Northern Qi

What is Northern Qi known for?


historical view

: Image:MuseeGuimetCaption.JPG A tag describing a Chinese artifact, with both Chinese and French captions -- In compiling the work, Wei Shou was criticized for showing partiality to ancestors of political allies and intentionally defamatory to or entirely ignoring ancestors of political enemies. Detractors of the work referred to the book as 穢書, (Hui Shu), nearly pronounced as 'Wei Shu', but meaning "Book of Filth". From a modern historical view point, the book had glaring problems, as it took glorification of the Northern Wei to an extreme, intentionally misstating history of her predecessor state Dai (State of Dai), which was a vassal of Western Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)), Later Zhao, Former Yan, and Former Qin, but which the book characterized as a powerful empire that those states were vassals of. It further characterized all other rival states as barbaric and made unsubstantiated accusations against their rulers. Further, it retroactively used the sinicized surnames introduced by Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei in 496 to apply to events long before, making it difficult for readers to know what the actual names of historical personages were. In addition, Wei Shou was criticized in that, as an official of the Eastern Wei (Eastern Wei Dynasty) and its successor state Northern Qi, he included the sole emperor of Eastern Wei, Emperor Xiaojing (Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei), among his imperial lists while intentionally omitting the three emperors from the rival state Western Wei after the division of the Northern Wei in 534. However, he was credited with harmonizing highly confusing and fragmented accounts of historical events from the state of Dai to the early period of Northern Wei and creating coherent accounts of events. Around that time, many men took tonsure to be Buddhist monks in order to avoid taxation and labor. In 714, Yao, pointing out that veneration of Buddhist monks did nothing to save Later Zhao, Later Qin, Northern Qi, and Liang Dynasty, suggested that Emperor Xuanzong order a thorough review of the ranks of Buddhist monks and nuns and force those who were not truly devout to return to civilian life and be subject to taxation and labors. Some 12,000, as a result, were forced to return to civilian life. Meanwhile, however, when Yao spoke against a campaign that the general and fellow chancellor Xue Na advocated against the Khitan, Emperor Xuanzong did not listen to him and had Xue attack Khitan anyway. (Xue's campaign eventually ended in failure in fall 714.) Yao and his fellow chancellor Lu Huaishen, meanwhile, also did much to try to eliminate the culture of the nobles exerting influence in civil service matters. Background It is not known when Du Xian was born. However, Du was said to be in his 60s when he died in 740, and thus, based on the Chinese calculation of age, was born sometime between 672 and 681. See ''Book of Tang'', vol. 98. His family was from Pu Prefecture (濮州, roughly modern Heze, Shandong) and claimed its ancestry from the Qin Dynasty general Du He (杜赫), and traced itself to a line of officials during Northern Wei, Northern Qi, Sui Dynasty, and Tang Dynasty. It was said that the clan's members were on such good terms that it did not divide for five generations down to Du Xian. Both Du Xian's grandfather Du Yikuan (杜義寬) and father Du Chengzhi (杜承志) were low level officials. ''New Book of Tang'', vol. 72.Background Han Xiu was born in 672, during the reign of Emperor Gaozong of Tang Emperor Gaozong . His family was from the Tang Dynasty capital Chang'an and traced its ancestry to the royal house of the Warring States Period state Han (Han (state)). It also claimed, as ancestors, a line of officials during Han Dynasty, Jin Dynasty (265-420), Northern Wei, Northern Qi, Northern Zhou, Sui Dynasty, and Tang. Han Xiu's grandfather Han Fu (韓符) served as a prefectural prefect during Tang, and Han Xiu's father Han Dazhi (韓大智) served as a census official at the eastern capital Luoyang. Han Xiu's uncle Han Damin (韓大敏) was a more-known official who, during the early reign of Emperor Gaozong's wife Wu Zetian, refused to falsely implicate the official Li Xingbao (李行褒), and ultimately, when Wu Zetian executed Li Xingbao anyway, was forced to commit suicide. For the next year, Chen advanced north through modern Jiangxi, fighting the various local warlords and generals loyal to Hou, with his main struggle against Li Qianshi (李遷仕). In spring 551, he captured and killed Li. Xiao Yi made him the governor of Jiang Province (江州, roughly modern Jiangxi). By fall 551, he had rendezvoused with Xiao Yi's main general, Wang Sengbian, at Xunyang (尋陽, in modern Jiujiang, Jiangxi). In 552, after they had sworn a solemn oath to Liang, they advanced east toward Jiankang, where Hou had killed Xiao Gang (who had succeeded Emperor Wu as Emperor Jianwen) and taken the throne himself as Emperor of Han. Chen was instrumental in the subsequent siege of Jiankang, and they defeated Hou together, causing Hou to flee. Subsequently, Hou was killed by his own men. For Chen's contributions, Xiao Yi created Chen the Marquess of Changcheng—Chen's home county. Wang put Chen in charge of the important city Jingkou (京口, in modern Zhenjiang, Jiangsu). For the next two years, Chen was several times involved in border battles against Northern Qi (Eastern Wei's successor state). At times, when Xiao Yi (who had by now taken the throne as Emperor Yuan but set up his capital at his headquarters of Jiangling (Jiangling County) rather than at Jiankang) summoned Wang on campaigns, Wang would put Chen in charge of Jiankang. First built in the mid-6th century during the Northern Qi, Mutianyu Great Wall is older than the Badaling section of the Great Wall. In the Ming dynasty, under the supervision of General Xu Da, construction of the present wall began on the foundation of the wall of Northern Qi. In 1404, a pass was built in the wall. In 1569, the Mutianyu Great Wall was rebuilt and till today most parts of it are well preserved. The Mutianyu Great Wall has the largest construction scale and best quality among all sections of Great Wall. Background Wei Zheng was born in 580, shortly before the founding of Sui Dynasty in 581. His family was from Julu Commandery (鉅鹿, roughly modern Xingtai, Hebei). His father Wei Changxian (魏長賢) was a county magistrate during Northern Qi. Wei lost his father early in life and was poor, but had great expectations, not caring about making wealth. At one point, he became a Taoist monk. He favored studying, and as he saw that the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui was beginning to make Sui fall into a state of confusion, he particularly paid attention to strategic works. Background Feng Deyi was born in 568, when his grandfather Feng Longzhi (封隆之) was a high level official for Northern Qi. His father Feng Zixiu (封子繡) served as a provincial governor for Northern Zhou, but was captured by the Chen Dynasty general Wu Mingche in a battle, probably in 573, during Wu's main offensive against Northern Qi. Sometime after Northern Qi was destroyed by Northern Zhou in 577, Feng Zixiu fled back north, and was made a provincial governor by Emperor Wen of Sui, whose Sui Dynasty succeeded Northern Zhou in 581. Feng Deyi's mother Lady Lu was probably Feng Zixiu's wife rather than a concubine, as she was the sister of the official Lu Sidao. In Feng Deyi's youth, Lu Sidao often said, with regard to Feng Deyi, "This child is more intelligent than other people, and one day will surely be a highly-ranked official, even chancellor." In 554, Western Wei forces attacked Emperor Yuan's new capital Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei) and captured it, putting Emperor Yuan to death around new year 555. Western Wei declared Emperor Yuan's nephew Xiao Cha (Emperor Xuan of Western Liang) emperor (as Emperor Xuan), but Wang and Chen Baxian refused to recognize Xiao Cha as emperor. They welcomed Emperor Yuan's only surviving son Xiao Fangzhi (Emperor Jing of Liang) the Prince of Jin'an to Jiankang, declaring him the Prince of Liang and preparing to declare him emperor. However, after Wang's forces suffered several defeats at the hands of Northern Qi forces, Wang accepted the proposal of Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi to make Emperor Yuan's cousin Xiao Yuanming emperor, and he declared Xiao Yuanming emperor in summer 555. Chen Baxian was displeased with Xiao Yuanming's ascension, and in fall 555, with Chen Qian as one of his confidants, he launched a surprise attack on Jiankang, killing Wang and deposing Xiao Yuanming. He declared Xiao Fangzhi emperor (as Emperor Jing). Northern Zhou's basis of power was established by Yuwen Tai, who was paramount general of Western Wei, following the split of Northern Wei into Western Wei and Eastern Wei in 535. After Yuwen Tai's death in 556, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuwen Hu forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue (Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou) (Emperor Xiaomin), establishing Northern Zhou. The reigns of the first three emperors (Yuwen Tai's sons) -- Emperor Xiaomin, Emperor Ming (Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou), and Emperor Wu (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) were dominated by Yuwen Hu, until Emperor Wu ambushed and killed Yuwen Hu in 572 and assumed power personally. With Emperor Wu as a capable ruler, Northern Zhou destroyed rival Northern Qi in 577, taking over Northern Qi's territory. However, Emperor Wu's death in 578 doomed the state, as his son Emperor Xuan (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou) was an arbitrary and violent ruler whose unorthodox behavior greatly weakened the state. After Emperor Xuan's death in 580 (when he was already titularly retired emperor (''Taishang Huang''), Emperor Xuan's father-in-law Yang Jian (Emperor Wen of Sui) seized power, and in 581 seized the throne from Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing (Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou), establishing Sui. The imperial Yuwen clan, including the young Emperor Jing, was subsequently slaughtered by Yang Jian. He maintained tense but relatively peaceful relations with the Göktürks and the various Chinese dynasties, briefly battling the Northern Zhou at the Liaodong Peninsula in 577. He frequently sent tributes to the Chen Dynasty, Northern Qi, Northern Zhou and Sui Dynasty. As the Sui Dynasty united China, King Pyeongwon prepared for the impending war. As emperor Emperor Jianwen was formally recognized by the governors of the provinces not under Hou's control, but they saw his edicts as coerced and not binding on them, and they continued to resist Hou, and yet at the same time fought each other for territorial control and were largely ineffective when Hou attacked them, allowing Hou to seize additional territory. Eastern Wei (and its successor state Northern Qi, established in 550 as Gao Cheng's brother Gao Yang (Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi) seized the throne from Emperor Xiaojing (Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei)) largely seized the Liang provinces north of the Yangtze. Emperor Jianwen himself tried to foster a relationship with Hou, to ensure his own safety, and in 550, he married his daughter the Princess Liyang to Hou as Hou's wife. Hou favored the princess greatly, and for the time being, the emperor appeared safe. He created his oldest son Xiao Daqi crown prince. However, Hou still kept the emperor under heavy guard, and only several officials, including his cousin Xiao Zi (蕭諮) the Marquess of Wulin, Wang Ke (王克), and Yin Buhai were allowed to see him. Meanwhile, most of the provincial governors eventually accepted the command of Emperor Jianwen's brother Xiao Yi the Prince of Xiangdong, the governor of Jing Province (Jingzhou (ancient China)) (荊州, modern western Hubei). In 577, after Northern Zhou's Emperor Wu conquered Northern Qi and seized its territory, Emperor Ming went to greet Emperor Wu at Northern Qi's former capital Yecheng (Ye, China). Initially, while Emperor Wu treated Emperor Ming with ceremonial respect, he did not consider Emperor Ming as an important vassal. Emperor Ming sensed this, and, at a feast, discussed how Emperor Ming's father Emperor Xuan owed much to Emperor Wu's father, Western Wei's paramount general Yuwen Tai, and in doing so was so emotional that he wept bitterly. Emperor Wu was impressed, and treated him with greater respect. Emperor Ming also spent much effort to flatter Emperor Wu—including comparing him to the mythical emperors Emperor Yao (Yao (ruler)) and Shun (Emperor Shun). Emperor Wu was flattered, and rewarded Emperor Ming with much treasure, as well as some of the Northern Qi emperor Gao Wei's concubines.


green designs

name "Sullivan" ''The arts of China'' by Michael Sullivan p.19''ff'' Northern Qi tombs have revealed some beautiful artifacts, such as porcellaneous ware with splashed green designs, previously thought to have been developed under the Tang dynasty. Markedly unique from earlier depictions of the Buddha, Northern Qi statues tend to be smaller, around three feet tall


largest construction`;

the largest construction scale and best quality among all sections of Great Wall. Background Wei Zheng was born in 580, shortly before the founding of Sui Dynasty in 581. His family was from Julu Commandery (鉅鹿, roughly modern Xingtai, Hebei). His father Wei Changxian (魏長賢) was a county magistrate during Northern Qi. Wei lost his father early in life and was poor, but had great expectations, not caring about making wealth. At one point, he became a Taoist monk. He favored studying, and as he saw that the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui was beginning to make Sui fall into a state of confusion, he particularly paid attention to strategic works. Background Feng Deyi was born in 568, when his grandfather Feng Longzhi (封隆之) was a high level official for Northern Qi. His father Feng Zixiu (封子繡) served as a provincial governor for Northern Zhou, but was captured by the Chen Dynasty general Wu Mingche in a battle, probably in 573, during Wu's main offensive against Northern Qi. Sometime after Northern Qi was destroyed by Northern Zhou in 577, Feng Zixiu fled back north, and was made a provincial governor by Emperor Wen of Sui, whose Sui Dynasty succeeded Northern Zhou in 581. Feng Deyi's mother Lady Lu was probably Feng Zixiu's wife rather than a concubine, as she was the sister of the official Lu Sidao. In Feng Deyi's youth, Lu Sidao often said, with regard to Feng Deyi, "This child is more intelligent than other people, and one day will surely be a highly-ranked official, even chancellor." In 554, Western Wei forces attacked Emperor Yuan's new capital Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei) and captured it, putting Emperor Yuan to death around new year 555. Western Wei declared Emperor Yuan's nephew Xiao Cha (Emperor Xuan of Western Liang) emperor (as Emperor Xuan), but Wang and Chen Baxian refused to recognize Xiao Cha as emperor. They welcomed Emperor Yuan's only surviving son Xiao Fangzhi (Emperor Jing of Liang) the Prince of Jin'an to Jiankang, declaring him the Prince of Liang and preparing to declare him emperor. However, after Wang's forces suffered several defeats at the hands of Northern Qi forces, Wang accepted the proposal of Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi to make Emperor Yuan's cousin Xiao Yuanming emperor, and he declared Xiao Yuanming emperor in summer 555. Chen Baxian was displeased with Xiao Yuanming's ascension, and in fall 555, with Chen Qian as one of his confidants, he launched a surprise attack on Jiankang, killing Wang and deposing Xiao Yuanming. He declared Xiao Fangzhi emperor (as Emperor Jing). Northern Zhou's basis of power was established by Yuwen Tai, who was paramount general of Western Wei, following the split of Northern Wei into Western Wei and Eastern Wei in 535. After Yuwen Tai's death in 556, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuwen Hu forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue (Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou) (Emperor Xiaomin), establishing Northern Zhou. The reigns of the first three emperors (Yuwen Tai's sons) -- Emperor Xiaomin, Emperor Ming (Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou), and Emperor Wu (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) were dominated by Yuwen Hu, until Emperor Wu ambushed and killed Yuwen Hu in 572 and assumed power personally. With Emperor Wu as a capable ruler, Northern Zhou destroyed rival Northern Qi in 577, taking over Northern Qi's territory. However, Emperor Wu's death in 578 doomed the state, as his son Emperor Xuan (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou) was an arbitrary and violent ruler whose unorthodox behavior greatly weakened the state. After Emperor Xuan's death in 580 (when he was already titularly retired emperor (''Taishang Huang''), Emperor Xuan's father-in-law Yang Jian (Emperor Wen of Sui) seized power, and in 581 seized the throne from Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing (Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou), establishing Sui. The imperial Yuwen clan, including the young Emperor Jing, was subsequently slaughtered by Yang Jian. He maintained tense but relatively peaceful relations with the Göktürks and the various Chinese dynasties, briefly battling the Northern Zhou at the Liaodong Peninsula in 577. He frequently sent tributes to the Chen Dynasty, Northern Qi, Northern Zhou and Sui Dynasty. As the Sui Dynasty united China, King Pyeongwon prepared for the impending war. As emperor Emperor Jianwen was formally recognized by the governors of the provinces not under Hou's control, but they saw his edicts as coerced and not binding on them, and they continued to resist Hou, and yet at the same time fought each other for territorial control and were largely ineffective when Hou attacked them, allowing Hou to seize additional territory. Eastern Wei (and its successor state Northern Qi, established in 550 as Gao Cheng's brother Gao Yang (Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi) seized the throne from Emperor Xiaojing (Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei)) largely seized the Liang provinces north of the Yangtze. Emperor Jianwen himself tried to foster a relationship with Hou, to ensure his own safety, and in 550, he married his daughter the Princess Liyang to Hou as Hou's wife. Hou favored the princess greatly, and for the time being, the emperor appeared safe. He created his oldest son Xiao Daqi crown prince. However, Hou still kept the emperor under heavy guard, and only several officials, including his cousin Xiao Zi (蕭諮) the Marquess of Wulin, Wang Ke (王克), and Yin Buhai were allowed to see him. Meanwhile, most of the provincial governors eventually accepted the command of Emperor Jianwen's brother Xiao Yi the Prince of Xiangdong, the governor of Jing Province (Jingzhou (ancient China)) (荊州, modern western Hubei). In 577, after Northern Zhou's Emperor Wu conquered Northern Qi and seized its territory, Emperor Ming went to greet Emperor Wu at Northern Qi's former capital Yecheng (Ye, China). Initially, while Emperor Wu treated Emperor Ming with ceremonial respect, he did not consider Emperor Ming as an important vassal. Emperor Ming sensed this, and, at a feast, discussed how Emperor Ming's father Emperor Xuan owed much to Emperor Wu's father, Western Wei's paramount general Yuwen Tai, and in doing so was so emotional that he wept bitterly. Emperor Wu was impressed, and treated him with greater respect. Emperor Ming also spent much effort to flatter Emperor Wu—including comparing him to the mythical emperors Emperor Yao (Yao (ruler)) and Shun (Emperor Shun). Emperor Wu was flattered, and rewarded Emperor Ming with much treasure, as well as some of the Northern Qi emperor Gao Wei's concubines.


largest construction'

the largest construction scale and best quality among all sections of Great Wall. Background Wei Zheng was born in 580, shortly before the founding of Sui Dynasty in 581. His family was from Julu Commandery (鉅鹿, roughly modern Xingtai, Hebei). His father Wei Changxian (魏長賢) was a county magistrate during Northern Qi. Wei lost his father early in life and was poor, but had great expectations, not caring about making wealth. At one point, he became a Taoist monk. He favored studying, and as he saw that the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui was beginning to make Sui fall into a state of confusion, he particularly paid attention to strategic works. Background Feng Deyi was born in 568, when his grandfather Feng Longzhi (封隆之) was a high level official for Northern Qi. His father Feng Zixiu (封子繡) served as a provincial governor for Northern Zhou, but was captured by the Chen Dynasty general Wu Mingche in a battle, probably in 573, during Wu's main offensive against Northern Qi. Sometime after Northern Qi was destroyed by Northern Zhou in 577, Feng Zixiu fled back north, and was made a provincial governor by Emperor Wen of Sui, whose Sui Dynasty succeeded Northern Zhou in 581. Feng Deyi's mother Lady Lu was probably Feng Zixiu's wife rather than a concubine, as she was the sister of the official Lu Sidao. In Feng Deyi's youth, Lu Sidao often said, with regard to Feng Deyi, "This child is more intelligent than other people, and one day will surely be a highly-ranked official, even chancellor." In 554, Western Wei forces attacked Emperor Yuan's new capital Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei) and captured it, putting Emperor Yuan to death around new year 555. Western Wei declared Emperor Yuan's nephew Xiao Cha (Emperor Xuan of Western Liang) emperor (as Emperor Xuan), but Wang and Chen Baxian refused to recognize Xiao Cha as emperor. They welcomed Emperor Yuan's only surviving son Xiao Fangzhi (Emperor Jing of Liang) the Prince of Jin'an to Jiankang, declaring him the Prince of Liang and preparing to declare him emperor. However, after Wang's forces suffered several defeats at the hands of Northern Qi forces, Wang accepted the proposal of Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi to make Emperor Yuan's cousin Xiao Yuanming emperor, and he declared Xiao Yuanming emperor in summer 555. Chen Baxian was displeased with Xiao Yuanming's ascension, and in fall 555, with Chen Qian as one of his confidants, he launched a surprise attack on Jiankang, killing Wang and deposing Xiao Yuanming. He declared Xiao Fangzhi emperor (as Emperor Jing). Northern Zhou's basis of power was established by Yuwen Tai, who was paramount general of Western Wei, following the split of Northern Wei into Western Wei and Eastern Wei in 535. After Yuwen Tai's death in 556, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuwen Hu forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue (Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou) (Emperor Xiaomin), establishing Northern Zhou. The reigns of the first three emperors (Yuwen Tai's sons) -- Emperor Xiaomin, Emperor Ming (Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou), and Emperor Wu (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) were dominated by Yuwen Hu, until Emperor Wu ambushed and killed Yuwen Hu in 572 and assumed power personally. With Emperor Wu as a capable ruler, Northern Zhou destroyed rival Northern Qi in 577, taking over Northern Qi's territory. However, Emperor Wu's death in 578 doomed the state, as his son Emperor Xuan (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou) was an arbitrary and violent ruler whose unorthodox behavior greatly weakened the state. After Emperor Xuan's death in 580 (when he was already titularly retired emperor (''Taishang Huang''), Emperor Xuan's father-in-law Yang Jian (Emperor Wen of Sui) seized power, and in 581 seized the throne from Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing (Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou), establishing Sui. The imperial Yuwen clan, including the young Emperor Jing, was subsequently slaughtered by Yang Jian. He maintained tense but relatively peaceful relations with the Göktürks and the various Chinese dynasties, briefly battling the Northern Zhou at the Liaodong Peninsula in 577. He frequently sent tributes to the Chen Dynasty, Northern Qi, Northern Zhou and Sui Dynasty. As the Sui Dynasty united China, King Pyeongwon prepared for the impending war. As emperor Emperor Jianwen was formally recognized by the governors of the provinces not under Hou's control, but they saw his edicts as coerced and not binding on them, and they continued to resist Hou, and yet at the same time fought each other for territorial control and were largely ineffective when Hou attacked them, allowing Hou to seize additional territory. Eastern Wei (and its successor state Northern Qi, established in 550 as Gao Cheng's brother Gao Yang (Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi) seized the throne from Emperor Xiaojing (Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei)) largely seized the Liang provinces north of the Yangtze. Emperor Jianwen himself tried to foster a relationship with Hou, to ensure his own safety, and in 550, he married his daughter the Princess Liyang to Hou as Hou's wife. Hou favored the princess greatly, and for the time being, the emperor appeared safe. He created his oldest son Xiao Daqi crown prince. However, Hou still kept the emperor under heavy guard, and only several officials, including his cousin Xiao Zi (蕭諮) the Marquess of Wulin, Wang Ke (王克), and Yin Buhai were allowed to see him. Meanwhile, most of the provincial governors eventually accepted the command of Emperor Jianwen's brother Xiao Yi the Prince of Xiangdong, the governor of Jing Province (Jingzhou (ancient China)) (荊州, modern western Hubei). In 577, after Northern Zhou's Emperor Wu conquered Northern Qi and seized its territory, Emperor Ming went to greet Emperor Wu at Northern Qi's former capital Yecheng (Ye, China). Initially, while Emperor Wu treated Emperor Ming with ceremonial respect, he did not consider Emperor Ming as an important vassal. Emperor Ming sensed this, and, at a feast, discussed how Emperor Ming's father Emperor Xuan owed much to Emperor Wu's father, Western Wei's paramount general Yuwen Tai, and in doing so was so emotional that he wept bitterly. Emperor Wu was impressed, and treated him with greater respect. Emperor Ming also spent much effort to flatter Emperor Wu—including comparing him to the mythical emperors Emperor Yao (Yao (ruler)) and Shun (Emperor Shun). Emperor Wu was flattered, and rewarded Emperor Ming with much treasure, as well as some of the Northern Qi emperor Gao Wei's concubines.


618

father Gao Huan, and a Xianbei mother, Lou Zhaojun. As Eastern Wei's paramount general Gao Huan was succeeded by his sons Gao Cheng and Gao Yang, who took the throne from Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei

reconstructed Zhang Heng's seismometer in 1939 while working at Tokyo University Later Chinese of subsequent periods were able to reinvent Zhang's seismometer. They included the 6th-century mathematician and surveyor Xindu Fang of the Northern Qi Dynasty (Northern Qi) (550–577) and the astronomer and mathematician Lin Xiaogong of the Sui Dynasty (581–618). Needham (1986), Volume 3, 632–633. Like Zhang, Xindu Fang

around 1290, who remarked that the books of Xindu Fang and Lin Xiaogong detailing their seismological devices were no longer to be found. Horwitz, Kreitner, and Needham speculate if Tang Dynasty (618–907) era seismographs found their way to contemporary Japan; according to Needham, "instruments of apparently traditional type there in which a pendulum carries pins projecting in many directions and able to pierce a surrounding


light bringing

Tao Gu in about 950 stated: If there occurs an emergency at night it may take some time to make a light to light a lamp. But an ingenious man devised the system of impregnating little sticks of pinewood with sulfur and storing them ready for use. At the slightest touch of fire they burst into flame. One gets a little flame like an ear of corn. This marvellous thing was formerly called a "light-bringing slave", but afterwards when it became an article of commerce its


714

the three emperors from the rival state Western Wei after the division of the Northern Wei in 534. However, he was credited with harmonizing highly confusing and fragmented accounts of historical events from the state of Dai to the early period of Northern Wei and creating coherent accounts of events. Around that time, many men took tonsure to be Buddhist monks in order to avoid taxation and labor. In 714, Yao, pointing out that veneration of Buddhist monks did nothing to save

not listen to him and had Xue attack Khitan anyway. (Xue's campaign eventually ended in failure in fall 714.) Yao and his fellow chancellor Lu Huaishen, meanwhile, also did much to try to eliminate the culture of the nobles exerting influence in civil service matters. Background It is not known when Du Xian was born. However, Du was said to be in his 60s when he died in 740, and thus, based on the Chinese calculation of age, was born sometime between 672 and 681. See '' Book


580

the entity was in a state of dependency --- government_type Monarchy year_start 550 year_end 577 year_exile_start 577 year_exile_end 580 event_start date_start

date_event2 event3 date_event3 event4 date_event4 event_pre date_pre event_post Gao Shaoyi's capture by Northern Zhou date_post 27 July 580 ''Zizhi Tongjian'', vol. 174 (:zh:s:資治通鑑 卷174). !--- Flag navigation

Shaoyi , the Prince of Fanyang, under protection by Tujue, later declared himself the emperor of Northern Qi in exile, but was turned over by Tujue to Northern Zhou in 580 and exiled to modern Sichuan. It is a matter of controversy whether Gao Shaoyi should properly be considered a Northern Qi emperor, but in any case the year 577 is generally considered by historians as the ending date for Northern Qi. Emperors class "wikitable" - bgcolor "#CCCCCC"


largest construction';

the largest construction scale and best quality among all sections of Great Wall. Background Wei Zheng was born in 580, shortly before the founding of Sui Dynasty in 581. His family was from Julu Commandery (鉅鹿, roughly modern Xingtai, Hebei). His father Wei Changxian (魏長賢) was a county magistrate during Northern Qi. Wei lost his father early in life and was poor, but had great expectations, not caring about making wealth. At one point, he became a Taoist monk. He favored studying, and as he saw that the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui was beginning to make Sui fall into a state of confusion, he particularly paid attention to strategic works. Background Feng Deyi was born in 568, when his grandfather Feng Longzhi (封隆之) was a high level official for Northern Qi. His father Feng Zixiu (封子繡) served as a provincial governor for Northern Zhou, but was captured by the Chen Dynasty general Wu Mingche in a battle, probably in 573, during Wu's main offensive against Northern Qi. Sometime after Northern Qi was destroyed by Northern Zhou in 577, Feng Zixiu fled back north, and was made a provincial governor by Emperor Wen of Sui, whose Sui Dynasty succeeded Northern Zhou in 581. Feng Deyi's mother Lady Lu was probably Feng Zixiu's wife rather than a concubine, as she was the sister of the official Lu Sidao. In Feng Deyi's youth, Lu Sidao often said, with regard to Feng Deyi, "This child is more intelligent than other people, and one day will surely be a highly-ranked official, even chancellor." In 554, Western Wei forces attacked Emperor Yuan's new capital Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei) and captured it, putting Emperor Yuan to death around new year 555. Western Wei declared Emperor Yuan's nephew Xiao Cha (Emperor Xuan of Western Liang) emperor (as Emperor Xuan), but Wang and Chen Baxian refused to recognize Xiao Cha as emperor. They welcomed Emperor Yuan's only surviving son Xiao Fangzhi (Emperor Jing of Liang) the Prince of Jin'an to Jiankang, declaring him the Prince of Liang and preparing to declare him emperor. However, after Wang's forces suffered several defeats at the hands of Northern Qi forces, Wang accepted the proposal of Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi to make Emperor Yuan's cousin Xiao Yuanming emperor, and he declared Xiao Yuanming emperor in summer 555. Chen Baxian was displeased with Xiao Yuanming's ascension, and in fall 555, with Chen Qian as one of his confidants, he launched a surprise attack on Jiankang, killing Wang and deposing Xiao Yuanming. He declared Xiao Fangzhi emperor (as Emperor Jing). Northern Zhou's basis of power was established by Yuwen Tai, who was paramount general of Western Wei, following the split of Northern Wei into Western Wei and Eastern Wei in 535. After Yuwen Tai's death in 556, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuwen Hu forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue (Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou) (Emperor Xiaomin), establishing Northern Zhou. The reigns of the first three emperors (Yuwen Tai's sons) -- Emperor Xiaomin, Emperor Ming (Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou), and Emperor Wu (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) were dominated by Yuwen Hu, until Emperor Wu ambushed and killed Yuwen Hu in 572 and assumed power personally. With Emperor Wu as a capable ruler, Northern Zhou destroyed rival Northern Qi in 577, taking over Northern Qi's territory. However, Emperor Wu's death in 578 doomed the state, as his son Emperor Xuan (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou) was an arbitrary and violent ruler whose unorthodox behavior greatly weakened the state. After Emperor Xuan's death in 580 (when he was already titularly retired emperor (''Taishang Huang''), Emperor Xuan's father-in-law Yang Jian (Emperor Wen of Sui) seized power, and in 581 seized the throne from Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing (Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou), establishing Sui. The imperial Yuwen clan, including the young Emperor Jing, was subsequently slaughtered by Yang Jian. He maintained tense but relatively peaceful relations with the Göktürks and the various Chinese dynasties, briefly battling the Northern Zhou at the Liaodong Peninsula in 577. He frequently sent tributes to the Chen Dynasty, Northern Qi, Northern Zhou and Sui Dynasty. As the Sui Dynasty united China, King Pyeongwon prepared for the impending war. As emperor Emperor Jianwen was formally recognized by the governors of the provinces not under Hou's control, but they saw his edicts as coerced and not binding on them, and they continued to resist Hou, and yet at the same time fought each other for territorial control and were largely ineffective when Hou attacked them, allowing Hou to seize additional territory. Eastern Wei (and its successor state Northern Qi, established in 550 as Gao Cheng's brother Gao Yang (Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi) seized the throne from Emperor Xiaojing (Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei)) largely seized the Liang provinces north of the Yangtze. Emperor Jianwen himself tried to foster a relationship with Hou, to ensure his own safety, and in 550, he married his daughter the Princess Liyang to Hou as Hou's wife. Hou favored the princess greatly, and for the time being, the emperor appeared safe. He created his oldest son Xiao Daqi crown prince. However, Hou still kept the emperor under heavy guard, and only several officials, including his cousin Xiao Zi (蕭諮) the Marquess of Wulin, Wang Ke (王克), and Yin Buhai were allowed to see him. Meanwhile, most of the provincial governors eventually accepted the command of Emperor Jianwen's brother Xiao Yi the Prince of Xiangdong, the governor of Jing Province (Jingzhou (ancient China)) (荊州, modern western Hubei). In 577, after Northern Zhou's Emperor Wu conquered Northern Qi and seized its territory, Emperor Ming went to greet Emperor Wu at Northern Qi's former capital Yecheng (Ye, China). Initially, while Emperor Wu treated Emperor Ming with ceremonial respect, he did not consider Emperor Ming as an important vassal. Emperor Ming sensed this, and, at a feast, discussed how Emperor Ming's father Emperor Xuan owed much to Emperor Wu's father, Western Wei's paramount general Yuwen Tai, and in doing so was so emotional that he wept bitterly. Emperor Wu was impressed, and treated him with greater respect. Emperor Ming also spent much effort to flatter Emperor Wu—including comparing him to the mythical emperors Emperor Yao (Yao (ruler)) and Shun (Emperor Shun). Emperor Wu was flattered, and rewarded Emperor Ming with much treasure, as well as some of the Northern Qi emperor Gao Wei's concubines.


early matches

into the Eastern Wei and Western Wei. These were followed by the Northern Zhou and Northern Qi. In the south, the dynasties were much less stable than the Northern Dynasties. The four dynasties (Southern dynasties) were weakened by conflicts between the ruling families. Early matches A predecessor of the modern match, small sticks of pinewood impregnated with sulfur were used in China in AD 577. Besieged by military forces of Northern Zhou and Chen Dynasty Chen

Northern Qi

The '''Northern Qi''' ( ) was one of the Northern dynasties of Chinese history and ruled northern China from 550 to 577.

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