quality and cost, but almost every shop will stock several different models. Most of the modern ones are made by Indian or Pakistani craftsmen under Omani direction, while many are actually made in India or Pakistan. There is a large variety in quality, from the handles to the sheath. The best handles are made of silver-adorned sandalwood, while the lesser quality handles are made of resin. Look carefully at the sheath to determine the quality of the sliver work. A good quality ''khanjar'' can cost upwards of OMR700. Typically, those will come in a presentation box, and include a belt. Another reminder of the country's tribal past is the walking stick known as ''arsaa''. This is a cane with a concealed sword in it, which can prove quite a talking point at home. Unfortunately, in many countries, it will prove a talking point with customs officials rather than friends and family. In Musandam, the khanjar is frequently replaced by the Jerz as formal wear, a walking stick with a small axe head as the handle. Omani silver is also a popular souvenir, often made into rosewater shakers and small "Nizwa boxes" (named for the town from which they first came). Silver "message holders" (known as hurz, or herz), often referred to in souks as "old time fax machines" are often for sale as well. Many silver products will be stamped with "Oman" on them, which is a guarantee of authenticity. Only new silver items may be so stamped. There is a large quantity of 'old' silver available which will not be stamped. Although it may be authentic, stamping it would destroy its antique value. Caveat Emptor are the watch words. Stick to reputable shops if you are contemplating buying antique Omani silver of any sort. There is a wonderful selection of Omani silver available as jewellery as well. Items for sale in the Muttrah souk may not be genuine Omani items. Instead visit Shatti Al Qurm just outside of Muscat or the Nizwa Fort. The distinctive hats worn by Omani men, called "kuma", are also commonly sold, particularly in the Muttrah Souk in Muscat. Genuine kumas cost from OMR80. Frankincense is a popular purchase in the Dhofar region as the region has historically been a centre for production of this item. Myrrh can also be purchased quite cheaply in Oman. As one might expect, Oman also sells many perfumes made from a great number of traditional ingredients. Indeed, the most expensive perfume in the world (Amouage) is made in Oman from frankincense and other ingredients, and costs around OMR50. You can also find sandalwood myrrh and jasmine perfumes. Opening hours during the holy month of Ramadan are very restricted. Supermarkets are less strict, but don't rely on being able to buy anything after iftar. At noon, most shops are closed anyway but this is not specific to Ramadan. Using credit cards in shops is hit or miss. It is better to get cash at an ATM. Small denomination notes are hard to come by but necessary for bargaining. Unless you are in a supermarket, restaurant or mall bargaining is recommended, and this should be conducted politely. thumb right 300px Wahiba Sands (Image:Wahiba Sands2.jpg) Eat The food is mainly Arabic, Lebanese, Turkish, and Indian. Many Omanis make a distinction between "Arabic" food and "Omani" food, with the former being the description of the standard dishes found throughout the Arabian Peninsula. Omani food tends to be less spicy and served in quite large portions - whole fish are not uncommon at lunch in some local restaurants (sticking to local food, it is quite easy to eat a substantial meal for less than OR2). As benefits of a country with a long coastline, seafood is quite a common dish, particularly shark, which is surprisingly tasty. True traditional Omani food is hard to find in restaurants. Omani sweets are well-known throughout the region, with the most popular being "halwa". This is a hot, semi-solid substance which behaves a little like honey and is eaten with a spoon. The taste is similar to Turkish Delight. Omani dates are among the best in the world and can be found at every social place and at offices. American fast food chains, especially KFC, McDonalds, and Burger King, are not hard to find in the bigger cities, especially Muscat and Salalah. In Khaboora you can get Pakistani Porotta. They are double the size of Indian Porottas and look like pappadams. But they taste like porottas and are much thinner and delicious. Three porottas are available for the equivalent of Rs11. Traditional Omani Khubz (bread) is hard to find outside of an Omani home, but for an experience one should try hard not to miss. This traditional bread is made of flour, salt and water cooked over a fire (or gas stove) on a large metal plate. The bread is paper-thin and crispy. It is eaten with almost any Omani food, including hot milk or chai (tea) for breakfast-- "Omani cornflakes". In Sohar you may get an excellent lunch with Ayla curry, Ayla fry and Payarupperi. Expect to pay only OMR0.4 (Rs 44) which is considered very low lunch price here. Drink Bottled drinking (mineral) water is easily available at most stores. Tap water is generally safe; however, most Omanis drink bottled water and to be safe, you should too. Alcohol is available only in select restaurants and large hotels and is usually very expensive (ranging from OMR1.5 for a 500 mL Carlsberg to OMR4). Drinking alcohol in public is prohibited, but you can get your own drinks and enjoy at public areas but in privacy such as camping by beaches, sands, mountains, or actually in any remote areas. Only foreign residents can buy alcohol from alcohol shops and with certain limits. But an alcohol black market is widely spread around the cities and alcohol can be found easily. Foreigner travellers are allowed 2 litres of spirits as duty free baggage allowance. Travellers can pick up spirits at the duty free shop in the arrival lounge. During Ramadan, drinking anything in public is prohibited, even for foreigners. Take care to drink in the privacy of your room. Sleep Oman has the full spectrum of accommodation - from ultra-luxurious hotels to extremely rustic huts in the desert constructed from date palm leaves. In recent years, Oman has been attempting to turn itself into something of a five-star destination for well-heeled travellers. This does not pose a problem to the budget-minded in Muscat, and even outside of the capital there is still a range of budget options. In some parts of the country, however, accommodation may be limited to higher-end hotels and resorts. Work Working in Oman requires that you hold a residence permit. In common with other Gulf countries, you must be sponsored by an employer to obtain a residence permit. It's not uncommon for people to enter on a tourist visa then look for a job - this is fine. Penalties for the employer are substantial if they are caught employing illegals, although this naturally varies depending on how good their connections are. The majority of positions are filled by expats from the sub-continent. Positions for Europeans tend to be restricted to upper management levels or specialised occupations, so don't expect to pick up a position as you pass through unless you are prepared to work for very little! Cope Visitors may be interested in the monthly English language lifestyle magazine, Oman Today, which is widely available in Oman. Stay safe Homosexuality is a crime in Oman. LGBT tourists should be self-aware. Driving in Muscat can sometimes be a problem, although this is due more to congestion than bad driving on the part of the locals. Outside of the major cities, a common driving risk is falling asleep at the wheel due to the long stretches of featureless desert. Driving in Oman calls for attention to the unexpected. It has the second highest death rate from traffic accidents in the world (surpassed only by Saudi, followed closely by the UAE). Omani drivers outside of the cities tend to drive very fast and pass with impunity. Driving at night is especially hazardous as many drivers fail to turn their headlights on. Camels will walk into the road even if they see cars approaching, and collisions are often fatal for both camel and driver. Female travellers should be careful to dress modestly, as not to offend local customs. Visiting gambling and adult sites is also a crime in Oman. Internet censorship in Oman is very serious. So you need to be careful to stay safe on-line. Stay healthy Oman is warm year-round and summers can be extremely hot. Always carry drinking water with you and be wary of de-hydration in high temperatures. If you're not used to the heat it can sneak up on you and cause serious health problems. Several people have tried to cross stretches of the Omani desert on their own in a rented 4WD. Some of these people have died or got rescued just in time. Travelling through a desert requires proper preparation. It looks easy from a modern air-conditioned 4WD, but if that fails you are suddenly back to basics. Never go off-road alone. A minimum of two to three cars (of the same make) is the rule. Leave your itinerary with a friend with clear instructions if you do not return in time. Take at least: - recovery tools: spades, rope (and attachments), sand mats or ladders - two spare tires and all required equipment - a good air pump (high capacity) - sufficient water (at least 25 litres more than you think you will need for drinking) - sufficient petrol: there are no petrol stations in the middle of nowhere. If you have – or can get – a satellite phone, take it. (Mobiles work only in limited areas.) Check your car before embarking on such a trip. Respect As he has done more to develop the nation than any Arab leader, or most world leaders for that matter, in recent history, Sultan Qaboos is a figure who is held in the highest regard – even revered – by the vast majority of Omanis and foreigners. Visitors should refrain from making any comments or statements that could be construed as disrespectful. The Omanis are generally very humble and down-to-earth people. The usual rules of respect when travelling in a Muslim country should be followed in Oman, even when locals appear to be a little less "uptight" than their neighbours. Homosexuality is officially illegal due to Islamic law but is practised with discretion; however as elsewhere in the Gulf it is taboo to discuss such topics. While Omanis may not say anything to foreigners who dress in tight or revealing clothing, it is considered to be very disrespectful. Yes, some visitors push the goodwill of the Omanis in choosing their attire, but a little sensitivity goes a long way. A general rule of thumb is that women should always keep shoulders, knees, and midriff covered, and avoid tight or revealing clothing. For men, shorts should be worn only for outdoor activities; longer shorts (i.e. at or below the knee) are fine in the city. Staring is quite common in Oman; children, men and women are likely to stare at you simply for being a foreigner, especially if you travel off-season and in out-of-the-way places. This is not meant as an insult, it rather shows an interest, and a friendly smile will leave the kids giggling and showing off, and the adults happily trying out their few English phrases. Depending on which area of Oman you are in, smiling, though, may not be a good idea. In larger areas in which the locals have had excessive amounts of one on one experience with foreigners, smile-away. Outside of Muscat and Salalah, it's not advised to smile at anyone of the opposite sex regardless of how friendly they are (save for tour guides) due to the fact that nearly any interaction with the opposite gender (even holding doors open, picking up something that has fallen and handing it to the owner, eye contact, etc.) is viewed as flirtatious. It is especially important for Western women to take into account that an innocent smile saying, "I see you seeing me, do you need something" means "I'm interested, come closer" to most Omani men. They live in a heavily gender segregated society and so any chance they have to speak to the opposite gender is usually viewed as having at least semi-sexual overtones. Under Omani law, an Omani can be taken to court for insulting another person, whether it is calling them an insulting name (one of the more common Arabic insults of "donkey," "dog," "pig," "sheep," etc.) or worse. Omanis, although "humble" are extremely sensitive to anything they perceive as criticism whether personal, national, or anything they perceive as being directed at the Gulf. Although Saudi Arabia is usually a fair target for jokes in the Arab world (especially in the Levant), Omanis don't take well to it. What Westerners would usually consider hypersensitive is fairly normal in Oman and due largely to the fact that Omanis have grown up in an environment in which criticism and name-calling is more or less outlawed. This is especially important to know for those who come here to teach Omanis - unlike those from the Levant and parts of north Africa where teasing and intellectual "jousting" can be used as a form of building relationships or a sign of friendship, it doesn't work here and Omanis do not interpret it positively, save for those who have lived in the West or have worked with Westerners for extended periods of time. It might be said that teasing in general here, whether about accents, dress, food or anything else is just a bad idea. Connect The country code for Oman is '''968'''. Dialling out from Oman you will need to dial 00 + International Code + Number Dialling into Oman callers use +968 followed by an 8 digit number... These 8-digit numbers generally start with a ''9'' if it is mobile number, and with ''2'' for land lines, though other numbers will eventually start to get used. WikiPedia:Oman Dmoz:Regional Middle East Oman Commons:Category:Oman
Despite these similarities, important factors make Oman unique in the Middle East. These result as much from geography and history as from culture and economics. WikiPedia:Oman Dmoz:Regional Middle East Oman Commons:Category:Oman
in Oman remain unknown, but many locals believe it was brought to Oman by the Moors of Spanish origin. Yet others say it has a direct connection with Portugal, which colonized the Omani coastline for nearly two centuries. Education
news title Thirty-six sports to be competed at 2014 Incheon Asian Games url http: www.businessghana.com portal sports news.php?op getNews&id 19754&news_cat_id 3 accessdate 2010-12-10 newspaper BusinessGhana date 2010-12-09 The list was approved on July 13, 2011 during the 30th annual general assembly in Tokyo as softball incorporated with baseball as one sport while Soft Tennis is under the discipline of tennis.
program approved at 58th OCA Executive Board meeting url http: eng.incheon2014ag.org program board detail.jsp?menuID 002004001&boardTypeID %20414&boardID 2255&mode detail accessdate 2011-07-14 newspaper Incheon2014ag.org date 2011-07-14 For the first time, compound archery was introduced as part of the event in archery. WikiPedia:Oman Dmoz:Regional Middle East Oman Commons:Category:Oman
: www.ethnologue.com show_language.asp?code afb Countries where spoken While the two are heading a caravan from Salalah, Oman, they cross the border into Yemen and find the unexplored desert area that the ''Necronomicon'' calls "Roba el Ehaliyeh" or "Roba el Khaliyeh" — presumably a reference to the Empty Quarter or "Rub al Khali". thumb Diplomatic missions of Azerbaijan. (File:Diplomatic missions of Azerbaijan.png) Azerbaijan currently has
on the origins, development, history, culture... of these Christians, with some 300 odd photographs). Menachery G (ed) (1982) The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, B.N.K. Press, vol. 1; Menachery G (ed); (1998) "The Indian Church History Classics", Vol. I, The Nazranies, Ollur, 1998. ISBN 81-87133-05-8 . Mundadan, A. Mathias. (1984) History of Christianity in India, vol.1, Bangalore, India: Church History Association of India. Podipara, Placid J. (1970) "The Thomas Christians". London: Darton, Longman and Tidd, 1970. (is a readable and exhaustive study of the St. Thomas Christians.) Leslie Brown, (1956) The Indian Christians of St. Thomas. An Account of the Ancient Syrian Church of Malabar, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1956, 1982 (repr.) Thomas Puthiakunnel, (1973) "Jewish colonies of India paved the way for St. Thomas", The Saint Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, ed. George Menachery, Vol. II., Trichur. Koder S. 'History of the Jews of Kerala".The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Ed. G. Menachery,1973. T.K Velu Pillai, (1940) "The Travancore State Manual"; 4 volumes; Trivandrum) There is a large Muslim community in South India, particularly in the Malabar Coast, which can trace its roots to the ancient maritime trade between Kerala and Omanis and other Arabs. Kerala is also home to one of the oldest Jewish communities (Cochin Jews) in the world who are supposed to have arrived in the Malabar coast during the time of King Solomon (Biblical account of King Solomon). Koder, S. "History of the Jews of Kerala". ''The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India'', ed. G. Menachery, 1973. Lord, James Henry. (1977) ''The Jews in India and the Far East''. 120 pp.; Greenwood Press Reprint; ISBN 0-8371-2615-0 Thomas Puthiakunnel, (1973) "Jewish colonies of India paved the way for St. Thomas", The Saint Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, ed. George Menachery, Vol. II., Trichur. Katz, Nathan; & Goldberg, Ellen S; (1993) ''The Last Jews of Cochin: Jewish Identity in Hindu India''. Foreword by Daniel J. Elazar, Columbia, SC, Univ. of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0-87249-847-6 The oldest surviving Jewish synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations is the Paradesi Synagogue in Kochi (Kochi India), Kerala. thumb 250px Nimeiry arrived to the state visit to the United States, 1983 (File:Gaafar Nimeiry DF-SC-84-10022.jpg) In 1981 Nimeiry, pressured by his Islamic opponents, and still President of Sudan, began a dramatic shift toward Islamist (Islamism) political governance. He allied himself with the Muslim Brotherhood. In 1983, he imposed Sharia, or Islamic law, throughout the country—alienating the predominantly Christian and animist south. The administrative boundaries of the south were also reformed. In violation of the Addis Ababa Agreement he dissolved the southern Sudanese government, thereby prompting a renewal of the civil war. Nimeiry was one of only two Arab leaders (the other being Qaboos of Oman) who maintained close relations with Anwar Sadat after the Camp David Accords. He attended Sadat's funeral. ''Stethem's'' port visits during her deployment included Singapore, Malaysia, Bahrain, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Perth (Perth, Western Australia) and Sydney. She finally returned to San Diego on November 7, 1997 to begin an inter-deployment training cycle, the second one undertaken by the ship. On 5 April 2010, ''McFaul'' responded to a distress call from the MV ''Rising Sun'' after she was attacked by pirates. ''McFaul'' was able to neutralize the threat, and captured ten suspected pirates and successfully rescued eight crewmembers from onboard a dhow near Salalah, Oman. The pirates were then transferred to the WikiPedia:Oman Dmoz:Regional Middle East Oman Commons:Category:Oman
, accommodation may be limited to higher-end hotels and resorts. Work Working in Oman requires that you hold a residence permit. In common with other Gulf countries, you must be sponsored by an employer to obtain a residence permit. It's not uncommon for people to enter on a tourist visa then look for a job - this is fine. Penalties for the employer are substantial if they are caught employing illegals, although this naturally varies depending on how good their connections are. The majority
'''Oman''' ( ), is an Arab country in the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Holding a strategically important position at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, the nation is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest, and shares marine border (Maritime boundary)s with Iran and Pakistan. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the southeast and the Gulf of Oman on the northeast. The Madha and Musandam exclaves are surrounded by the UAE on their land borders, with the Strait of Hormuz and Gulf of Oman forming Musandam's coastal boundaries.
From the late 17th century, the Omani Sultanate was a powerful empire (colonial empire), vying with Portugal and Britain for influence in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. At its peak in the 19th century, Omani influence or control extended across the Strait of Hormuz to Iran and modern-day Pakistan, and as far south as Zanzibar (today part of Tanzania). As its power declined in the 20th century, the sultanate came under the influence of the United Kingdom. Historically, Muscat (Muscat, Oman) was the principal trading port of the Persian Gulf region. Muscat was also among the most important trading ports of the Indian Ocean. Oman's official religion is Ibadi Islam (Ibadi).
Oman is an absolute monarchy. The Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said is the self-appointed leader of the country since 1970. Sultan Qaboos is the longest-serving ruler in the Middle East. Oman's human rights record (Oman#Human rights) has been the subject of criticism.
Unlike its resource-rich neighbors, Oman has modest oil reserves, ranking at 25th globally (List of countries by proven oil reserves).