Northern Zhou

What is Northern Zhou known for?


low social

in Liaoning Province). Her clan had Sinicized its name to Lou toward the end of the fifth century. Gao Huan, on the other hand, was from a Han-Chinese family from Bohai (present-day Hebei Province); they had lived for several generations in the area that is now Inner Mongolia and had consequently adopted a largely Xianbei way of life. Despite Gao Huan's lack of means and low social status, Lou Zhaojun is said to have set her heart on him almost from the moment she saw him. She dispatched a maid

of present-day Chaoyang in Liaoning Province). Her clan had Sinicized its name to Lou toward the end of the fifth century. Gao Huan, on the other hand, was from a Han-Chinese family from Bohai (present-day Hebei Province); they had lived for several generations in the area that is now Inner Mongolia and had consequently adopted a largely Xianbei way of life. Despite Gao Huan's lack of means and low social status, Lou Zhaojun is said to have set her heart on him almost from the moment she saw him. She


560

symbol_type image_map Northern and Southern Dynasties 560 CE.png image_map_caption Northern Zhou territories in light blue image_map2 image_map2_caption capital

Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou leader4 Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou leader5 Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou year_leader1 557 year_leader2 557-560 year_leader3 560-578 year_leader4 578-579 year_leader5 579-581 title_leader Emperor representative1 representative2 representative3

not exist - Ming Di (Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou) (明帝 míng dì) or Xiao Ming Di (孝明帝 xiào míng dì) Yuwen Yu (宇文毓 yǔ wén yù) 557-560 Wucheng (武成 wǔ chéng) 559-560 - Wu Di (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) (武帝 wǔ dì) Yuwen Yong (宇文邕 yǔ wén yōng) 561-578 Baoding (保定 bǎo dìng) 560-565 Tianhe (天和 tiān hé) 566-572 Jiande (建德 jiàn dé) 572-578 Xuanzheng (宣政 xuān zhèng) 578 - Xuan Di (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou) (宣帝 xuān dì) Yuwen Yun (宇文贇 yǔ wén yūn) 578-579


book written

in the northern grassland emerged as later powers to rule over China. - '''Zhou (Northern Zhou)''' ('''Northern dynasties''') Chang'an (長安) 557—581 - The construction of the Mogao Caves near Dunhuang is generally taken to have begun sometime in the fourth century AD. According to a book written during the reign of Tang Empress Wu (Wu Zetian), ''Fokan Ji'' (佛龕記, ''An Account of Buddhist Shrines'') by Li Junxiu (李君修), a Buddhist (Buddhism) monk named Lè Zūn (樂尊, which may also be pronounced Yuezun) had a vision of a thousand Buddhas (Gautama Buddha) bathed in golden light at the site in 366 AD, inspiring him to build a cave here. ''Fokan Ji'' 《佛龕記》 '''Original text:''' 莫高窟者厥,秦建元二年,有沙门乐僔,戒行清忠,执心恬静。当杖锡林野,行至此山,忽见金光,状有千佛。□□□□□,造窟一龛。 The story is also found in other sources, such as in inscriptions on a stele in cave 332, an earlier date of 353 AD however was given in another document (沙州土鏡). '''Li Gao''' (李暠) (351–417), courtesy name '''Xuansheng''' (玄盛), nickname '''Changsheng''' (長生), formally '''Prince Wuzhao of (Western) Liang''' ((西)涼武昭王), was the founding duke of the Chinese (History of China) state Western Liáng. (While he claimed only the title of duke during his reign, he was posthumoustly honored with the princely title.) He was initially a Northern Liang official, but in 400, he seceded from Northern Liang's prince Duan Ye's rule and established his own independent state. His state only lasted for 21 years, but as his descendants would remain key officials and nobles throughout Northern Wei, Western Wei, Northern Zhou, and Sui Dynasty, and as one of them, Li Yuan (Emperor Gaozu of Tang), would found the Tang Dynasty in 618. After the founding of the Tang Dynasty, he was posthumously honored as '''Emperor Xingsheng''' (興聖皇帝).


temple quot

with civil war. Early matches A predecessor of the modern match, small sticks of pinewood impregnated with sulfur were used in China in AD 577. Besieged by military forces of Northern Zhou and Chen (Chen Dynasty), Northern Qi court ladies were out of tinder and needed a way to start fires for cooking and heating.

. At the slightest touch of fire they burst into flame. One gets a little flame like an ear of corn. This marvellous thing was formerly called a "light-bringing slave", but afterwards when it became an article of commerce its name was changed to 'fire inch-stick'. 陶谷《清异录·器具》篇载:“夜中有急,苦于作灯之缓,有智者批杉条,染硫黄,置之待用,一与火遇,得焰穗然,既神之,呼引光奴,今遂有货者,易名火寸。” 。 -align "center" Northern Zhou Chang'an (Xi'an) 5 br


578

Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou leader4 Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou leader5 Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou year_leader1 557 year_leader2 557-560 year_leader3 560-578 year_leader4 578-579 year_leader5 579-581 title_leader Emperor representative1 representative2 representative3

, and Emperor Wu (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) were dominated by Yuwen Hu, until Emperor Wu ambushed and killed Yuwen Hu in 572 and assumed power personally. With Emperor Wu as a capable ruler, Northern Zhou destroyed rival Northern Qi in 577, taking over Northern Qi's territory. However, Emperor Wu's death in 578 doomed the state, as his son Emperor Xuan (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou) was an arbitrary and violent ruler whose unorthodox behavior greatly weakened the state. After Emperor

not exist - Ming Di (Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou) (明帝 míng dì) or Xiao Ming Di (孝明帝 xiào míng dì) Yuwen Yu (宇文毓 yǔ wén yù) 557-560 Wucheng (武成 wǔ chéng) 559-560 - Wu Di (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) (武帝 wǔ dì) Yuwen Yong (宇文邕 yǔ wén yōng) 561-578 Baoding (保定 bǎo dìng) 560-565 Tianhe (天和 tiān hé) 566-572 Jiande (建德 jiàn dé) 572-578 Xuanzheng (宣政 xuān zhèng) 578 - Xuan Di (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou) (宣帝 xuān dì) Yuwen Yun (宇文贇 yǔ wén yūn) 578-579


580

Xuan's death in 580 (when he was already titularly retired emperor (''Taishang Huang''), Emperor Xuan's father-in-law Yang Jian (Emperor Wen of Sui) seized power, and in 581 seized the throne from Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing (Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou), establishing Sui. The imperial Yuwen clan, including the young Emperor Jing, was subsequently slaughtered by Yang Jian. Emperors of Northern Zhou class "wikitable" - bgcolor "#CCCCCC" ! Posthumous

Dacheng (大成 dà chéng) 579 - Jing Di (Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou) (靜帝 jìng dì) Yuwen Chan (宇文闡 yǔ wén chǎn) 579-581 In 580, after Emperor Xuan's death, the general Yuchi Jiong, believing that the regent Yang Jian (Emperor Wen of Sui) was about to seize the throne, rose against Yang and declared a son of Emperor Wu's brother Yuwen Zhao (宇文招) the Prince of Zhao, whose name is lost to history, emperor, but as Yuchi was soon defeated, and nothing further was known about

(559–580) '''Xuan (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou)''' (r. 578–579) Notes References * ''Book of Zhou''. * ''History of Northern Dynasties''. * '' Zizhi


extensive political

in the world, which saw extravagant palaces, architecture, music, literature, and fine arts, long before Europe was in the Dark Ages (Dark Ages (historiography)). The Khitans who founded the subsequent Liao Dynasty (916-1125) and the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) in China proper also derived their ancestries from the Xianbei. Through these extensive political establishments, the Xianbei who entered into China were immersed among the Chinese and later classified into "Han (Han Chinese)," whereas the "Monguor" "Tu" represented a branch of the Xianbei who have preserved their distinctive identity, language, and culture until today. As waves and waves of the Xianbei went south and westward to establish different empires, those who remained in the northeast emerged as major powers later to rule over China. While the "Mongol Xianbei" (or "Mengwu Shiwei") emerged from the northern Manchuria and northeastern Mongolia, the Khitans, or "Qidan" in Chinese, derived their ancestral origins from the Yuwen Xianbei in southern Mongolia, Cheng, Tian 承天 (2008). Qidan di guo chuan qi Legends of the Khitan Empires 契丹帝国传奇. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo guo ji guang bo chu ban she Chinese International Broadcasting Press 中国国际广播出版社. who had earlier founded the Western Wei (535-556) and Northern Zhou (557-581) of the Northern Dynasties. When the Khitans established the Liao Dynasty (916-1125) in China proper, they were referred to as "Qara (or Black) Khitāy". Wittfogel, Karl August and Chia-sheng Feng (1949). History of Chinese society: Liao, 907-1125. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society distributed by the Macmillan Co. New York. p. 1. Their rule gave rise to the reference of China known as "Hătāi" and "Cathay" in the Persian and European countries. Fei, Xiaotong 费孝通 (1999). Zhonghua min zu duo yuan yi ti ge ju The Framework of Diversity in Unity of the Chinese Nationality 中华民族多元一体格局. Beijing 北京 , Zhongyang min zu da xue chu ban she Central Nationalities University Press 中央民族大学出版社. p. 176. The reference of "Qara" (or "Black") as a prefix in the name of the Khitans and "Khara" (or "Black") in that of the Mongols may indicate that both groups had substantial input from the Xiongnu, who by self proclaiming to be "Xianbei" earlier made it hard in distinguish in the Chinese records. Historical Early known players of ''pipa'' include General Xie Shang (謝尚) from the Jin Dynasty who was described to have performed playing it on tiptoe. 劉義慶 《世說新語》 A New Account of the Tales of the World by Liu Yiqing. '''Original text:''' 桓大司馬曰:「諸君莫輕道,仁祖企腳北窗下彈琵琶,故自有天際真人想。」 '''Translation:''' Grand Marshal Huan (Huan Wen) said: "Gentlemen, do not disparage Renzu, he played the pipa under the north window on tiptoe, and thus evoked thoughts of an immortal in heaven." (Note that Renzu (仁祖) refers to Xie Shang.) The introduction of ''pipa'' from Central Asia also brought with it virtuoso performers from that region, for example Sujiva (蘇祇婆) from the Kingdom of Kucha during the Northern Zhou Dynasty, Kang Kunlun (康崑崙) from Kangju, and Pei Luoer (裴洛兒) from Shule (Kashgar). Pei Luoer was known for pioneering finger-playing techniques, while Sujiva was noted for the "Seven modes and seven tones", a musical modal (Musical mode) theory from India. 杜佑 《通典》 Tongdian by Du You '''Original text:''' 初,周武帝時,有龜茲人曰蘇祇婆,從突厥皇后入國,善胡琵琶。聽其所奏,一均之中間有七聲。因而問之,答云:『父在西域,稱為知音。代相傳習,調有七種。』以其七調,勘校七聲,冥若合符。 隋書 Book of Sui (The heptatonic scale was used for a time afterwards due to Sujiva's influence until it was abandoned as it conflicted with the traditional pentatonic scale.) These players had considerable influence on the development of ''pipa'' playing in China. Of particular fame were the family of ''pipa'' players founded by Cao Poluomen (曹婆羅門) and who were active for many generations from the Northern Wei to Tang Dynasty. 《舊唐書·音樂二》 Jiu Tangshu (Book of Tang) '''Original text:''' 後魏有曹婆羅門,受龜茲琵琶于商人,世傳其業。至孫妙達,尤為北齊高洋所重,常自擊胡鼓以和之。 '''Translation''': During Later Wei there was Cao Poluomen, who was a trader in Kuchean ''pipa'' for whose craft he was famous. His grandchild Miaoda in particular was highly regarded by Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi Dynasty, who would often play the ''hu'' drum in accompaniment. (Note that Poluomen (or Bolomen) means Brahmin or Indian.) Background and early career It is not known when Yu Di was born, but it is known that his family was from Henan Municipality (河南, i.e., the region of the Tang Dynasty eastern capital Luoyang). His family traced its ancestry to the prominent Xianbei clan Moniuyu (万鈕于) The ''Book of Wei'' referred to the same clan as Wuniuyu (勿忸于). See ''Book of Wei'', vol. 113 (:zh:s:魏書 卷113). of Northern Wei, which changed its name to Yu when Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei had the Xianbei clans' names changed (change of Xianbei names to Han names) to Han (Han Chinese) names. Among Yu Di's ancestors were generals and officials of Northern Wei, Western Wei, Northern Zhou, Sui Dynasty, and Tang, including the prominent Northern Zhou general Yu Jin (于謹). Yu Di's grandfather Yu Wang (于汪) served as the director of the archival bureau, while his father Yu Xiong (于敻) served as a military advisor to a prefectural prefect. ''New Book of Tang'', vol. 72.the dynasty was founded by Emperor Wu of Chen Emperor Wu , it was exceedingly weak, possessing only a small portion of the territory once held by its predecessor Liang Dynasty -- and that portion was devastated by wars that had doomed Liang. However, Emperor Wu's successors Emperor Wen (Emperor Wen of Chen) and Emperor Xuan (Emperor Xuan of Chen) were capable rulers, and the state gradually solidified and strengthened, becoming roughly equal in power to rivals Northern Zhou and Northern Qi. After Northern Zhou destroyed Northern Qi in 577, Chen was cornered. To make matters worse, its final emperor Chen Shubao was an incompetent and indulgent ruler, and Chen was eventually destroyed by Northern Zhou's successor state Sui. *Princess Lanling (蘭陵公主), a "princess" of the imperial family of Northern Wei, married the Khagan of the Rouran, Yujiulü Anagui. *Princess Qianjin (千金公主), daughter of Yuwen Zhao, Prince of Zhao (趙王宇文招) and a member of the imperial family of Northern Zhou, married Ishbara Qaghan, Khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate (Ishbara Qaghan). *582 A.D.: Emperor Ming of Western Liang marries his daughter, Princess Xiao of Western Liang (Empress Xiao (Yang)), to Yang Guang, Prince of Jin (Emperor Yang of Sui), the second son and eventual successor of Emperor Ming's overlord Emperor Wen of Sui. Legacy of the Later Tang The importance of the Later Tang on Chinese history is far more important than its short thirteen years would imply. '''Li Gao''' (李暠) (351–417), courtesy name '''Xuansheng''' (玄盛), nickname '''Changsheng''' (長生), formally '''Prince Wuzhao of (Western) Liang''' ((西)涼武昭王), was the founding duke of the Chinese (History of China) state Western Liáng. (While he claimed only the title of duke during his reign, he was posthumoustly honored with the princely title.) He was initially a Northern Liang official, but in 400, he seceded from Northern Liang's prince Duan Ye's rule and established his own independent state. His state only lasted for 21 years, but as his descendants would remain key officials and nobles throughout Northern Wei, Western Wei, Northern Zhou, and Sui Dynasty, and as one of them, Li Yuan (Emperor Gaozu of Tang), would found the Tang Dynasty in 618. After the founding of the Tang Dynasty, he was posthumously honored as '''Emperor Xingsheng''' (興聖皇帝).


556

, who was paramount general of Western Wei, following the split of Northern Wei into Western Wei and Eastern Wei in 535. After Yuwen Tai's death in 556, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuwen Hu forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue (Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou) (Emperor Xiaomin), establishing Northern Zhou. The reigns of the first three emperors (Yuwen Tai's sons) -- Emperor Xiaomin, Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou Emperor Ming

) - - - - - . , - - - (

with convincing propaganda that the Chen Dynasty ruler Chen Shubao was a decadent ruler who had lost the Mandate of Heaven, the Sui Dynasty was able to effectively conquer the south. After this conquest, the whole of China entered a new golden age of reunification under the centralization of the short-lived Sui Dynasty and succeeding Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD). In 534, the Northern Wei split into an Eastern Wei (534-550) and a Western Wei (535-556). The former evolved


high making

intact with the exception of many of the smaller-Buddha's heads. They are protected by cages. The tallest statue, that of a seated Buddha, still survives. It is over 7 m high, making it the largest in the province. The smallest statues at the site are about 10 cm tall. The site was placed under national protection in 1988. Origin and context The Tang code took its roots in the code of the Northern Zhou (564) dynasty, which was itself based on the earlier codes of the Cao-Wei (Kingdom of Wei) and Western Jin (268). Aiming to smooth the earlier laws and reduce physical punishments (such as mutilations) in order to appease social tensions in the newly pacified Tang territories, it was created in AD 624 at the request of Emperor Gaozu of Tang. After further revisions in 627 and 637 under Emperor Taizong (Emperor Taizong of Tang), the code was completed by commentaries in 653, under Gaozong (Emperor Gaozong of Tang). As a Northern Zhou official, Yang Jian served with apparent distinction during the reigns of Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou and Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou. When the erratic Emperor Xuan died in 580, Yang, as his father-in-law, seized power as regent. After defeating the general Yuchi Jiong, who resisted him, he seized the throne for himself, establishing the new Sui Dynasty (as its Emperor Wen). He was the first Chinese to rule North China after the Xianbei invasion which conquered that area from the Liu Song dynasty (not counting the brief reconquest of that region by Emperor Wu of Liang). '''Chen Chang''' (陳昌) (537–560), courtesy name '''Jingye''' (敬業), formally '''Prince Xian of Hengyang''' (衡陽獻王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese (History of China) dynasty Chen Dynasty. He was the sixth and only surviving son of the founding emperor Emperor Wu (Emperor Wu of Chen) (Chen Baxian), but as he was detained as a hostage by Western Wei and Western Wei's successor state Northern Zhou, was unable to succeed to the throne when Emperor Wu died in 559. Rather, his cousin Chen Qian (Emperor Wen of Chen) took the throne as Emperor Wen. Northern Zhou finally allowed him to return to Chen in 560, but as he wrote impolite letters to Emperor Wen, Emperor Wen felt threatened (as he viewed the letters as implied demands for the throne), and he sent his trusted general Hou Andu to escort Chen Chang. Hou subsequently drowned Chen Chang in the Yangtze River. After Emperor Wu took the throne, he made repeated requests to Northern Zhou (which had now succeeded Western Wei) to return Chen Chang and Chen Xu. The Northern Zhou government agreed, but did not actually return Chen Chang and Chen Xu. In 559, when Emperor Wu died suddenly, the officials therefore supported Chen Chang's cousin (Chen Xu's brother) Chen Qian (Emperor Wen of Chen) the Prince of Linchuan as Emperor Wu's successor, and he took the throne as Emperor Wen. '''Xiao Zhuang''' (蕭莊) (548-577?), often known by his princely title of '''Prince of Yongjia''' (永嘉王), was a grandson of Emperor Yuan of Liang, who was declared by the general Wang Lin to be the legitimate emperor of Liang Dynasty in 558, under military assistance by Northern Qi. He thus was one of the three claimants to the Southern dynasties throne, competing with Emperor Xuan of Western Liang, who was supported by Northern Zhou, and Chen Dynasty's founder Emperor Wu of Chen and later his nephew Emperor Wen of Chen. In 560, with Wang Lin defeated by Chen troops, both Wang and Xiao Zhuang fled to Northern Qi, ending their rivalry with Chen and Western Liang. While Northern Qi emperors made promises to return Xiao Zhuang to the Liang throne, Northern Qi was never able to accomplish that promise, and Xiao Zhuang died shortly after Northern Qi's own destruction in 577. During Sui Dynasty Li Jing was born in 571, during Sui Dynasty's predecessor state Northern Zhou. His clan was from the Chang'an region. His grandfather Li Chongyi (李崇義) served as a provincial governor during Northern Wei, and his father Li Quan (李詮) served as a commandery governor during Sui. In his youth, Li Jing was said to be handsome and ambitious, and was talented both in literary and military matters. His maternal uncle was the great Sui general Han Qinhu (韓擒虎), and it was said that Han was impressed by his talent, stating, "You are the only person that I can talk to about Sun Tzu's and Wu Qi's strategies." Background Zhang Yue was born in 663, during the reign of Emperor Gaozong (Emperor Gaozong of Tang). His family was from the Tang Dynasty eastern capital Luoyang, and traced its ancestry to the great Han Dynasty strategist Zhang Liang, as well as a line of officials that served Cao Wei, Jin Dynasty (265-420), Northern Wei, and Northern Zhou. ''New Book of Tang'', vol. 72.Background Han Xiu was born in 672, during the reign of Emperor Gaozong of Tang Emperor Gaozong . His family was from the Tang Dynasty capital Chang'an and traced its ancestry to the royal house of the Warring States Period state Han (Han (state)). It also claimed, as ancestors, a line of officials during Han Dynasty, Jin Dynasty (265-420), Northern Wei, Northern Qi, Northern Zhou, Sui Dynasty, and Tang. Han Xiu's grandfather Han Fu (韓符) served as a prefectural prefect during Tang, and Han Xiu's father Han Dazhi (韓大智) served as a census official at the eastern capital Luoyang. Han Xiu's uncle Han Damin (韓大敏) was a more-known official who, during the early reign of Emperor Gaozong's wife Wu Zetian, refused to falsely implicate the official Li Xingbao (李行褒), and ultimately, when Wu Zetian executed Li Xingbao anyway, was forced to commit suicide. Background Wei Jiansu was born in 687, during the first reign of Emperor Ruizong (Emperor Ruizong of Tang). His family was from the Tang Dynasty capital Chang'an, and traced its ancestry to a line of officials of the Han Dynasty, Cao Wei, Northern Zhou, Sui Dynasty, and Tang. Wei JIansu's grandfather Wei Fu (韋福) served as a prefectural prefect, and his father Wei Cou (韋湊) served as an official during the reigns of Emperor Ruizong's father Emperor Gaozong (Emperor Gaozong of Tang), mother Wu Zetian, brother Emperor Zhongzong (Emperor Zhongzong of Tang), Emperor Ruizong himself, and Emperor Ruizong's son Emperor Xuanzong (Emperor Xuanzong of Tang), being known for his honesty and bluntness. ''New Book of Tang'', vol. 74.of Tang '', vol. 108. '''Li Gao''' (李暠) (351–417), courtesy name '''Xuansheng''' (玄盛), nickname '''Changsheng''' (長生), formally '''Prince Wuzhao of (Western) Liang''' ((西)涼武昭王), was the founding duke of the Chinese (History of China) state Western Liáng. (While he claimed only the title of duke during his reign, he was posthumoustly honored with the princely title.) He was initially a Northern Liang official, but in 400, he seceded from Northern Liang's prince Duan Ye's rule and established his own independent state. His state only lasted for 21 years, but as his descendants would remain key officials and nobles throughout Northern Wei, Western Wei, Northern Zhou, and Sui Dynasty, and as one of them, Li Yuan (Emperor Gaozu of Tang), would found the Tang Dynasty in 618. After the founding of the Tang Dynasty, he was posthumously honored as '''Emperor Xingsheng''' (興聖皇帝).


li+hu

Yuan's grandfather Li Hu (李虎) served as a major general under Western Wei's paramount general Yuwen Tai, and was created the Duke of Longxi and given the Xianbei surname Daye (大野). Li Hu died before Yuwen Tai's son Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou founded Northern Zhou, but was posthumously created the Duke of Tang after Northern Zhou's founding. His son and Li Yuan's father Li Bing (李昺) inherited the title of the Duke of Tang and married a daughter of the prominent general

Northern Zhou

thumb right Northern Zhou dish inspired by Western metalwork, 557-581. (File:Northern Zhou dish inspired by Western metalwork 557 581.jpg)

The '''Northern Zhou''' ( ) followed the Western Wei (Western Wei Dynasty), and ruled northern China from 557 to 581. It was overthrown by the Sui Dynasty.

Northern Zhou's basis of power was established by Yuwen Tai, who was paramount general of Western Wei, following the split of Northern Wei into Western Wei and Eastern Wei in 535. After Yuwen Tai's death in 556, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuwen Hu forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue (Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou) (Emperor Xiaomin), establishing Northern Zhou. The reigns of the first three emperors (Yuwen Tai's sons) -- Emperor Xiaomin, Emperor Ming (Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou), and Emperor Wu (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) were dominated by Yuwen Hu, until Emperor Wu ambushed and killed Yuwen Hu in 572 and assumed power personally. With Emperor Wu as a capable ruler, Northern Zhou destroyed rival Northern Qi in 577, taking over Northern Qi's territory. However, Emperor Wu's death in 578 doomed the state, as his son Emperor Xuan (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou) was an arbitrary and violent ruler whose unorthodox behavior greatly weakened the state. After Emperor Xuan's death in 580 (when he was already titularly retired emperor (''Taishang Huang''), Emperor Xuan's father-in-law Yang Jian (Emperor Wen of Sui) seized power, and in 581 seized the throne from Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing (Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou), establishing Sui. The imperial Yuwen clan, including the young Emperor Jing, was subsequently slaughtered by Yang Jian.

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