been found in North Korea and Manchuria, including ancient paintings in a Goguryeo tomb complex (Complex of Goguryeo Tombs) in Pyongyang. Some ruins are also still visible in present-day China, for example at Wǔ Nǚ Shān, suspected to be the site of Jolbon fortress, near Huanren (Huanren (town)) in Liaoning province on the present border with North Korea. Ji'an is also home to a large collection of Goguryeo era tombs, including what Chinese scholars consider to be the tombs of kings Gwanggaeto and his son Jangsu, as well as perhaps the best-known Goguryeo artifact, the Gwanggaeto Stele, which is one of the primary sources for pre-fifth century Goguryeo history. World Heritage Site UNESCO added Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom in present-day China and Complex of Goguryeo Tombs in present-day North Korea to the World Heritage Sites in 2004. While romanization has taken various and at times seemingly unstructured forms, some sets of rules do exist: * McCune-Reischauer (MR; 1937?), the first transcription to gain some acceptance. A slightly changed version of MR was the official system for Korean (Korean language) in South Korea from 1984 to 2000, and yet a different modification is still the official system in North Korea. Uses breves, apostrophes and diereses (Diaeresis (diacritic)), the latter two indicating orthographic syllable boundaries in cases that would otherwise be ambiguous. What is called MR may in many cases be any of a number of systems that differ from each other and from the original MR mostly in whether word endings are separated from the stem by a space, a hyphen or – according to McCune's and Reischauer's system – not at all; and if a hyphen or space is used, whether sound change is reflected in a stem's last and an ending's first consonant letter (e.g. ''pur-i'' vs. ''pul-i''). Although mostly irrelevant when transcribing uninflected words, these aberrations are so widespread that any mention of "McCune-Reischauer romanization" may not necessarily refer to the original system as published in the 1930s. ** There is, for example, the ALA-LC U.S. Library of Congress system, based on MR but with some deviations. Word division is addressed in detail, with a generous use of spaces to separate word endings from stems that is not seen in MR. Syllables of given names are always separated with a hyphen, which is expressly never done by MR. Sound changes are ignored more often than in MR. Distinguishes between '''‘''' and '''’'''. ( Commons:Category:North Korea WikiPedia:North Korea Dmoz:Regional Asia North Korea
-sci-fi-genre-and-literary-value-in-north-korea title Benoit Symposium: From Pyongyang to Mars: Sci-fi, Genre, and Literary Value in North Korea publisher SinoNK date 25 September 2013 accessdate 14 July 2014 Media Government policies towards film are no different than those applied to other arts — motion pictures serve to fulfill the targets of "social education". Some of the most influential films are based on historic events
Korea , Tunisia - * '''Open books''', exemplified on the state crests of Mozambique, Angola and Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan), and also on the party crests of Communist Party of the Russian Federation and Communist Party of Ukraine. * '''Factories or industrial equipment''', exemplified on the crests of North Korea, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Democratic Kampuchea and Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. * '''Natural landscapes''', exemplified on the crests of SR Macedonia, Romania (Communist Romania) and the Karelo-Finnish SSR. '''Geom Mojam''' (?-670) was the military leader of a short-lived movement to restore Goguryeo after its fall to Silla in the later 7th century CE. After the kingdom fell to Tang and Silla in 668, he kindled an opposition movement in the Taedong River valley and in 670 established Anseung (안승, 安勝, another source has it as Ansun, 안순, 安舜) as the new King of Goguryeo. Anseung is believed to have been the illegitimate son of King Bojang (Bojang of Goguryeo), the last ruler of that kingdom. The capital was set up in modern-day Chaeryŏng-gun, South Hwanghae, North Korea. The rebellion is briefly described in the ''Samguk Sagi'', Goguryeo Book 10. The Sandinistas had acquired eight Soviet (Soviet Union) Yevgenya class minesweepers, of which seven remained in 1993. Three Soviet Zhuk-class patrol boats were believed to be seaworthy, out of seven that remained at the end of 1990. Also believed to be operational are three North Korean fast patrol boats as well as two Vedette-type boats built in France and armed with Soviet 14.5mm machine guns. thumb left 250px Regions with hot-summer humid continental climates (Image:Koppen World Map Dfa Dwa Dsa.png) A hot (or very warm) version of a continental climate features an average temperature of at least Commons:Category:North Korea WikiPedia:North Korea Dmoz:Regional Asia North Korea
;nbsp; In North Korea, a separate character set called KPS 9566 is in use, which is rather similar to KS X 1001. The war, which lasted from June 25, 1950 until the Korean Armistice Agreement (s:Korean Armistice Agreement) was signed on July 27, 1953, started as a civil war between communist North Korea and the Republic of Korea (South Korea). The United States, acting on behalf of the United Nations, sought to repel the North Korean invasion
the PSS Law 157 had passed in 1963 with Hong Jong Chul as its first chief under the direction of the Gyeongmundae Police Force. Introduction to PSS. Retrieved on January 24, 2008. PSS responsibilities were increased after North Korean soldiers of the 124th Army Unit attacked the Blue House (Cheong Wa Dae) in 1968. major history index_03.html
work History of United States Naval Operations: Korea publisher Department of the Navy - Naval Historical Center date 2000-06-21 url http: www.history.navy.mil books field ch12b.htm accessdate 2007-12-19 The Wing's Chief of Staff Frank Schwable was shot down in July 1952 and while a prisoner of war confessed to having participated in germ warfare. He was eventually cleared of all charges, but his case prompted a review of training and expectations of prisoners
of the United Nations (UN) to drive back the North Koreans and re-unite that country in terms of a rollback strategy The Soviets were boycotting the UN at that time (because it would not admit the People's Republic of China) and so was not present to veto Truman's actions. James I. Matray, "Truman's Plan for Victory: National Self-Determination and the Thirty-Eighth Parallel Decision in Korea," ''Journal of American History'' Vol. 66, No. 2 (Sep., 1979
across the 38th parallel (38th parallel north) to take over North Korea. James I. Matray, "Truman's Plan for Victory: National Self-Determination and the Thirty-Eighth Parallel Decision in Korea," ''Journal of American History,'' Sept 1979, Vol. 66 Issue 2, pp 314-333, in JSTOR The rollback strategy, however, caused the Chinese to intervene, and they pushed the UN forces back to the 38th parallel. The failure of the rollback
2005 December Monday19 917370795169.html publisher Mmegi Online (Mmegi) location Gaborone, Botswana accessdate 2010-06-30 date 2005-12-19 volume 49 issue 5 While the statues represent famous historical figures, there has been some controversy over the cost of the construction, P12,000,000 (approx. US$1.7M, €1.4M, or £1.1M as of June 2010), and over the construction company, North Korean Masundae Overseas Projects, putting the wrong inscription date.
journal author Keto Segwai title Three dikgosi in waiting url http: www.mmegi.bw 2006 July Friday28 122256372162.html publisher Mmegi Online (Mmegi) location Gaborone, Botswana accessdate 2010-06-30 date 2006-07-28 volume 23 issue 111 Other buildings under construction in the CBD include the Holiday Inn Gaborone, retail space, and office space.
index.php?sid 4&aid 20&dir 2008 August Monday11 publisher Mmegi Online (Mmegi) location Gaborone, Botswana date 2008-08-11 accessdate 2009-08-06 volume 25 issue 116 North Korea Portugal and North Korea have a good relationship, in part due to the former Portuguese colony of Macau. One of Kim Jong-il's sons, in addition to his North Korean citizenship (Nationality Law of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea), holds Portuguese citizenship from
would intervene on the side of North Korea, that a stalemate would result, and that the Americans would retain a long-term presence in South Korea afterwards. All of these events occurred over the course of the Korean War. Lawson "Axis of evil" speech On January 29, 2002, American President George W. Bush gave his "Axis of evil" speech, describing Iran, along with North Korea and Iraq, as an axis of evil and warning
html_dir 2010 08 02 2010080201090.html title Moody's Raises Korea's Credit Range work Chosun Ilbo location Seoul date August 2, 2010 accessdate August 14, 2010 The International Monetary Fund compliments the resilience of the South
image_map North Korea (orthographic projection).svg map_caption Area controlled by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea shown in green capital Pyongyang latd 39 latm 2 latNS N longd 125 longm 45 longEW E largest_city Pyongyang official_languages Korean (Korean language) languages_type Official script languages Chosŏn'gŭl ethnic_groups ethnic_groups_year demonym government_type Single-party state (various interpretations) (North Korea#Political ideology) leader_title1 leader_name1 Kim Jong-un leader_title2 leader_name2 Kim Yong-nam leader_title3 Premier (Premier of North Korea) leader_name3 Pak Pong-ju legislature Supreme People's Assembly established_event1 Liberation (Victory over Japan Day) established_date1 15 August 1945 established_event2 Provisional People's Committee for North Korea established established_date2 February 1946 established_event3 DPRK established established_date3 9 September 1948 area_rank 98th area_magnitude 1 E11 area_km2 120,540 area_sq_mi 46,528 percent_water 4.87 population_estimate 24,895,000 population_estimate_rank 48th population_estimate_year 2013 population_census 24,052,231 population_census_year 2011 population_density_km2 198.3 population_density_sq_mi 513.8 population_density_rank 63rd GDP_PPP $40 billion North Korea, CIA World Factbook, accessed on 31 March 2013. GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year 2011 GDP_PPP_per_capita $1,800 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank GDP_nominal $15,4 billion National Accounts Main Aggregate Database, United Nations Statistics Division, December 2012. GDP_nominal_rank GDP_nominal_year 2013 GDP_nominal_per_capita $621 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank Gini_year 2007 Gini_change decrease Gini 31 Gini_ref List of countries by income equality currency North Korean won (₩) currency_code KPW time_zone Korea Standard Time utc_offset +9 time_zone_DST DST_note utc_offset_DST antipodes date_format drives_on right iso3166code calling_code +850 (Telephone numbers in North Korea) cctld .kp footnote_a Kim Jong-un holds four concurrent positions: First Secretary of the Workers' Party, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, First Chairman of the National Defence Commission and Supreme Commander of the People's Army, serve as the "supreme leader" of the DPRK. footnote_b Kim Yong-nam is the "head of state (Head of State) for foreign affairs". The position of president (formerly head of state) was written out of the constitution in 1998. Kim Il-sung, who died in 1994, was given the appellation "Eternal President (Eternal President of the Republic)" in its preamble.
'''North Korea''' ( The Korean Demilitarized Zone marks the boundary between North Korea and South Korea. The legitimacy of this border is not accepted by either side, as both states claim to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula.
Korea was annexed by the Empire of Japan (Korea under Japanese rule) in 1910. In 1945, when Japan was defeated (surrender of Japan) in World War II, Korea was divided (Division of Korea) into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union (Soviet Civil Authority) and the south by the United States (USAMGIK). Negotiations on unification failed, and in 1948 two separate governments were formed: the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, and the Republic of Korea in the south. The conflicting claims of sovereignty led to the Korean War in 1950. An armistice (Korean Armistice Agreement) in 1953 committed both to a cease-fire, but the two countries remain officially at war because a formal peace treaty was never signed.
The DPRK holds elections (Elections in North Korea) and describes itself as a self-reliant socialist state, Constitution of North Korea (wikisource:Constitution of North Korea (1972)) but it is widely considered a dictatorship and has been described as totalitarian and Stalinist, url http: www.telegraph.co.uk news main.jhtml?xml news 2007 08 28 wnkorea128.xml title North Korea power struggle looms accessdate 31 October 2007 last Spencer first Richard authorlink date 28 August 2007 work The Telegraph (online version of United Kingdom's national newspaper) quote A power struggle to succeed Kim Jong-il as leader of North Korea's Stalinist dictatorship may be looming after his eldest son was reported to have returned from semi-voluntary exile. location London url http: www.timesonline.co.uk tol news world asia article2388356.ece title North Korea's nuclear 'deal' leaves Japan feeling nervous accessdate 31 October 2007 last Parry first Richard Lloyd authorlink Richard Lloyd Parry date 5 September 2007 work The Times (online version of United Kingdom's national newspaper of record) quote The US Government contradicted earlier North Korean claims that it had agreed to remove the Stalinist dictatorship’s designation as a terrorist state and to lift economic sanctions, as part of talks aimed at disarming Pyongyang of its nuclear weapons. location London url http: socialistworld.net eng 2003 02 08korea.html title The Korean crisis accessdate 31 October 2007 last Walsh first Lynn authorlink Lynn Walsh date 8 February 2003 work CWI online: Socialism Today, February 2003 edition, journal of the Socialist Party, CWI England and Wales publisher socialistworld.net, website of the committee for a worker’s international quote Kim Jong-il's regime needs economic concessions to avoid collapse, and just as crucially needs an end to the strategic siege imposed by the US since the end of the Korean war (1950–53). Pyongyang's nuclear brinkmanship, though potentially dangerous, is driven by fear rather than by militaristic ambition. The rotten Stalinist dictatorship faces the prospect of an implosion. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, which deprived North Korea of vital economic support, the regime has consistently attempted to secure from the US a non-aggression pact, recognition of its sovereignty, and economic assistance. The US's equally consistent refusal to enter into direct negotiations with North Korea, effectively ruling out a peace treaty to formally close the 1950–53 Korean War, has encouraged the regime to resort to nuclear blackmail. url http: www.nytimes.com 2003 10 02 international asia 02CND-KORE.html?ex 1380513600&en a29d7f1e49aabee0&ei 5007&partner USERLAND title North Korea Says It Is Using Plutonium to Make A-Bombs accessdate 31 October 2007 last Brooke first James authorlink James Brooke (journalist) date 2 October 2003 work The New York Times quote North Korea, run by a Stalinist dictatorship for almost six decades, is largely closed to foreign reporters and it is impossible to independently check today's claims. url http: timesofindia.indiatimes.com Let_The_Music_Play_On articleshow 2859521.cms title Leader Article: Let The Music Play On accessdate 27 March 2008 last Buruma first Ian authorlink Ian Buruma date 13 March 2008 work The Times of India quote North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is one of the world's most oppressive, closed, and vicious dictatorships. It is perhaps the last living example of pure totalitarianism – control of the state over every aspect of human life. url http: freedomhouse.org template.cfm?page 22&year 2006&country 6993 title Freedom in the World, 2006 publisher Freedom House accessdate 13 February 2007 quote Citizens of North Korea cannot change their government democratically. North Korea is a totalitarian dictatorship and one of the most restrictive countries in the world. url http: www.economist.com media pdf DEMOCRACY_TABLE_2007_v3.pdf title Economist Intelligence Unit democracy index 2006 accessdate 9 October 2007 year 2007 format PDF publisher Economist Intelligence Unit North Korea ranked in last place (167) url http: www.economist.com world asia displaystory.cfm?story_id 11465278 title A portrait of North Korea's new rich accessdate 18 June 2009 date 29 May 2008 work The Economist quote EVERY developing country worth its salt has a bustling middle class that is transforming the country and thrilling the markets. So does Stalinist North Korea.
Over time North Korea has gradually distanced itself from the world Communist movement. ''Juche'', an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution (Constitution of North Korea) as a "creative application of Marxism–Leninism" in 1972. last Martin first Bradley K. authorlink coauthors title Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty publisher Thomas Dunne Books year 2004 location New York City, New York page 111 quote Although it was in that 1955 speech that Kim gave full voice to his arguments for ''juche'', he had been talking along similar lines as early as 1948. doi id isbn 0-312-32322-0 In 2009, the constitution was amended again, quietly removing the brief references to communism (Chosŏn'gŭl (Hangul): )
The means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms (Collective farming), and most services such as healthcare, education, housing and food production are state funded or subsidized.
North Korea follows ''Songun'', or "military-first" policy. H. Hodge (2003). "North Korea’s Military Strategy", ''Parameters'', U.S. Army War College Quarterly. It is the world's most militarized (List of countries by number of troops) society, with a total of 9,495,000 active, reserve, and paramilitary personnel. Its active duty army of 1.21 million is the 4th largest in the world, after China, the U.S., and India.