Northern Zhou

What is Northern Zhou known for?


618

with convincing propaganda that the Chen Dynasty ruler Chen Shubao was a decadent ruler who had lost the Mandate of Heaven, the Sui Dynasty was able to effectively conquer the south. After this conquest, the whole of China entered a new golden age of reunification under the centralization of the short-lived Sui Dynasty and succeeding Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD). In 534, the Northern Wei split into an Eastern Wei (534-550) and a Western Wei (535-556). The former evolved

into the Northern Qi (550-577), and the latter into the Northern Zhou (557-581), while the Southern Dynasties were pushed to the south of the Yangtze River. In 581, the Prime Minister of Northern Zhou, Yang Jian, founded the Sui Dynasty (581-618). His son, the future emperor Yang Guang, annihilated the Southern Chen (557-589), the last kingdom of the Southern Dynasties, thereby unifying northern and southern China. After the Sui came to an end amidst peasant rebellions

and renegade troops, his cousin, Li Shimin, founded the Tang Dynasty (618-907); Li led China to develop into one of the most prosperous states in history. Sui and Tang dynasties were founded by Han Chinese generals who also served the Northern Wei Dynasty. Chen, Yinke 陳寅恪 , 1943, Tang dai zheng zhi shi shu lun gao Manuscript of Discussions on the Political History of the Tang Dynasty 唐代政治史述論稿. Chongqing 重慶 , Shang wu 商務 . Chen, Yinke 陳寅恪 and Tang


series location

of Publications, University Libraries (Hong Kong series location publisher M.E. Sharpe title Biographical dictionary of Chinese women: antiquity through Sui, 1600 B.C.E.-618 C.E. coauthors Lily Xiao Hong Lee, A. D. Stefanowska, Sue Wiles editor Lily Xiao Hong Lee, A. D. Stefanowska, Sue Wiles language page 314 pages As Eastern Wei's paramount general Gao Huan was succeeded by his sons Gao Cheng and Gao Yang (Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi), who took the throne from Emperor

Volume 21 of Publications, University Libraries (Hong Kong series location publisher M.E. Sharpe title Biographical dictionary of Chinese women: antiquity through Sui, 1600 B.C.E.-618 C.E. coauthors Lily Xiao Hong Lee, A. D. Stefanowska, Sue Wiles editor Lily Xiao Hong Lee, A. D. Stefanowska, Sue Wiles language page 314 pages As Eastern Wei's paramount general Gao Huan was succeeded by his sons Gao Cheng and Gao Yang (Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi), who took the throne


arts long

in the world, which saw extravagant palaces, architecture, music, literature, and fine arts, long before Europe was in the Dark Ages (Dark Ages (historiography)). The Khitans who founded the subsequent Liao Dynasty (916-1125) and the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) in China proper also derived their ancestries from the Xianbei. Through these extensive political establishments, the Xianbei who entered into China were immersed among the Chinese and later


founding

of Tang Li Yuan the Duke of Tang was a general of the Sui Dynasty and a nephew, by marriage, to Sui's founding emperor Emperor Wen (Emperor Wen of Sui), as Li Shimin's grandmother Duchess Dugu was a sister of Empress Dugu Qieluo -- both were daughters of Dugu Xin (獨孤信), a major general during Sui's predecessor dynasty Northern Zhou. Li Shimin's mother was Li Yuan's wife Duchess Dou, who was a daughter of Dou Yi (竇毅) the Duke of Shenwu and Dou Yi's wife, Northern Zhou's Princess

Yuan's grandfather Li Hu (李虎) served as a major general under Western Wei's paramount general Yuwen Tai, and was created the Duke of Longxi and given the Xianbei surname Daye (大野). Li Hu died before Yuwen Tai's son Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou founded Northern Zhou, but was posthumously created the Duke of Tang after Northern Zhou's founding. His son and Li Yuan's father Li Bing (李昺) inherited the title of the Duke of Tang and married a daughter of the prominent general

; their son Emperor Wenxuan (Gao Yang, 529-559; r. 550-559) was the founding emperor of Northern Qi. While neither was appointed emperor or empress during their lifetime, as the de facto founder of the Northern Qi dynasty Gao Huan was posthumously titled Emperor Shenwu of Northern Qi and Lou Zhaojun was posthumously title Empress Ming of Northern Qi.. . . Lou Zhaojun was from a wealthy Xianbei family that had served as officials under the Former Yan dynasty (located in the area of present-day Chaoyang


560

symbol_type image_map Northern and Southern Dynasties 560 CE.png image_map_caption Northern Zhou territories in light blue image_map2 image_map2_caption capital

Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou leader4 Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou leader5 Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou year_leader1 557 year_leader2 557-560 year_leader3 560-578 year_leader4 578-579 year_leader5 579-581 title_leader Emperor representative1 representative2 representative3

not exist - Ming Di (Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou) (明帝 míng dì) or Xiao Ming Di (孝明帝 xiào míng dì) Yuwen Yu (宇文毓 yǔ wén yù) 557-560 Wucheng (武成 wǔ chéng) 559-560 - Wu Di (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) (武帝 wǔ dì) Yuwen Yong (宇文邕 yǔ wén yōng) 561-578 Baoding (保定 bǎo dìng) 560-565 Tianhe (天和 tiān hé) 566-572 Jiande (建德 jiàn dé) 572-578 Xuanzheng (宣政 xuān zhèng) 578 - Xuan Di (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou) (宣帝 xuān dì) Yuwen Yun (宇文贇 yǔ wén yūn) 578-579


book written

in the northern grassland emerged as later powers to rule over China. - '''Zhou (Northern Zhou)''' ('''Northern dynasties''') Chang'an (長安) 557—581 - The construction of the Mogao Caves near Dunhuang is generally taken to have begun sometime in the fourth century AD. According to a book written during the reign of Tang Empress Wu (Wu Zetian), ''Fokan Ji'' (佛龕記, ''An Account of Buddhist Shrines'') by Li Junxiu (李君修), a Buddhist (Buddhism) monk named Lè Zūn (樂尊, which may also be pronounced Yuezun) had a vision of a thousand Buddhas (Gautama Buddha) bathed in golden light at the site in 366 AD, inspiring him to build a cave here. ''Fokan Ji'' 《佛龕記》 '''Original text:''' 莫高窟者厥,秦建元二年,有沙门乐僔,戒行清忠,执心恬静。当杖锡林野,行至此山,忽见金光,状有千佛。□□□□□,造窟一龛。 The story is also found in other sources, such as in inscriptions on a stele in cave 332, an earlier date of 353 AD however was given in another document (沙州土鏡). '''Li Gao''' (李暠) (351–417), courtesy name '''Xuansheng''' (玄盛), nickname '''Changsheng''' (長生), formally '''Prince Wuzhao of (Western) Liang''' ((西)涼武昭王), was the founding duke of the Chinese (History of China) state Western Liáng. (While he claimed only the title of duke during his reign, he was posthumoustly honored with the princely title.) He was initially a Northern Liang official, but in 400, he seceded from Northern Liang's prince Duan Ye's rule and established his own independent state. His state only lasted for 21 years, but as his descendants would remain key officials and nobles throughout Northern Wei, Western Wei, Northern Zhou, and Sui Dynasty, and as one of them, Li Yuan (Emperor Gaozu of Tang), would found the Tang Dynasty in 618. After the founding of the Tang Dynasty, he was posthumously honored as '''Emperor Xingsheng''' (興聖皇帝).


establishing

, who was paramount general of Western Wei, following the split of Northern Wei into Western Wei and Eastern Wei in 535. After Yuwen Tai's death in 556, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuwen Hu forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue (Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou) (Emperor Xiaomin), establishing Northern Zhou. The reigns of the first three emperors (Yuwen Tai's sons) -- Emperor Xiaomin, Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou Emperor Ming

Xuan's death in 580 (when he was already titularly retired emperor (''Taishang Huang''), Emperor Xuan's father-in-law Yang Jian (Emperor Wen of Sui) seized power, and in 581 seized the throne from Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing (Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou), establishing Sui. The imperial Yuwen clan, including the young Emperor Jing, was subsequently slaughtered by Yang Jian. Emperors of Northern Zhou class "wikitable" - bgcolor "#CCCCCC" ! Posthumous

establishing his own puppet ruler to maintain authority. As conflict swelled in the north between successive leaders, Gao Huan took control of the east and Luoyang (holding Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei as a puppet ruler) by 534, while his rival Yuwen Tai took control of the west and the traditional Chinese capital of Chang'an by 535. Eventually, Gao Huan's son Gao Yang forced the Eastern Wei emperor to abdicate in favor of his claim to the throne, establishing the Northern


562

Dou was of Xianbei ancestry. * Major Concubines History The Chinese state of Northern Qi was the successor state of the Chinese Xianbei state of Eastern Wei and was founded by Emperor Wenxuan (Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi). Emperor Wenxuan had a Han Chinese father Gao Yang, and a Xianbei mother, Empress Dowager Lou Zhaojun.

is generally considered by historians as the ending date for Northern Qi. History The Chinese state of Northern Qi was the successor state of the Chinese Xianbei state of Eastern Wei and was founded by Emperor Wenxuan (Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi). Emperor Wenxuan had a Han Chinese father Gao Yang, and a Xianbei mother, Empress Dowager Lou Zhaojun.


low social

in Liaoning Province). Her clan had Sinicized its name to Lou toward the end of the fifth century. Gao Huan, on the other hand, was from a Han-Chinese family from Bohai (present-day Hebei Province); they had lived for several generations in the area that is now Inner Mongolia and had consequently adopted a largely Xianbei way of life. Despite Gao Huan's lack of means and low social status, Lou Zhaojun is said to have set her heart on him almost from the moment she saw him. She dispatched a maid

of present-day Chaoyang in Liaoning Province). Her clan had Sinicized its name to Lou toward the end of the fifth century. Gao Huan, on the other hand, was from a Han-Chinese family from Bohai (present-day Hebei Province); they had lived for several generations in the area that is now Inner Mongolia and had consequently adopted a largely Xianbei way of life. Despite Gao Huan's lack of means and low social status, Lou Zhaojun is said to have set her heart on him almost from the moment she saw him. She


talent early

Xiangyang. Duchess Dou bore Li Yuan four sons—an older brother to Li Shimin, Li Jiancheng, and two younger brothers, Li Xuanba (李玄霸, who would die in 614) and Li Yuanji -- and at least one daughter (the later Princess Pingyang). Li Yuan named Li Shimin "Shimin" as a shortened form of the phrase "save the earth and pacify the people" (濟世安民, ''jishi anmin''). Li Shimin apparently showed talent early in his life, and in 613, the official Gao Shilian, impressed

Northern Zhou

thumb right Northern Zhou dish inspired by Western metalwork, 557-581. (File:Northern Zhou dish inspired by Western metalwork 557 581.jpg)

The '''Northern Zhou''' ( ) followed the Western Wei (Western Wei Dynasty), and ruled northern China from 557 to 581. It was overthrown by the Sui Dynasty.

Northern Zhou's basis of power was established by Yuwen Tai, who was paramount general of Western Wei, following the split of Northern Wei into Western Wei and Eastern Wei in 535. After Yuwen Tai's death in 556, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuwen Hu forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue (Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou) (Emperor Xiaomin), establishing Northern Zhou. The reigns of the first three emperors (Yuwen Tai's sons) -- Emperor Xiaomin, Emperor Ming (Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou), and Emperor Wu (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) were dominated by Yuwen Hu, until Emperor Wu ambushed and killed Yuwen Hu in 572 and assumed power personally. With Emperor Wu as a capable ruler, Northern Zhou destroyed rival Northern Qi in 577, taking over Northern Qi's territory. However, Emperor Wu's death in 578 doomed the state, as his son Emperor Xuan (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou) was an arbitrary and violent ruler whose unorthodox behavior greatly weakened the state. After Emperor Xuan's death in 580 (when he was already titularly retired emperor (''Taishang Huang''), Emperor Xuan's father-in-law Yang Jian (Emperor Wen of Sui) seized power, and in 581 seized the throne from Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing (Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou), establishing Sui. The imperial Yuwen clan, including the young Emperor Jing, was subsequently slaughtered by Yang Jian.

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