. The restaurant "Riviere House" shows a lot of local art which is for sale, and sometimes locally-made jewellery too. Near Newcastle, the Newcastle Pottery makes a variety of interesting authentic pieces using the local red clay. For people who collect stamps, the Philatelic Bureau in Charlestown has a large selection. Books on Nevis topics and Caribbean topics are for sale at the Alexander Hamilton Museum. Eat Nevis food is a blend of European, American, with hints of African and Asian. Some
for Nevis. His party, the NRP, has historically been the strongest and most ardent proponent for Nevis independence; the party came to power with secession as the main campaign issue. In 1975, the NRP manifesto declared that: "The Nevis Reformation Party will strive at all costs to gain secession for Nevis from St. Kitts – a privilege enjoyed by the island of Nevis prior to 1882." Herbert, Roy (2005). "A short historical look at the Relationship between St. Kitts & Nevis". Historical Review. Nevis Independence, 4 February 2005. Retrieved 8 August 2006. A cursory proposal for constitutional reform was presented by the NRP in 1999, but the issue was not prominent in the 2006 election campaign and it appears a detailed proposal has yet to be worked out and agreed upon within the party. "Nevis: 'Reform before independence'". BBC Caribbean, online edition, 26 January 2004. Retrieved 8 August 2006. In ''Handbook of Federal Countries'' published by Forum of Federations, the authors consider the constitution problematic because it does not "specifically outline" the federal financial arrangements or the means by which the central government and Nevis Island Administration can raise revenue: "In terms of the NIA, the constitution only states (in s. 108(1)) that 'all revenues...raised or received by the Administration...shall be paid into and form a fund styled the Nevis Island Consolidated Fund.' ... Section 110(1) states that the proceeds of all 'takes' collected in St. Kitts and Nevis under any law are to be shared between the federal government and the Nevis Island Administration based on population. The share going to the NIA, however, is subject to deductions (s. 110(2)), such as the cost of common services and debt charges, as determined by the Governor-General (s.110(3)) on the advice of the Prime Minister who can also take advice from the Premier of Nevis (s.110(4))." Griffiths, Ann Lynn and Karl Nerenberg (2002). ''Handbook of Federal Countries''. Ed. Karl Nerenberg. Published McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 2002. ISBN 0-7735-2511-4, p. 274. According to a 1995 report by the Commonwealth Observer Group of the Commonwealth Secretariat, "the federal government is also the local government of St Kitts and this has resulted in a perception among the political parties in Nevis that the interests of the people of Nevis are being neglected by the federal government which is more concerned with the administration of St Kitts than with the federal administration." ''General Election in St Kitts and Nevis 3 July 1995: The Report of the Commonwealth Observer Group''. Commonwealth Observer Group, Commonwealth Secretariat, 1995. ISBN 0-85092-466-9, p.3. Secession movement Simeon Daniel, Nevis' first Premier and former leader of the Nevis Reformation Party (NRP) and Vance Amory, Premier and leader of the Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM), made sovereign independence for Nevis from the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis part of their parties' agenda. "Independence for Nevis still on the agenda, says premier." ''Caribbean Net News'', 16 June 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006. Since independence from the United Kingdom in 1983, the Nevis Island Administration and the Federal Government have been involved in several conflicts over the interpretation of the new constitution which came into effect at independence. During an interview on Voice of America in March 1998, repeated in a government issued press release headlined "PM Douglas Maintains 1983 Constitution is Flawed", Prime Minister Denzil Douglas called the constitution a "recipe for disaster and disharmony among the people of both islands". Office of the Prime Minister (1998). "PM Douglas Maintains 1983 Constitution is Flawed." Media Release, 11 March 1998. Retrieved 8 August 2006. A crisis developed in 1984 when the People's Action Movement (PAM) won a majority in the Federal elections and temporarily ceased honouring the Federal Government's financial obligations to Nevis. Consequently, cheques issued by the Nevis Administration were not honoured by the Bank, public servants in Nevis were not paid on time and the Nevis Island Administration experienced difficulties in meeting its financial obligations. The Concerned Citizens Movement (1996). "The Way Forward For The Island Of Nevis." ''Nevis, Queen of the Caribees''. Nevis Island Administration, September 1996. Retrieved 8 August 2006. Legislative motivation for secession thumb 175px ''Nevis Today'', Nevis Today a magazine published by the Nevis Island Administration, is part of the new drive to keep the population updated about investments and plans for the island. (File:Nevis Today.jpg) In 1996, four new bills were introduced in the National Assembly in Saint Kitts, one of which made provisions to have revenue derived from activities in Nevis paid directly to the treasury in Saint Kitts instead of to the treasury in Nevis. Another bill, The Financial Services Committee Act, contained provisions that all investments in Saint Kitts and Nevis would require approval by an investment committee in Saint Kitts. This was controversial, because ever since 1983 the Nevis Island Administration had approved all investments for Nevis, on the basis that the constitution vests legislative authority for industries, trades and businesses and economic development in Nevis to the Nevis Island Administration. Phillips, Fred (2002). Commonwealth Caribbean Constitutional Law. Cavendish Publishing, 2002, ISBN 1-84314-429-8. All three representatives from Nevis, including the leader of the opposition in the Nevis Island Assembly, objected to the introduction of these bills into the National Assembly in Saint Kitts, arguing that the bills would affect the ability of Nevis to develop its offshore financial services sector and that the bills would be detrimental to the Nevis economy. All the representatives in opposition in the National Assembly shared the conviction that the bills, if passed into law, would be unconstitutional and undermine the constitutional and legislative authority of the Nevis Island Administration, as well as result in the destruction of the economy of Nevis. The constitutional crisis initially developed when the newly appointed Attorney General refused to grant permission for the Nevis Island Administration to assert its legal right in the Courts. After a decision of the High Court in favour of the Nevis Island Administration, the Prime Minister gave newspaper interviews stating that he "refused to accept the decision of the High Court". ''St. Kitts and Nevis Observer'' July 16–22, 1995. Qtd. in The Concerned Citizens Movement. "The Way Forward For The Island Of Nevis." ''Nevis, Queen of the Caribees''. Nevis Island Administration, September 1996. Due to the deteriorating relationship between the Nevis Island Administration and the Federal Government, a Constitutional Committee was appointed in April 1996 to advise on whether or not the present constitutional arrangement between the islands should continue. The committee recommended constitutional reform and the establishment of an island administration for Saint Kitts, separate from the Federal Government. The Federal Government in Saint Kitts fills both functions today and Saint Kitts does not have an equivalent to the Nevis Island Administration. Disagreements between the political parties in Nevis and between the Nevis Island Administration and the Federal Government have prevented the recommendations by the electoral committee from being implemented. The problematic political arrangement between the two islands therefore continues to date. Nevis has continued developing its own legislation, such as The Nevis International Insurance Ordinance and the Nevis International Mutual Funds Ordinance of 2004, As reported by the Premier at the official Web site for Nevis Financial Services Departments and the Ministry of Finance, Nevis. Retrieved 8 August 2006. but calls for secession are often based on concerns that the legislative authority of the Nevis Island Administration might be challenged again in the future. Fiscal motivation for secession The issues of political dissension between Saint Kitts and Nevis are often centred around perceptions of imbalance in the economic structure. Anckar, Dag (2001). "Party systems and voter alignments in small island states". In ''Party Systems and Voter Alignments Revisited''. Eds. Lauri Karvonen and Stein Kuhnle. Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-23720-3. p. 270: "To a historical rivalry between the islands must be added a structural economic inbalance". As noted by many scholars, See for example: Duval, David Timothy (2004). ''Tourism in the Caribbean: Trends, Development, Prospects''. Routledge, 2004. ISBN 0-415-30361-3, p. 102: "Nevis has claimed domination and exploitation by St Kitts and has come to view St Kitts as the 'larger omnipresent looming partner' (Premdas 2000). Such mistreatment (whether real or perceived), combined with the subordinate island's distinctive cultural and historical identity, has fostered an ambivalent relationship between internal core and periphery. These accusations and counter-attacks have been entrenched in the countries' collective memory and have, to some degree, permeated many aspects of society." See also: Phillips, Fred (2002). ''Commonwealth Caribbean Constitutional Law'' Cavendish Publishing, 2002. ISBN 1-84314-429-8: "In ''Freedom in the Caribbean'', reference was made to the long history of grievance nurtured by Nevis against St Kitts ever since imperial legislation brought Nevis into the unitary state of St Kitts Nevis Anguilla in 1882." Nevisians have often referred to a structural imbalance in Saint Kitts' favour in how funds are distributed between the two islands and this issue has made the movement for Nevis secession a constant presence in the island's political arena, with many articles appearing in the local press expressing concerns such as those compiled by Everton Powell in "What Motivates Our Call for Independence": Powell, Everton (Ed.) (2006). "What Motivates Our Call for Independence". Nevis Independence. Retrieved 8 August 2006. * Many of the businesses that operate in Nevis are headquartered in Saint Kitts and pay the corporate taxes to Saint Kitts, despite the fact that profits for those businesses are derived from Nevis. * The vast majority of Nevisians and residents of Nevis depart the Federation from Saint Kitts. This meant that departure taxes are paid in Saint Kitts. * The bulk of cargo destined for Nevis enters the Federation through Saint Kitts. Custom duties are therefore paid in Saint Kitts. * The largest expenditure for Nevis, approximately 29 percent of the Nevis Island Administration's recurrent budget, is education and health services, but the Nevis Island Legislature has no power to legislate over these two areas. * Police, defense and coast guard are a federal responsibility. Charlestown Police Station, which served as the Headquarters for police officers in Nevis, was destroyed by fire in December 1991. Police officers initially had to operate out of the ruin, until the Nevis Island Administration managed to raise the resources to re-house the police. * Nevis experiences an economic disadvantage because of preferential treatment by the federal government for development of Saint Kitts. The division of foreign aid and various forms of international assistance toward development and infrastructure are especially contentious issues. Lists showing the disparities in sharing have been compiled by Dr. Everson Hull, a former Economics professor of Howard University, and are available online. Hull, E. "Part I: Grabbing the Forgiven-debt Money." and "On the Money Trail – PART II". Nevis Independence. See also Powell, Everton (2006). "Disparities in sharing". Nevis Independence. Retrieved 8 August 2006. Parishes wikipedia:Nevis
is the largest settlement on the island The people of Nevis who are not in the tourist business tend to be very shy, but are friendly and helpful once you get past the initial shyness, which can take some time. It is appropriate to greet everyone you pass or meet, saying either, "good morning," "good afternoon," or "good night" (which is said instead of "good evening.") Nevisians in general attend church regularly. Cursing in public is against the law. Provocative
, and the best players may be selected for the West Indies team, which plays international cricket. The Leeward Islands has won a total of ten domestic titles - four in first class cricket and six in one-day cricket, but their last title was in 1997-98 (1997-98 West Indian cricket season) when they won the double (although the first-class title was shared with Guyana (Guyanese cricket team)). Seymour was the son of Henry Augustus Seymour, who was himself the illegitimate son of Francis Seymour-Conway, 2nd Marquess of Hertford. Upon the latter's death in 1822, Seymour's father was forced to surrender his civil service position and property, and leave Ireland for Belgium. In 1842, Prince Albert (Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) helped secure a position for Seymour in the colonial service. For the next twenty years, he served in various positions in a series of colonies mired in political and economic difficulties: Van Diemen's Land, Antigua, Nevis, British Honduras, and the Bay Islands (Bay Islands Department). Colonial period 1627–1816 The first regional grouping came in the form of the Carlisle proprietorship of 1627 under which Barbados and the Leewards were grouped together. In practice this arrangement was difficult to administer, and Thomas Warner (Sir Thomas Warner (explorer)) governed the Leeward Islands only. In 1660 Lord Willoughby, as Governor of Barbados, also governed all of the Eastern Caribbean, then under English rule. This scheme met with approval from the Leewards as they required the aid of Barbados at the time during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. Despite this need from Barbados, the planters on the Leewards and in Barbados were rivals for the greatest share of the sugar trade with England and so after the war, England gave in to the demands of the Leewards for separate government, and in 1671 a Governor-in-chief was put in charge of St. Kitts, Nevis, Anguilla, Montserrat, Antigua and Barbuda. '''Elquemedo Tonito Willett''' (born May 1, 1953, Charlestown (Charlestown, Saint Kitts and Nevis), Nevis) is a former West Indian (West Indian cricket team) cricketer who played in five Tests (Test cricket) from 1973 to 1974. Itinerary The service began by operating night-time departures calling between ports in St. Tropez (Saint-Tropez), Cannes, Nice, Monaco, Imperia, Genoa and Portofino in the summer. For Summer 2007 EasyCruise relocated to the Greek Islands for a 14-night itinerary taking in the ports of Piraeus (Athens), Mykonos, Paros, Sifnos, Poros, Spetses, Milos, Ios (Ios (island)), Amorgos, Naxos (Naxos Island), Folegandros and Serifos. Previously it was possible to join the ship at any port and stay for a minimum of 2, to a maximum of 14 nights, but now you can embark solely at the port of Piraeus where it visits three times in the 14 nights. Therefore you can create a cruise for either 3, 4, 7, 10 or 14 nights. For the winter season EasyCruise has travelled to the Caribbean calling at Barbados, St Vincent (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), Martinique, Bequia, Grenada and St Lucia in 2005-2006, and for Winter 2006-2007 EasyCruiseOne sailed a 1-week itinerary calling at St. Maarten, St. Kitts, Antigua, Nevis, St. Barts and Anguilla calling at St. Maarten twice. This is a list of the Governors-General of the West Indies Federation (also known as the British Caribbean Federation), consisting of Antigua (with Barbuda) (Antigua and Barbuda), Barbados, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Christopher (Saint Kitts)-Nevis-Anguilla, St. Lucia, St. Vincent (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), Trinidad and Tobago, and Turks & Caicos Islands. The Federation was formed on 3 January 1958, and was formally dissolved on 31 May 1962. *United States Department of Education: Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine is certified as an eligible institution for the Title IV Federal Direct Loan program. Ross University 2010-2011 Financial Planning Guide, Ross University 2010-2011 Financial Planning Guide, retrieved from rossu.edu, March 7, 2011 *Federation of St. Kitts and Nevis (Saint Kitts and Nevis): Ross University is accredited by the St. Kitts and Nevis accreditation board to confer the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree. Ministry Davis returned to the Leeward Islands and worked strongly, but quietly, for abolition in St. Kitts and Nevis. He later became a minister (Minister (Christianity)) at St. Paul's Anglican Church (St. Paul's Anglican Church, Charlestown, Nevis) in Nevis, and in 1824, became the first minister at the newly-built Cottle Church. *1996 RBTT, with the encouragement of the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank, acquired a 94% interest in the '''Nevis Corporative Bank''', established in 1955, and changed its name to '''Caribbean Banking Corporation (SKN)'''. RBTT also acquired '''Nevis Banking Company''' (est. 1955), and merged it into CBC (SKN). RBTT acquired the '''McLaughlin Bank''' in Curaçao, and changed the name to '''Antilles Banking Corporation (Curaçao)'''. *1997 RBTT acquired a 50% interest in the '''Grenada Bank of Commerce''' (est. 1983), which it has since increased to 62%. RBTT also acquired Neal & Massy’s 50% interest in CBC, making CBC a wholly owned subsidiary. This is now RBTT Bank Caribbean, with branches in St. Lucia, Antigua, St. Vincent, and Bequia, and owns RBTT Bank (SKN) in Nevis and RBTT Bank Grenada. *1998 RBTT acquired the '''First National Bank of Aruba''', with two subsidiaries offering both onshore and offshore services. The bank also formed RBTT Financial Holdings Limited, a new holding company. Leeward Islands moist forests Antigua, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Nevis, Saint Kitts, British Virgin Islands - Sir Dennis distinguished himself in private practice as a Barrister-at-Law and Solicitor throughout the Leeward Islands, with Chambers in Saint Kitts, Nevis and Anguilla from 1966 to 1982. Pero The bridge is named after "Pero" who lived from around 1753 to 1798, arriving in Bristol probably from the Caribbean Island of Nevis in 1783, as the slave of the merchant John Pinney (1740–1818) at 5 Great George Street (Georgian House, Bristol). wikipedia:Nevis
, 31 October 2005 (UTC) Parentage and career His parents, now deceased, were Elijah John Nisbett b. 13 Oct 1892 in Cedar Hill Village, St. George, Nevis, WI (West Indies), and Adina Miller b. 14 Feb 1898 in Nevis, WI. The '''Leeward Islands cricket team''' is a first class cricket team representing the member countries of the Leeward Islands Cricket Association, a regional association which again is part of the West Indies Cricket Board. Contrary to the normal English definition
30em '''Further reading''' *Michener, James, A. 1989. ''Caribbean''. Secker & Warburg. London. ISBN 0-436-27971-1 (Especially Chap. VIII. "A Wedding on Nevis", pp. 289–318). The book is a fictionalised account of Caribbean history, but according to the publisher, "...everything said about Nelson and his frantic search for a wealthy life is based on fact." *Ordnance Survey, Government of the United Kingdom, 1984. ''Nevis, with part of St. Christopher (Saint Kitts
Seymour-Conway, 2nd Marquess of Hertford . Upon the latter's death in 1822, Seymour's father was forced to surrender his civil service position and property, and leave Ireland for Belgium. In 1842, Prince Albert (Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) helped secure a position for Seymour in the colonial service. For the next twenty years, he served in various positions in a series of colonies mired in political and economic difficulties: Van Diemen's Land, Antigua
by the large troop presence. Despite vocal political opposition, Barbados used the stamps, to the pleasure of King George (George III of Great Britain). In Jamaica there was also vocal opposition, which included threats of violence. There was much evasion of the stamps, and ships arriving without stamped papers were allowed to enter port. Despite this, Jamaica produced more stamp revenue (£2,000) than any other colony. Andrew J. O'Shaughnessy, "The Stamp Act crisis
;, a farm stand near Cades Bay. * If you can find any, try the local home-made '''Sarsaparilla''', which is very mildly alcoholic and supposed to be very good for you! Alcoholic drinks: * A popular cocktail is '''"Ting and Sting"''', which is Ting with the addition of Cane Spirit Rothschild (CRS), a locally produced white rum. * '''Carib Beer''' is a standard of course; '''Stag Beer''' is a more assertive and tasty beer produced by the same company. * '''Rum punches''' -- every hotel
room for the runway extension. Modernised classrooms and better equipped schools, as well as improvements in the educational system, have contributed to a leap in academic performance on the island. The pass rate among the Nevisian students sitting for the Caribbean Examination Council (CXC) exams, the Cambridge General Certificate of Education Examination (GCE) and the Caribbean Advance Proficiency Examinations is now consistently among the highest in the English-speaking Caribbean. Brown, Janet (2000). "Early Childhood Investment in St. Kitts and Nevis: A Model for the Caribbean?". Caribbean Child Development Centre, School of Continuing Studies, UWI, Mona: "St. Kitts-Nevis has one of the highest levels of CXC passes in the region." "Education official calls on students to push beyond their comfort zones". Nevis Government Information Service, 10 January 2007: "In 2002, Nevis captured the award for Most Outstanding School for the year in the Region. ... In the May June examinations of 2006, Nevis again recorded its name in the annals of CXC's when it captured two of the eight awards in Business Studies and Technical vocational Studies. Nevis returned the best performance in Business Studies in the Region in two of the three years that the award had been offered". For results at individual schools, see Caines, Jaedee. "Proud Moment For Lyn Jeffers School". The Observer, 13 October 2005; "Minister of Education to GSS 2005 graduands: The future of Nevis depends on you". ''SKN Vibes'', 24 November 24, 2005; and Washington Archibald High School obtains highest CXC pass rate among 7 others. SKN Vibes, 4 September 2006. Retrieved 7 May 2007. Economy The official currency is the Eastern Caribbean dollar (EC$), which is shared by eight other territories in the region. Historical thumb 200px An African baobab tree (File:Nevis montravers2.jpg) by a ruin at Montravers Estate, a former plantation that produced, on average, 110 " hogsheads" (30,000 kg) of sugar and around 7,250 gallons (33,000 litres) of rum each year. thumb 200px Nevis Heritage Trail sign at Montravers Estate. (File:Nevis Montravers1.jpg) After d'Iberville's invasion in 1704, records show Nevis’ sugar industry in ruins and a decimated population begging the English Parliament and relatives for loans and monetary assistance to stave off island-wide starvation. The sugar industry on the island never fully recovered and during the general depression that followed the loss of the West Indian sugar monopoly, Nevis fell on hard times and the island became one of the poorest in the region. The island remained poorer than Saint Kitts until 1991, when the fiscal performance of Nevis edged ahead of the fiscal performance of Saint Kitts for the first time since the French invasion. The European Commission's Delegation (European Commission) in Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean estimates the annual per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on Nevis to be about 10 percent higher than on St. Kitts. "EU & the Eastern Caribbean: St Kitts and Nevis Overview". The European Commission's Delegation in Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean. Retrieved 8 August 2006. Tourism The major source of revenue for Nevis today is tourism. During the 2003–2004 season, approximately 40,000 tourists visited Nevis. CIA Factbook (2006). Retrieved 8 August 2006. A five star hotel ''(The Four Seasons Resort Nevis, West Indies)'', four exclusive restored plantation inns, and several smaller hotels, are currently in operation. Larger developments along the west coast have recently been approved and are in the process of being developed. "Developers pay US$10m installment for Nevis land". Caribbean Net News, 9 May 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006. Offshore accounting The introduction of new legislation has made offshore financial services (Offshore Financial Centre) a rapidly growing economic sector in Nevis. Incorporation of companies, international insurance and reinsurance, as well as several international banks, trust companies, asset management firms, have created a boost in the economy. During 2005, the Nevis Island Treasury collected $94.6 million in annual revenue, compared to $59.8 million during 2001. "Employment on Nevis increases" (2006). Nevis Island Government Press Release, May 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006. In 1998, 17,500 international banking companies were registered in Nevis. Registration and annual filing fees paid in 1999 by these entities amounted to over 10 percent of Nevis’ revenues. The offshore financial industry gained importance during the financial disaster of 1999 when Hurricane Lenny damaged the major resort on the island, causing the hotel to be closed down for a year and 400 of the 700 employees to be laid off. In 2000, the Financial Action Task Force, part of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), issued a blacklist of 35 nations which were said to be non-cooperative in the campaign against tax evasion and money laundering. The list included the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, as well as Liechtenstein, Monaco, Luxembourg, the British Channel Islands, Israel, and Russia. See articles in the BBC,Island Sun, and The Royal Gazette. Retrieved 8 August 2006. No alleged misconduct had taken place on Nevis, but the island was included in the blanket action against all offshore financial business centres, as such centres cause a considerable loss of tax revenue for the G7 countries. With new regulations in place, Saint Kitts and Nevis were removed from the list in 2002. CUOPM (2006). "Steady progress reported in financial services sector". Press release 101 2006, Office of the Prime Minister, Saint Kitts and Nevis Government. Retrieved 8 August 2006. Politics thumb 256px The seawall at Charlestown, Nevis (File:Nevis Pier.jpg). Saint Kitts is seen in the background, lying across the channel known as "The Narrows". The house where Alexander Hamilton was born is visible in the mid-distance. wikipedia:Nevis
right thumb 250px The east coast of Nevis, partially protected by coral reef (File:Nevis Aerial.jpg)s. Long Haul Bay is seen in the foreground. right thumb 250px Main Street, Charlestown, Nevis (File:Nevis Charlestown.jpg). right thumb 250px Part of the west coast of Nevis, including the location of Monuments and memorials to Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson#Sites overseas Nelson's Spring (File:Nevis 2008.jpg) thumb The view looking inland from the Nevis airport, 2008 (File:Vance Amory International Airport, Nevis.JPG)
'''Nevis''' is a small island in the Caribbean Sea that forms part of the inner arc of the Leeward Islands chain of the West Indies. It is located near the northern end of the Lesser Antilles archipelago, about 350 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico and 80 km west of Antigua. Its area is 93 km² and capital is Charlestown (Charlestown, Nevis).
Nevis and the island of Saint Kitts to the northwest form the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis. The two islands are separated by a shallow two-mile (3.22 km) channel known as "The Narrows". Nevis is conical in shape with a volcanic peak known as Nevis Peak at its centre. The island is fringed on its western and northern coastlines by sandy beaches that are composed of a mixture of white coral sand with brown and black sand which was eroded and washed down from the volcanic rocks that make up the island. The gently-sloping coastal plain (0.6 miles 1 km wide) has natural freshwater springs as well as non-potable volcanic hot springs, especially along the western coast.
The island was named ''Oualie'' ("Land of Beautiful Waters") by the Caribs (Island Caribs) and ''Dulcina'' ("Sweet Island") by the early British settlers. The name, ''Nevis'', is derived from the Spanish, ''Nuestra Señora de las Nieves'' (which means Our Lady of the Snows (Dedication of Saint Mary Major)); the name first appears on maps in the 16th century. Hubbard, Vincent K. (2002). ''Swords, Ships & Sugar: History of Nevis''. Corvallis, Oregon: Premiere, ISBN 1-891519-05-0, pp. 20-23 (Captain Gilbert, Captain Smith), 25 (pearl diving), 41-44 (name Dulcina, treaty with Spain, first settlement), 69-70 (privateers, Captain Francis), 79-85 (slave trade, Royal African Company, Queen of the Caribees), 86-102 (Caribs), 113-120 (d'Iberville, buccaneers), 138-139 (Great Britain's wealth derived from West Indian sugar and slave trade, 1776 starvation), 194-195 (Alexandra Hospital), 211-223 (electricity, Anguilla in 1967, OECD blacklist). Nevis is also known by the sobriquet "Queen of the Caribees", which it earned in the 18th century, when its sugar plantations created much wealth for the British.
Nevis is of particular historical significance to Americans because it was the birthplace and early childhood home of Alexander Hamilton. For the British, Nevis is the place where Horatio Nelson was stationed as a young sea captain, and is where he met and married a Nevisian, Frances Nisbet, the young widow of a plantation-owner.
The majority of the approximately 12,000 citizens of Nevis are of primarily African descent. English is the official language, and the literacy rate, 98 percent, is one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere.