; The '''Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand''' (in Māori (Maori language): ''Rōpū Kākāriki o Aotearoa'') is a political
; ) is a graywacke peak (2,740 m) standing at the west side of the mouth of Osuga Glacier in the Barker Range, Victory Mountains, Victoria Land. Named by the NZFMCAE, 1962-63, after
publisher accessdate 2012-02-27 * Indy Racing League (Detroit Public Library) ** Won by Scott Dixon of New Zealand, for Chip Ganassi Racing. * CART Racing Series (Champ Car) * V8 Supercars – ** Bathurst 1000, Australia – Won by Greg Murphy of New Zealand and Rick Kelly of Australia for the K-Mart Racing Team. Murphy sets the fastest ever lap of any type of car on the mountain, including open wheelers. ** Marcos Ambrose
Mansfield'''. Mansfield left for Great Britain in 1908 where she encountered Modernist writers such as D.H. Lawrence and Virginia Woolf with whom she became close friends. Her stories often focus on moments of disruption and frequently open rather abruptly. Among her most well-known stories are "The Garden Party", "The Daughters of the Late Colonel" and "The Fly." During the First World War Mansfield contracted extrapulmonary tuberculosis, which rendered any
* Aoraki Mount Cook National Park – lots of hiking opportunities and New Zealand's highest mountain * Bay of Islands – pretty spot in the North Island with historical significance * Coromandel Peninsula – rugged coastline with plenty of beaches and hiking opportunities just one and a half hours from Auckland * Hawke's Bay – wineries in the hills and art deco architecture in Napier * Milford Sound – beautiful fiord in Fiordland National Park * Taupo – trout fishing and adventure activities in the central North Island * Tongariro National Park – three volcanoes, two skifields and one of the most popular hikes in the country * Westland National Park – home of the Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers Understand New Zealand is increasingly known, both in the indigenous Māori language (Maori phrasebook) and in New Zealand English, as ''Aotearoa'', often translated as "land of the long white cloud". Originally, ''Aotearoa'' was a name for just the North Island, the South Island being known as ''Te Waipounamu'' or ''Te Waka a Maui''. In 2009, the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered both the North and South Islands had never been officially named, so in October 2013 they were officially named ''North Island Te Ika-a-Māui'' and ''South Island Te Waipounamu''. Geography New Zealand consists of two main islands (the North Island and the South Island) and many smaller ones in the South Pacific Ocean approximately 1,600 km (1,000 mi) south east of Australia. With a population of 4.5 million in a country about the size of the United Kingdom or Italy, many areas are sparsely settled. The South Island is larger than the North Island (150,400 sq km vs 113,700 sq km) and is sometimes referred to as "the mainland", despite having only one-third the population of the North Island. Be sure to allow sufficient time to travel New Zealand. It's certainly worthwhile to tour for at least three or four weeks on each island, although you can certainly see highlights in far less time. Roads wind along the coast and through mountain ranges, particularly in the South Island. In exit polls at Christchurch International Airport, many international visitors commented that they had underestimated the time they would need to properly enjoy their visit. Auckland, with a population of around 1.4 million people, is both the largest city in New Zealand and Polynesia. It is also the most remote city in the world with a population over 1 million - the nearest comparable city is Sydney, 2,169 km (1,348 mi) away. Wellington, at the southern tip of the North Island, is the country's capital and third-largest city (pop. 199,000). The city replaced Auckland as capital in 1865, after Parliament decided to move to a more central location. Climate In general, New Zealand has a temperate maritime climate, with warm summers, cool winters, and regular rainfall throughout the year. There are four seasons, with summer in December–February and winter in June–August (the opposite of the northern hemisphere). The geography of the country does create around 10 distinct climate regions, ranging from near sub-tropical north of Auckland to near continental and semi-arid in central Otago. The mountain ranges along the northeast-southwest axis of New Zealand provide a barrier for the strong prevailing westerly winds - often referred to as the roaring forties. Moist air hitting the mountains is pushed upwards and cooled, with the moisture falling back westward as rain. As a result, the western half of the country receives more than average rainfall and the eastern half less than average. This effect is most pronounced in the South Island with the Southern Alps: the West Coast (West Coast (New Zealand)) receives 2000–7000 mm of rain per year, while coastal Canterbury (Canterbury (New Zealand)) and Otago in the east receive just 500–800 mm. Most other places on average receive between 600 and 1600 mm per year. In the northern and central parts of the country, it is generally drier in the summer; in southern parts, it is generally drier in the winter. Summer daily highs average from 17°C to 25°C. Winter daily highs average 7°C to 16°C and nightly lows average −3°C to 8°C. The warmest temperatures are generally found in the north and east of both islands, while the coolest temperatures are generally found in inland parts of both islands and the southern South Island. Sunshine hours are highest in coastal Bay of Plenty, Nelson Bays and Marlborough (Marlborough (New Zealand)). Snow mainly in the mountainous parts of the country and some inland areas, and can occasionally close mountain passes and high roads during winter. Snow may fall down to sea level in eastern and southern parts of the South Island once every 1-2 years. Snow in the western South Island and coastal North Island is a rare occurrence; Wellington on average gets snow down to sea level once every 40-50 years. The unsheltered areas of the country can get a bit breezy, especially in the centre, through Cook Strait and around Wellington. New Zealand's weather is very changeable, and even during summer you may receive all four seasons in one day. Be prepared for the weather to change from fine to showers (and vice versa) without notice. Metservice has weather forecasts for five days in advance. Settlement and history New Zealand was the last significant land mass to be inhabited by humans (indigenous settlement) and to be colonized by Europeans. This, combined with geological youth and geographical isolation, has led to the development of a young, vigorous nation with a well-travelled, well-educated population. One in four New Zealand-born people (one in three between the ages of 22 and 48) currently live overseas. The Polynesian Māori settled New Zealand in the late 13th century. "''Nieuw Zeeland''" appeared on Dutch maps from as early as 1645, after the explorations of Abel Tasman in 1642; cartographers named the country after the Dutch province of Zeeland (''not'' the Danish island of Zealand). It is possible that other European explorers knew of the existence of New Zealand as early as the mid-14th century. Captain Cook rediscovered, circumnavigated and mapped the main islands in 1769. Some sealers, whalers, traders and missionaries settled over the next 80 years, with many encountering fierce resistance from the local Māori people. In 1840, with the assistance of missionaries, the Māori agreed to accept British sovereignty over the islands through the Treaty of Waitangi. More intensive settlement began that same year. Initially annexed to the colony of New South Wales, New Zealand was split off to form a separate colony in 1841. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872, coupled with political manoeuvring and the spread of European diseases, broke Māori resistance to land settlement, but left lasting grievances. In recent years the government has sought to address long-standing Māori grievances, and this is a complicated process. In 2005, the Māori Party was formed, in part in response to the Government's law on the Foreshore and Seabed but also to promote an independent Māori perspective at a political level. When the six British colonies federated to form Australia in 1901, New Zealand decided not to join the federation. Instead, the British colony of New Zealand became a self-governing British dominion in 1907. It was offered complete independence under the 1931 Statute of Westminster, although it did not adopt this until 1947. New Zealand supported the United Kingdom militarily in the Boer War of 1899–1902, as well as both World Wars as part of the Allied war effort. It also participated in wars in Malaysia, Korea, Vietnam and Afghanistan, and in several peacekeeping actions. All remaining constitutional links with the United Kingdom were severed with the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act by both parliaments in 1986, although the British queen remains the Head of State, with an appointed Governor-General as her representative in New Zealand. Many New Zealanders have strongly opposed the testing and use of nuclear weapons. New Zealand opposed French nuclear testing at Mururoa Atoll, leading French secret agents to bomb the Greenpeace ship ''Rainbow Warrior'' while it was docked in Auckland in July 1985. The United States' refusal to declare whether its visiting ships were carrying nuclear weapons led to the government banning them from New Zealand territorial waters in 1987. In response, the US suspended its commitments to New Zealand under the joint US-Australian-New Zealand defence alliance. Politics thumb Parliament House and the Executive Wing ("Beehive") in Wellington (File:Parliament House and the Beehive June 2012.JPG) New Zealand's government is largely based on the British Westminster system of government. Unlike most Westminster systems though, New Zealand's parliament only has one chamber, the popularly-elected 121-member House of Representatives; its upper house, the Legislative Council, was abolished in 1951. Elections are held every three years, with the next due by November 2017. The Prime Minister sets the date for the election and can call it early if s he wants. In 1984, Prime Minister Robert Muldoon got drunk and decided to call a snap election – which he lost by a landslide. The Prime Minister is head of government, and is typically the leader of the political party with the most seats in parliament. The current Prime Minister is John Key, who is the leader of the centre-right National Party in the House of Representatives. The National Party is the largest party in the House, and holds the government benches with the support of three minor parties. Other major parties include the centre-left Labour Party, the left-wing environmentalist Green Party, and the populist New Zealand First Party. Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state and appoints a Governor-General, currently Sir Jerry Mateparae, as her representative in New Zealand. The regal and vice-regal roles are largely ceremonial and politically powerless, and the Prime Minister wields the most authority in government. New Zealand was the first modern-day country in the world to grant women the right to vote, way back on 19 September 1893. However, women weren't allowed to stand for election to Parliament until 1919, and it was 1933 before New Zealand had its first female MP. Below the national government, New Zealand is divided firstly into 16 regions, and secondly into 65 cities and districts. Since regions are based on physical geography and cities and districts are based on human geography, it is possible for a district to fall into two or more regions. Five cities or districts (Auckland, Gisborne, Marlborough, Nelson and Tasman) are unitary authorities - they are both a region and a city district. People New Zealand is home to 4.51 million people. Just over 1.05 million live in the South Island, with most of the rest living in the North Island. Waiheke Island, in the Hauraki Gulf off the coast of Auckland, is by far the most populous offshore island, with 8,600 residents. Half the country's population lives in the four largest urban areas: Auckland (1,414,000), Wellington (394,000), Christchurch (375,000) and Hamilton (219,000). A former British colony, New Zealand has a population mainly of European ethnicity, with a sizeable indigenous Māori minority and significant Asian and Polynesian groups. Around 11% of New Zealanders identify with more than one ethnic group, with European-Māori being the most common combination. The ethnic mix varies across the country: while Auckland is a cultural melting pot, the South Island outside Christchurch and Dunedin is still overwhelming European. Around 43.5% of New Zealanders are Christian, 38.5% are irreligious, and 6% follow non-Christian religions (12% of New Zealanders didn't answer the question). Time zones New Zealand leads most of the world, time wise! The Chatham Islands, part of New Zealand but 800 kilometres (500 mi) east of Christchurch, keep Chatham Islands Standard Time (CIST) by adding twelve hours and forty five minutes to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) resulting in UTC+12:45. The only other official time zone with a 45-minute increment from UTC is Nepal. The Line Islands of Kiribati; Tonga and Samoa are the only time zones further in advance from UTC. The main islands of New Zealand are 12 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time ('''''UTC+12''''' NZST New Zealand Standard Time) and 20 hours ahead of Pacific Standard Time (PST). Daylight Saving ('''''UTC+13''''' NZDT New Zealand Daylight Time) begins on the last Sunday in September and ends on the first Sunday in April. Sport center upright 1.9 thumb All Blacks haka before a match against France (File:All Blacks Haka.jpg) Rugby union (Rugby football) inspires more passion than religion and New Zealand's national team are the mighty '''''All Blacks''''', whose ground-trembling opening ''haka'' are arguably better known than any other aspect of New Zealand. They generally play matches at home Jun-Sep, mainly in ''The Rugby Championship'' (formerly the ''Tri Nations'') against South Africa, Australia and, since 2012, Argentina. The All Blacks won the inaugural Rugby World Cup in 1987 and are the current holders after winning it again in 2011. The two main '''rugby union''' competitions at club level are ''Super Rugby'', a regional competition incorporating regional teams from South Africa and Australia, and the domestic ''ITM Cup'' (formerly the National Provincial Championship from 1976 to 2005, and Air New Zealand Cup from 2006 to 2009). The Super Rugby season begins in February and normally ends in August (in Rugby World Cup years, the season ends in July); the ITM Cup starts in July and runs through to October. The ''Ranfurly Shield'' is considered the country's premier domestic rugby prize: during the ITM Cup, the team holding the "Log o' Wood" must defend it against the opposition during home games - if the opposition wins the game, they become the new holders of the shield. As at the end of the 2014 season, the Hawke's Bay Magpies are the holders of the Ranfurly Shield. Other popular sports in winter include football (soccer), rugby league and netball with cricket played in summer. At the Summer Olympic Games and Commonwealth Games, the nation traditionally punches well above its size on the medal table; New Zealand won 13 medals (including six gold) at the London 2012 Olympics, or one medal for every 340,000 population. New Zealand's traditional sporting colours are black and silver, with football being the notable exception, using white due to an old FIFA regulation reserving black for referees. Nearly all national sporting teams have nicknames, with some exceptions, derived from ''Black'' for men's teams and ''Ferns'' for women's teams, e.g. Silver Ferns (netball), Black Ferns (women's rugby), Black Caps White Ferns (cricket), Kiwis Kiwi Ferns (rugby league), All Whites Football Ferns (football). Sporting passions do run high, and this has caused problems in the past. New Zealand's sporting ties with apartheid-era South Africa were always controversial – twenty-five African nations boycotted the 1976 Montreal Olympics after the All Blacks toured South Africa and the IOC refused to ban New Zealand over it, and then in 1981 when the Springboks toured New Zealand, the country almost erupted in riot when anti-apartheid groups clashed with rugby fans. Holidays The national holidays in New Zealand are: *'''1 January''': New Year's Day *'''2 January''': New Year's Holiday *'''6 February''': Waitangi Day, marking the anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. *'''Easter weekend''': a four-day long weekend in March or April (set according to the Western Christian dates) consisting of Good Friday, Easter Sunday, Easter Monday and the intervening Saturday (not a public holiday). Most businesses must remain closed on Good Friday and Easter Sunday. *'''25 April''': ANZAC Day, marking the anniversary of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps landing at Gallipoli in 1915. Most businesses must remain closed until 13:00. *'''First Monday in June''': Queen's Birthday *'''Fourth Monday in October''': Labour Day *'''25 December''': Christmas Day. Most businesses must remain closed. *'''26 December''': Boxing Day. Each part of the country has its own '''Anniversary Day''' public holiday. The anniversary days are based on pre-1876 provincial boundaries, which do not match up to today's regional boundaries. The most widely observed of these are '''Auckland Anniversary Day''', which is observed on the Monday closest to 29 January by the North Island north of (and including) Taupo, and '''Wellington Anniversary Day''', which is observed on the Monday closest to 22 January by Greater Wellington and most of the Manawatu-Wanganui Region. While Auckland Anniversary is observed by more people directly (2.5 million), Wellington Anniversary is observed by more people indirectly because all the government departments and embassies are based in Wellington. Each region's page should detail the dates of its anniversary day. Wikipedia:New Zealand Commons:Category:New Zealand Dmoz:Regional Oceania New Zealand
''AK79'' and established a large live following after a residency at Auckland's Liberty Stage club. '''Bruno Lawrence''' (12 February 1941 '''Ngāti Whātua
'', it "was brimming with youthful exuberance and feisty, melodic, guitar-based fuzzy punk-pop perfectly suited to the post-grunge alternative generation".
passions do run high, and this has caused problems in the past. New Zealand's sporting ties with apartheid-era South Africa were always controversial – twenty-five African nations boycotted the 1976 Montreal Olympics after the All Blacks toured South Africa and the IOC refused to ban New Zealand over it, and then in 1981 when the Springboks toured New Zealand, the country almost erupted in riot when anti-apartheid groups clashed with rugby fans. Holidays The national holidays in New Zealand
New Zealand director Peter Jackson, best known for directing the ''Lord of the Rings'' film trilogy (The Lord of the Rings film trilogy). The most recent incarnation of Kong is also the longest, running three hours and eight minutes. Winner of three Academy Awards for visual effects, sound mixing, and sound editing. It received positive reviews and became a box office success. Oceania Australia, New Zealand, and Vanuatu. '''Wanganui Collegiate School
they adopted the style of architecture fashionable when they left England, though by the latter half of the century, improving transport and communications meant that even quite remote parts of the Empire had access to many publications, such as The Builder magazine. This enabled colonial architects to stay abreast of current fashion. Thus the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent 19th century architects produced designs that were executed by architects in the various colonies. For example Sir George Gilbert Scott designed Bombay University (University of Mumbai) & William Butterfield designed St Peter's Cathedral, Adelaide. In the Carboniferous and Permian, New Zealand and New Caledonia were on the periphery of Gondwana, which included Africa, South America, Antarctica, India, New Zealand and Australia. Paleomagnetic data locate New Caledonia originally near the South Pole. In the Triassic and early Jurassic, Gondwana moved northward, warming the eastern margin. New Caledonia separated from Australia and New Zealand during the breakup of the super-continent, separating from Australia at the end of the Cretaceous (65 MYA (mya (unit))) and probably completing its separation from New Zealand in the mid-Miocene. However, as with any plate tectonic process, the process was protracted and in this region it also was exceptionally complex. Many questions remain to be resolved. Grandcolas, Philippe; Murienne, Jerome; Robillard,Tony; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Jourdan, Herve; Guilbert, Eric; Deharveng, Louis. New Caledonia: a very old Darwinian island? Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2008) 363, 3309–3317 doi:10.1098 rstb.2008.0122 Published online 2 September 2008 Evolution and history thumb 220px right Many current species in the vicinity of the Pacific Island region similar to New Zealand (File:Duvaucel's gecko.JPG)'s geckos, such as the Duvaucel's gecko, may have had their origins in New Caledonia. Over millions of years, these type of vegetation present in the islands, covered much of the tropics of Earth. The species of archipelago of New Caledonia are relicts of a type of vegetation disappeared, which originally covered much of the mainland of Australia, South America, Antartida, South Africa, North America and other lands when their climate were more humid (humidity) and warm. Although warm Cloud forests disappeared during the glaciations, they re-colonized large areas every time the weather was favorable again. Most of the Cloud forests are believed to have retroced and advanced during successive geological eras, and their species adapted to warm and wet gradually retreated and advanced, replaced by more cold-tolerant or drought-tolerant sclerophyll plant communities. Many of the then existing species became extinct because they could not cross the barriers posed by new oceans, mountains and deserts, but others found refuge as species relict in coastal areas and Islands. Some genera originated in the Gondwanian Antarctic flora. The most remarkable Gondwanian groups include the Cunoniaceae, the Myrtaceae, and the Proteaceae. Due to this fact, the islands share many plant families with the Valdivian forest of South America, New Zealand, Tasmania and Australia, in habitats of cloud forest and temperate rainforest. Angiosperm flora colonized New Zealand and New Caledonia during the Cretaceous with species such as ''Nothofagus'' and Proteaceae. There are some different names used in different parts of the world. ''Lock'', ''five-eighth'' and ''halfback'' are used in Australia, New Zealand and some surrounding countries. The same positions are known as ''loose forward'', ''stand-off'' and ''scrum half'' respectively in the Northern Hemisphere, where ''halfbacks'' refers to both the ''stand-off'' and ''scrum half''. Numbers 8 and 10 are both usually referred to as ''props'' but may sometimes called "Front Row Forwards". The operation of a round-the-world transpolar (Polar route) luxury charter flight in 1968 billed at the time as "the first commercial flight ever to cross both poles and touch down on all continents" arguably ranks as Modern Air's greatest achievement. On 22 November 1968, this saw CV-990A N5612 ''Polar Byrd I'', which had a special Polar Path Compass (PPC) system fitted for the polar (Polar route) trip, by Modern's electronics department headed up by Vincent De Ceasare become the first commercial jetliner to land on and take off from the Wikipedia:New Zealand Commons:Category:New Zealand Dmoz:Regional Oceania New Zealand
'''New Zealand''' ( south of the Pacific island areas (Pacific Islands) of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long isolation, New Zealand developed a distinctive biodiversity (Biodiversity of New Zealand) of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.
Polynesians settled New Zealand in 1250–1300 CE and developed a distinctive Māori culture. Abel Tasman, a Dutch explorer, was the first European to sight New Zealand in 1642 CE. History of New Zealand. Newzealand.com. In 1840, representatives of the British Crown and Māori Chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, making New Zealand a British colony (Colony of New Zealand). Today, the majority of New Zealand's population (New Zealanders) of 4.5 million is of European descent (New Zealand European); the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture (Culture of New Zealand) is mainly derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration (Immigration to New Zealand). The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, with English predominant. The country's economy was historically dominated by the export of wool, but exports of dairy products, meat, and wine, along with tourism, are more significant today.
Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament (Parliament of New Zealand), while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet (Cabinet of New Zealand), led by the Prime Minister (Prime Minister of New Zealand), who is currently John Key. Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth II) is the country's head of state and is represented by a Governor-General (Governor-General of New Zealand). In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils (Regions of New Zealand) and 67 territorial authorities (Territorial authorities of New Zealand) for local government purposes. The Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing states in free association (Associated state) with New Zealand); and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica (territorial claims in Antarctica). New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.