and Iran as well as counter-terrorism. DIA was also involved with the intelligence build-up to the invasion of Iraq in 2003 and was a subject in the Senate Report of Pre-war Intelligence on Iraq. The Defense Intelligence Agency has conflicted with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in collection and analysis on the existence of weapons of mass destruction (Weapon of mass destruction) in Iraq and has often represented the Pentagon in the CIA-DoD intelligence rivalry due to DIA's alleged clandestine HUMINT collection and often overlapping analysis products. Operational military intelligence has also been a focus, particularly in Iraq with insurgency threats and asymmetric warfare. The DIA is responsible for assessing the current and projected national security threats to the United States as well as presenting these assessments to the Senate Armed Services Committee. The DIA still actively maintains its responsibility for conventional strategic and operational military intelligence. Commons:Category:North Korea WikiPedia:North Korea Dmoz:Regional Asia North Korea
; Korail provides frequent train services to all major South Korean cities. Two rail lines, Gyeongui (Gyeongui Line) and Donghae Bukbu Line, to North Korea are now being reconnected. The Korean high-speed rail system, KTX (Korea Train Express), provides high-speed service along Gyeongbu (Gyeongbu Line) and Honam Line
. Major cities including Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon and Gwangju have urban rapid transit systems. Subway, Korea Tourism Organization; Incheon Metro Express bus terminals are available in most cities. Express bus terminal guide, Korea Express Bus Lines Association. South
to the public after 8 years, due to security reasons following the World Trade Center attacks (September 11 attacks). *1948 – National Health Service Acts created the national public health systems in the United Kingdom *1950 – Korean War: Task Force Smith – First clash between American (United States) and North Korean forces in the Battle of Osan. * 1950 – Zionism: the Knesset passes the Law of Return which grants all Jews the right to immigrate to Israel. *2004 – The first Indonesian presidential election (Indonesian presidential election, 2004) is held. *2006 – North Korea launches (North Korean Missile Test (2006)) at least two short-range Nodong-2 missiles, one SCUD missile and one long-range Taepodong-2 missile. *2009 – A series of violent riots break out (July 2009 Ürümqi riots) in Ürümqi, the capital city of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China (People's Republic of China). *1949 – Initial flight of the de Havilland Comet, the first jet-powered airliner. *1953 – Fighting in the Korean War ends when the United States, the People's Republic of China, and North Korea sign an armistice agreement. Syngman Rhee, President of South Korea, refuses to sign but pledges to observe the armistice. *1955 – The Allied (Allies of World War II) occupation of Austria stemming from World War II, ends. *1948 – Burma gains its independence from the United Kingdom. *1951 – Korean War: Chinese (China) and North Korean forces capture Seoul (Third Battle of Seoul). *1955 – The Greek National Radical Union is formed by Konstantinos Karamanlis. *1967 – Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Ivory Coast are established. *1968 – North Korea seizes the Commons:Category:North Korea WikiPedia:North Korea Dmoz:Regional Asia North Korea
earthquake on Sri Lanka tsunami -struck school in Sri Lanka, performing plays for children in Bangkok, working with children at the Christina Noble Children's Foundation in Ho Chi Minh City and travelling to North Korea to learn about life and affairs in a country that much of the world knows little about, and working in several children's orphanages run by the Happy Tree Organisation in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Some students also take on other challenging projects
, were elected. The term '''coalition of the willing''' is a post-1990 political phrase used to collectively describe participants in military or military-humanitarian interventions for which the United Nations Security Council cannot agree to mount a full UN peacekeeping operation. It has existed in the political science international relations literature at least since UN peacekeeping operations began to run into complications
content_10497366.htm "UN chief urges rights council to rise above "partisan posturing"" , Xinhua, December 12, 2008. and get on with defending people around the world. This follows criticism since the council was set up, where Israel has been condemned on most occasions and other incidences in the world such as Darfur, Tibet, North Korea and Zimbabwe have not been discussed at the council. Ban Ki-Moon also appealed for the United States to fully join the council and play a more active role. The UNHRC was criticized in 2009 for adopting a resolution submitted by Sri Lanka praising its conduct in Vanni (Vanni (Sri Lanka)) that year, ignoring pleas for an international war crimes investigation. "Sri Lanka forces West to retreat over ‘war crimes’ with victory at UN", Times, May 28, 2009 State capitalist analysis While not a member of the International Socialist Tendency, SA remains committed to the ideas and positions associated with the International Socialist tradition of Trotskyism advanced by Tony Cliff, which sees the states of the former USSR, Eastern Europe, China, Vietnam, North Korea and Cuba as being in no sense socialist, rather forms of "state capitalism", where workers are exploited (Rate of exploitation) by a bureaucratic ruling class. The authors argued that the People's Republic of China's per capita GDP of roughly USD $4,500 could be explained by its use of a communist economic system for much of its recent history (Economy of the People's Republic of China). The authors also predicted that communist nations whom they believe have comparatively higher IQs, including the PRC, Vietnam, and North Korea, can be expected to gain GDP by moving from centrally-planned to market economic systems, while predicting continued poverty for African nations. Recent trends in the economy of the People's Republic of China and Vietnam seem to confirm this prediction, as China's GDP has grown rapidly since introducing market reforms. South Korea has a higher average IQ and a market economy. However, South Korea still has a lower GDP Capita (List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita) than many Western nations (but relatively high overall), but South Korean economic reform started in the early 1960s and it is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Still, South Korea went from amongst the poorest nations in the world to an advanced economy by recording one of the fastest growth rates in the world. The '''Easter Offensive''', and also ('''Chiến dịch Xuân hè 1972''' in Vietnamese) was a military campaign conducted by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) against the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN, the regular army of South Vietnam) and the United States military between 30 March and 22 October 1972, during the Vietnam War. Military operations are generally designated by the title attributed to them by the attacking force. During the Cold War this convention was disregarded. Thus the North Vietnamese ''General Offensive, General Uprising'' of 1968 became known in the West as the Tet Offensive. Returning to the previous convention, the 1972 Spring offensive has returned to its correct designation. This conventional invasion (the largest offensive operation since 300,000 Chinese volunteers had crossed the Yalu River into North Korea during the Korean War) was a radical departure from previous North Vietnamese offensives. The offensive was not designed to win the war outright, but North Vietnam aimed to gain as much territory and destroy as many units of the ARVN as possible, to improve the North's negotiating position as the Paris Peace Accords drew toward a conclusion. ''Sun-Sentinel'' story and correction In a June 24, 2006, speech at Florida International University, Commons:Category:North Korea WikiPedia:North Korea Dmoz:Regional Asia North Korea
take pictures without feeling as if you're trying to sneak them by anyone and without pressure capturing some truly unique images. If you are in an area that prohibits picture taking, you will also be informed of this and it is best to simply follow your guide's direction. When in doubt, always ask. Your guide might even want to try out your camera and take a picture of you for your collection. In a worst-case scenario, you can be expected to raise your camera at a reasonable speed, compose
;N. Korea moves to develop cutting-edge nanotech industry Yonhap News - 2 August 2013 (access date: 17 June 2014) A five-year scientific plan emphasizing IT, biotechnology, nanotechnology, marine and plasma research was carried out in the early 2000s.
Accords drew toward a conclusion. ''Sun-Sentinel'' story and correction In a June 24, 2006, speech at Florida International University,
Oct_2005 05370.html The US authorities announced that this scheme, which they said involved several international crime syndicates and transactions worth millions of dollars, had been uncovered in "Operation Mali". Commons:Category:North Korea WikiPedia:North Korea Dmoz:Regional Asia North Korea
image_map North Korea (orthographic projection).svg map_caption Area controlled by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea shown in green capital Pyongyang latd 39 latm 2 latNS N longd 125 longm 45 longEW E largest_city Pyongyang official_languages Korean (Korean language) languages_type Official script languages Chosŏn'gŭl ethnic_groups ethnic_groups_year demonym government_type Single-party state (various interpretations) (North Korea#Political ideology) leader_title1 leader_name1 Kim Jong-un leader_title2 leader_name2 Kim Yong-nam leader_title3 Premier (Premier of North Korea) leader_name3 Pak Pong-ju legislature Supreme People's Assembly established_event1 Liberation (Victory over Japan Day) established_date1 15 August 1945 established_event2 Provisional People's Committee for North Korea established established_date2 February 1946 established_event3 DPRK established established_date3 9 September 1948 area_rank 98th area_magnitude 1 E11 area_km2 120,540 area_sq_mi 46,528 percent_water 4.87 population_estimate 24,895,000 population_estimate_rank 48th population_estimate_year 2013 population_census 24,052,231 population_census_year 2011 population_density_km2 198.3 population_density_sq_mi 513.8 population_density_rank 63rd GDP_PPP $40 billion North Korea, CIA World Factbook, accessed on 31 March 2013. GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year 2011 GDP_PPP_per_capita $1,800 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank GDP_nominal $15,4 billion National Accounts Main Aggregate Database, United Nations Statistics Division, December 2012. GDP_nominal_rank GDP_nominal_year 2013 GDP_nominal_per_capita $621 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank Gini_year 2007 Gini_change decrease Gini 31 Gini_ref List of countries by income equality currency North Korean won (₩) currency_code KPW time_zone Korea Standard Time utc_offset +9 time_zone_DST DST_note utc_offset_DST antipodes date_format drives_on right iso3166code calling_code +850 (Telephone numbers in North Korea) cctld .kp footnote_a Kim Jong-un holds four concurrent positions: First Secretary of the Workers' Party, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, First Chairman of the National Defence Commission and Supreme Commander of the People's Army, serve as the "supreme leader" of the DPRK. footnote_b Kim Yong-nam is the "head of state (Head of State) for foreign affairs". The position of president (formerly head of state) was written out of the constitution in 1998. Kim Il-sung, who died in 1994, was given the appellation "Eternal President (Eternal President of the Republic)" in its preamble.
'''North Korea''' ( The Korean Demilitarized Zone marks the boundary between North Korea and South Korea. The legitimacy of this border is not accepted by either side, as both states claim to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula.
Korea was annexed by the Empire of Japan (Korea under Japanese rule) in 1910. In 1945, when Japan was defeated (surrender of Japan) in World War II, Korea was divided (Division of Korea) into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union (Soviet Civil Authority) and the south by the United States (USAMGIK). Negotiations on unification failed, and in 1948 two separate governments were formed: the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, and the Republic of Korea in the south. The conflicting claims of sovereignty led to the Korean War in 1950. An armistice (Korean Armistice Agreement) in 1953 committed both to a cease-fire, but the two countries remain officially at war because a formal peace treaty was never signed.
The DPRK holds elections (Elections in North Korea) and describes itself as a self-reliant socialist state, Constitution of North Korea (wikisource:Constitution of North Korea (1972)) but it is widely considered a dictatorship and has been described as totalitarian and Stalinist, url http: www.telegraph.co.uk news main.jhtml?xml news 2007 08 28 wnkorea128.xml title North Korea power struggle looms accessdate 31 October 2007 last Spencer first Richard authorlink date 28 August 2007 work The Telegraph (online version of United Kingdom's national newspaper) quote A power struggle to succeed Kim Jong-il as leader of North Korea's Stalinist dictatorship may be looming after his eldest son was reported to have returned from semi-voluntary exile. location London url http: www.timesonline.co.uk tol news world asia article2388356.ece title North Korea's nuclear 'deal' leaves Japan feeling nervous accessdate 31 October 2007 last Parry first Richard Lloyd authorlink Richard Lloyd Parry date 5 September 2007 work The Times (online version of United Kingdom's national newspaper of record) quote The US Government contradicted earlier North Korean claims that it had agreed to remove the Stalinist dictatorship’s designation as a terrorist state and to lift economic sanctions, as part of talks aimed at disarming Pyongyang of its nuclear weapons. location London url http: socialistworld.net eng 2003 02 08korea.html title The Korean crisis accessdate 31 October 2007 last Walsh first Lynn authorlink Lynn Walsh date 8 February 2003 work CWI online: Socialism Today, February 2003 edition, journal of the Socialist Party, CWI England and Wales publisher socialistworld.net, website of the committee for a worker’s international quote Kim Jong-il's regime needs economic concessions to avoid collapse, and just as crucially needs an end to the strategic siege imposed by the US since the end of the Korean war (1950–53). Pyongyang's nuclear brinkmanship, though potentially dangerous, is driven by fear rather than by militaristic ambition. The rotten Stalinist dictatorship faces the prospect of an implosion. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, which deprived North Korea of vital economic support, the regime has consistently attempted to secure from the US a non-aggression pact, recognition of its sovereignty, and economic assistance. The US's equally consistent refusal to enter into direct negotiations with North Korea, effectively ruling out a peace treaty to formally close the 1950–53 Korean War, has encouraged the regime to resort to nuclear blackmail. url http: www.nytimes.com 2003 10 02 international asia 02CND-KORE.html?ex 1380513600&en a29d7f1e49aabee0&ei 5007&partner USERLAND title North Korea Says It Is Using Plutonium to Make A-Bombs accessdate 31 October 2007 last Brooke first James authorlink James Brooke (journalist) date 2 October 2003 work The New York Times quote North Korea, run by a Stalinist dictatorship for almost six decades, is largely closed to foreign reporters and it is impossible to independently check today's claims. url http: timesofindia.indiatimes.com Let_The_Music_Play_On articleshow 2859521.cms title Leader Article: Let The Music Play On accessdate 27 March 2008 last Buruma first Ian authorlink Ian Buruma date 13 March 2008 work The Times of India quote North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is one of the world's most oppressive, closed, and vicious dictatorships. It is perhaps the last living example of pure totalitarianism – control of the state over every aspect of human life. url http: freedomhouse.org template.cfm?page 22&year 2006&country 6993 title Freedom in the World, 2006 publisher Freedom House accessdate 13 February 2007 quote Citizens of North Korea cannot change their government democratically. North Korea is a totalitarian dictatorship and one of the most restrictive countries in the world. url http: www.economist.com media pdf DEMOCRACY_TABLE_2007_v3.pdf title Economist Intelligence Unit democracy index 2006 accessdate 9 October 2007 year 2007 format PDF publisher Economist Intelligence Unit North Korea ranked in last place (167) url http: www.economist.com world asia displaystory.cfm?story_id 11465278 title A portrait of North Korea's new rich accessdate 18 June 2009 date 29 May 2008 work The Economist quote EVERY developing country worth its salt has a bustling middle class that is transforming the country and thrilling the markets. So does Stalinist North Korea.
Over time North Korea has gradually distanced itself from the world Communist movement. ''Juche'', an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution (Constitution of North Korea) as a "creative application of Marxism–Leninism" in 1972. last Martin first Bradley K. authorlink coauthors title Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty publisher Thomas Dunne Books year 2004 location New York City, New York page 111 quote Although it was in that 1955 speech that Kim gave full voice to his arguments for ''juche'', he had been talking along similar lines as early as 1948. doi id isbn 0-312-32322-0 In 2009, the constitution was amended again, quietly removing the brief references to communism (Chosŏn'gŭl (Hangul): )
The means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms (Collective farming), and most services such as healthcare, education, housing and food production are state funded or subsidized.
North Korea follows ''Songun'', or "military-first" policy. H. Hodge (2003). "North Korea’s Military Strategy", ''Parameters'', U.S. Army War College Quarterly. It is the world's most militarized (List of countries by number of troops) society, with a total of 9,495,000 active, reserve, and paramilitary personnel. Its active duty army of 1.21 million is the 4th largest in the world, after China, the U.S., and India.