Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen

What is Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen known for?


military sports

, among them youngsters in their early teens, had to go to fight to the fronts. Since players were not available, except in shoddily-organized military sports events in scattered frontline locations, sports life in Germany came practically to a standstill. The last ''von Tschammer und Osten Pokal'' football trophy was played in Vienna in 1943 and the following two years plunged the NSRL into irrelevance. The once mighty Nazi Sports Body had to give up its weight and its position of pride long before the war was lost. On May 31, 1945, after Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II (Aftermath of World War II), the American Military Government (Allied Occupation Zones in Germany) issued a special law outlawing the Nazi party and all of its branches. Known as "Law number five", this Denazification decree disbanded the NS Reichsbund für Leibesübungen along with all its facilities and departments. The disbandment of the NSRL meant that all the sports organizations of Germany had to be established anew during the postwar reconstruction (Reconstruction of Germany) of both West Germany and the DDR (East Germany). Even after German reunification in 1990, there has never been such a powerful and all-encompassing sports organization in Germany as the DRL NSRL was at its height. Structure As a sports governing body seeking to control and integrate all sport activities in Germany, the DRL NSRL provided a highly organized structure. This structuralization, whose nationalistic seriousness was often outright theatrical, was in line with the Nazi Party's goal of reminding Germans constantly that they were members of a large extended country, the Third Reich. According to Paragraph 2 of the DRL's Statutes: ''The purpose of the League of the Reich for Physical Exercise is the training of the body and character of Germans grouped together in member organizations through planned physical exercises and care of the national conscience (Volksbewußtsein) in the spirit of the National Socialist state''. Regarding method and purpose, and keeping aside the ideology, the well-ordered and solemn DRL NSRL system proved itself efficient. The 1936 Summer Olympics, as well as other key events, provided ample opportunity to test the good organization that the Sports Body of the Reich was able to provide. The NSRL's obvious competence succeeded in instilling a spirit of unity and pride among the German sportsmen and women as well as their supporters. Moreover, even if not duly credited, many of the NSRL's systemic improvements in sports are still in use in today's sports organizations. By Sport border "0" cellpadding "2" - valign "top" * Department 1: Artistic gymnastics, Gymnastics and ''Summer Games'' (1) * Department 2: Football (Association football), Rugby (Rugby union), and Cricket * Department 3: Light athletics (Track and field athletics) * Department 4: Handball (Team handball) * Department 5: Swimming (Swimming (sport)) * Department 6: Heavy athletics (Track and field athletics) * Department 7: Boxing * Department 8: Fencing * Department 9: Hockey * Department 10: Tennis * Department 11: Rowing (rowing (sports)) * Department 12: Canoeing * Department 13: Ice- (Iceskating) and Rollerskating * Department 14: Ski * Department 15: Deutscher Radfahrer-Verband, ''Bicycling'' Besides the departments above, certain competences of the NSRL as a league were served by sports federations some of which still exist today: border "0" cellpadding "2" - valign "top" * 16. Deutscher Segler-Verband ''(Sailing)'' * 17. Deutscher Bergsteiger-Verband ''(Mountaineering)'' * 18. Deutscher Wanderverband ''(Hiking)'' * 19. Deutscher Kegler-Bund ''(Bowling)'' * 20. Deutscher Schützen-Verband ''(Shooting)'' * 21. Deutscher Golf-Verband ''(Golf)'' * 22. Deutscher Bob- und Schlittensport-Verband (Bob- und Schlittenverband für Deutschland) ''(Bobsleigh, Luge and Skeleton)'' * 23. Deutscher Tisch-Tennis-Bund ''(Table-tennis)'' * 24. Deutscher Amateur-Billiard-Verband ''(Billiard (Cue sports))'' ''(1) The “Summer Games” include the following games known collectively as “Turnspiele“ in German: Schlagball (a German bat-and-ball sport), Fistball, Korbball (closely related to korfball), Schleuderball and Ringtennis.'' By region The regional structure of the NSRL followed the Nazi Party model. Often two or more gaue (Reichsgau) were included in one region where it was expedient to do so. border "0" cellpadding "2" - valign "top" * Region 1: East Prussia * Region 2: Pomerania * Region 3: Berlin-Brandenburg * Region 4: Silesia * Region 5: Saxony * Region 6: Mitte (1) * Region 7: Nordmark (2) * Region 8: Lower Saxony * Region 9: Westphalia * Region 10: Lower Rhine (Lower Rhine region (Germany)) * Region 11: Middle Rhine (Mittelrhein (wine region)) * Region 12: Hessen * Region 13: Southwest (3) * Region 14: Baden * Region 14a: Alsace * Region 15: Württemberg-Hohenzollern * Region 16: Bavaria * Region 17: Ostmark (4) * Region 18: Sudetenland * Region 19: Danzig-West Prussia (Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia) * Gau Wartheland (Reichsgau Wartheland) ''(1) Thuringia, Anhalt and the Province of Saxony. — (2) Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg and Mecklenburg. — (3) The Palatinate (Palatinate (region)) and (from 1935 onwards) the Saar Region (Saar (League of Nations)). — (4) Austria from 1938 onwards .'' Distribution of members By January first 1937 the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen had 45,096 Associations with 3,582,776 active members (of which 517,992 were female and 3,064,784 male). On April first 1939 there were 44,622 Associations with 3,668,206 active members (of which 526,084 were female). The kind of sports practiced were the following: class "wikitable" - ! align "left" Sport !Associations Sections ! Total practising ! Total female - 1. Artistic gymnastics align "right" 12,773 align "right" 662,567 align "right" 234,190 - 2. Football align "right" 10,928 align "right" 483,302 align "right" 0 - 2. Rugby align "right" 52 align "right" 1,925 align "right" 0 - 2. Cricket align "right" 6 align "right" 88 align "right" 0 - 3. Light athletics align "right" 7,366 align "right" 268,183 align "right" 58,817 - 4. Handball align "right" 4,774 align "right" 152,943 align "right" 14,229 - 4. Basketball align "right" 156 align "right" 3,396 align "right" 522 - 5. Swimming align "right" 2,643 align "right" 129,142 align "right" 41,482 - 6. Weightlifting (Powerlifting) align "right" 809 align "right" 12.777 align "right" 0 - 6. Wrestling align "right" 748 align "right" 15,263 align "right" 0 - 6. Jiu-Jitsu (Jujutsu) align "right" 220 align "right" 7,957 align "right" 68 - 7. Boxing align "right" 872 align "right" 17,904 align "right" 0 - 8. Fencing align "right" 548 align "right" 9,088 align "right" 2,505 - 9. Hockey align "right" 411 align "right" 20,446 align "right" 5,748 - 10. Tennis align "right" 1,840 align "right" 79,932 align "right" 40,361 - 11. Rowing align "right" 757 align "right" 49,942 align "right" 11,433 - 12. Canoeing align "right" 1,155 align "right" 45,652 align "right" 8,183 - 13. Iceskating align "right" 369 align "right" 13,944 align "right" 4,907 - 13. Rollerskating align "right" 142 align "right" 4,409 align "right" 2,364 - 14. Ski align "right" 2,099 align "right" 88,395 align "right" 26,793 - 15. Bicycling align "right" 2,951 align "right" 61,131 align "right" 5,093 - 16. Sailing align "right" 460 align "right" 19,069 align "right" 832 - 17. Mountaneering align "right" 510 align "right" 168,450 align "right" 28,536 - 18. Hiking align "right" 2,961 align "right" 198,346 align "right" 30,683 - 19. Bowling align "right" 1,049 align "right" 50,325 align "right" 2,848 - 20. Shooting align "right" 14,310 align "right" 418,404 align "right" 2,730 - 21. Golf align "right" 59 align "right" 3,953 align "right" 1,401 - 22. Bobsleigh align "right" 21 align "right" 311 align "right" 29 - 22. Luge and Skeleton align "right" 67 align "right" 2,197 align "right" 682 - 23. Table tennis align "right" 777 align "right" 15,810 align "right" 3,937 - 24. Billiards align "right" 246 align "right" 5,046 align "right" 67 ''Numbering according to Departments and Departmental Federations.'' Events Championships in the individual types of sports were duly organized by the corresponding associations and federations. Among the events directly organized by the NS Reichsbund für Leibesübungen the most important were: * The 4th '''Deutsche Kampfspiele''', July 23 – 29 1934, in Nürnberg * '''Deutsches Turn- und Sportfest''', July 26 – 31 1938, in Breslau Trophy names *The name of today's DFB-Pokal, (Deutscher Fußball-Bund-Pokal (German Football Association) or German Football-Federation Cup), first contested in the 1934–35 season, was known between 1935 and 1943 as ''Tschammer-Pokal'' after then "Reichssportführer" (Sports Chief of the Reich) Hans von Tschammer und Osten. *The amateur Länderpokal (DFB), first established in 1909, was known between 1935 and 1942 as ''Reichsbundpokal''. See also The 1936 Winter Olympics were organized on behalf of the Sports Office of the Third Reich (Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen) (DRL) by Karl Ritter von Halt. Von Halt had been named President of the Committee for the organization of the Fourth Winter Olympics in Garmisch by ''Reichssportführer'' Hans von Tschammer und Osten. Doctrine The HJ were viewed as future "Aryan (Aryan race) supermen" and were indoctrinated in anti-Semitism. One aim was to instill the motivation that would enable HJ members, as soldiers, to fight faithfully for the Third Reich. The HJ put more emphasis on physical (body) and military training than on academic study. Hakim 1995 The ''Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen'' (NSRBL), the umbrella organization promoting and coordinating sport activities in Germany during the Nazi period, had the responsibility of overseeing the physical fitness development programs provided to the German youth. "Hitlerjugend: An In-Depth History." ''axishistory.com''. Retrieved: 1 February 2010. Carl Diem became the secretary of the all-German sports organization Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (:de:Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen) (DRL) the forerunner of the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, the Sports Organ of the Third Reich.


numerous football

annexation by Germany in March 1938 brought the budding Austrian Nationalliga (Austrian Football Bundesliga) to an early end. Numerous football teams were disbanded and some players fled the country. All Austrian sports associations were absorbed by the system of the DRL as Gau XVII section under ''Gaufachwart'' Hans Janisch. The Hitler salute was introduced as compulsory before and after every game. Finally, the operation of junior sports teams was handed over to the local Hitler Youth


physical

of a "master race" was propagated along with the promotion of physical exercises to look after one's own body and to prepare oneself to be a warrior for the volk thumb The Gaue of Greater Germany. As the Third Reich Expanded, the annexed territories of Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia came under the sphere of the NSRL (File:Reichsgaue.png) File:Nazi Propaganda - V-Deutschland Siegt An Allen Fronten.jpg thumb War propaganda: "Germany wins on all fronts."

: ''National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise''), known as '''Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen''' ('''DRL''') until 1938, was the umbrella organization for sports during the Third Reich. The NSRL was led by the ''Reichssportführer'', who after 1934 was at the same time presiding over the German National Olympic Committee. The NSRL's leaders were Hans von Tschammer und Osten (1933–1943), Arno Breitmeyer (1943–1944) and Karl Ritter von Halt

Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (:de:Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen) (DRA), (sometimes also DRL or, more rarely, DRAfL) (''"German Imperial Commission for Physical Exercise"''). The name change reflected Germany's protest against the fact that Germany and other Central Powers were being excluded from the "Olympic family" which was dominated by the Entente Powers. Name change


controversial

for the Germans. Sporting skills were made a criterion for school graduation as well as a necessary qualification for certain jobs and admission to universities. Bruce Campbell, ''The SA Generals and the Rise of Nazism'' Among the controversial measures taken by the Sports Office of the Reich at the time, the staging of the massive Reichssportfest event on Trinity Sunday was a decision that shocked devout Catholics. Kurt Josef Wecker, ''Themenheft Gemeinde 48

citizens feel that they were part of a wider national purpose. This was in line with the ideals of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the "Father of physical exercises", who connected the steeling of one's own body to a healthy spirit and promoted the idea of a unified, strong Germany. Turnverein Riesel, History A more controversial aim was the demonstration of Aryan physical superiority (Racial policy of Nazi Germany). http


massive sports

World War II radically altered the role of the NSRL in Germany and the areas under its leadership. Dire war preparations would make the influence of physical exercises in Nazi German society wane in favour of militarism. The massive sports pageantry events in the large cities, carefully organized to arouse nationalistic fervor, were replaced by military parades of German warriors. Successful sportsmen found it increasingly difficult to compete with frontline war heroes in capturing


big sports

football champions . Czech (Czechoslovakia) clubs continued to play their own Bohemia Moravia championship (Czechoslovak First League) Czech clubs in the German football structure 1938-1944 A separate Gauliga for the Czech teams of the territories occupied by Germany (Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia), Gauliga Böhmen und Mähren, was formed by the NSRL in 1943. The last big sports event organized in its


history place

were allowed to subsist into the following year. On April 12, 1933 Theodor Lewald gave in to the Nazi authorities and resigned as leader of the German Sports Office after it was revealed his paternal grandmother was Jewish. The History Place; Triumph of Hitler The Nazi minister of the interior Wilhelm Frick, interfered with the process of the election of a new Sports leader and the decision was made by a hurriedly-instituted three-men commission. Thus, in April 1933, Hans von Tschammer und Osten, a figure formerly unknown in German sports, was named ''Reichskommissar für Turnen und Sport'' (Commissioner for Gymnastics and Sports of the Reich). Von Tschammer, however, would keep his predecessor in a high position in the sports body, and years later he would appoint Theodor Lewald as president of the Organizing Committee of the Berlin Olympic Games. Hans von Tschammer und Osten was a SA (Sturmabteilung) group leader and promoter of Nazism. In the name of ''gleichschaltung'' he disbanded the ''Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen'' on May 5, 1933 (officially on May 10). Von Tschammer was then elevated to ''Reichssportführer'' on July 19 and the whole sports sphere in Germany was placed under his power. Sports and propaganda in Nazi Germany: The Aryan ideal The '''Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen''' ('''DRL''') was established on July 27, 1934 as the official Sports governing body of the Third Reich. It would quickly become a formidable system within the German nation. After the DRL's foundation all other German sport associations gradually lost their freedom and were coopted into the DRL as mere units ("Fachämter"). Even the most prestigious ones, like the German Football Association (DFB) lost their independence. Havemann, Nils (2006) ''Fußball unterm Hakenkreuz. Der DFB zwischen Sport, Politik und Kommerz Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung'' 1933-45 Chronik Rückblick mit scheinbaren Analogien und ohne Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit Von Tschammer's goal was to build a formidable Nazi sports body to which all German sports associations would be submitted. His vision was that physical exercise would ''"improve the morale and productivity of German workers"'' as well as making sports a source of national pride for the Germans. Sporting skills were made a criterion for school graduation as well as a necessary qualification for certain jobs and admission to universities. Bruce Campbell, ''The SA Generals and the Rise of Nazism'' Among the controversial measures taken by the Sports Office of the Reich at the time, the staging of the massive Reichssportfest event on Trinity Sunday was a decision that shocked devout Catholics. Kurt Josef Wecker, ''Themenheft Gemeinde 48: Rituale für Fernstehende'' Bergmoser & Höller Verlag, Aachen In 1935 journalist Guido von Mengden, was named public relations officer of the Reich Sports Office. He became the personal advisor and consultant of the ''Reichssportführer'' in 1936. A committed Nazi, von Mengden became the chief editor of '''NS-Sport''', the official organ of the Reich Sports Office. Bernett, Hajo (1976), ''Guido von Mengden "Generalsstabschef" des deutschen Sports'', Verlag Bartels & Wernitz. Other DRL NSRL publications included ''Dietwart'', a sports magazine with excellent illustrations and ''Sport und Staat'' (Sports and State), a massive four-volume Nazi propaganda report on the organized sports activities in the Third Reich. ''Sport und Staat'' was made by Arno Breitmeyer and Hitler's personal photographer Heinrich Hoffmann. This lavishly illustrated work had many pictures and information about the various Nazi organizations, i.e. SA (Sturmabteilung), NSKK (National Socialist Motor Corps), Bund Deutscher Mädel, Hitler Jugend, etc. Printed in 1934 by the publishing house of the German Sports Aid Funds, a branch of the DRL, only volume one and two of a planned series of four volumes were published. 'Sport und Staat The aims of the promotion of sports in the Third Reich included hardening the spirit of every German as well as making German citizens feel that they were part of a wider national purpose. This was in line with the ideals of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the "Father of physical exercises", who connected the steeling of one's own body to a healthy spirit and promoted the idea of a unified, strong Germany. Turnverein Riesel, History A more controversial aim was the demonstration of Aryan physical superiority (Racial policy of Nazi Germany). Liz Jewitt ''How successful was Nazi propaganda''. Von Tschammer's impressively staged events of sports pageantry not only enhanced the physical activity, but also the nationalism of Germans. Nordic (Nordic race) aesthetic beauty and commitment to Germanic ideals of race (Master race) went hand in hand during the Third Reich, and von Tschammer und Osten implemented a policy of racial exclusion within sports. Athletes of Jewish origin were excluded from participation in relevant sporting events. Von Tschammer's biography 1936 Olympic Games: Zenith of the Nazi Sports Office In 1936 Hans von Tschammer und Osten, as the head of the Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, played a major role in the structure and coordination of the Summer Olympics (1936 Summer Olympics) in Berlin. The Olympic games, the first in history to have live television coverage, provided an ideal setting to showcase the Nazi regime and what Hitler deemed to be his exploits. As Secretary General of the Organizing Committee of the Berlin Olympic Games, Carl Diem, the former secretary of the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (DRA), the forerunner of the DRL NSRL, became the chief organizer of the Berlin Olympic Games. Diem held high posts in the Reichs Sports office even after the Olympics, being named leader of the Foreign Department of the Nationalsocialist Sports Office in 1939 by the ''Reichssportführer''. As such Carl Diem was responsible for the issues of German athletes in foreign countries, as well as for the international affairs of the NSRL. Der "politische Sturm" um Carl Diem als Leiter der Sporthochschule Köln The 1936 Winter Olympics were organized on behalf of the Sports Office of the Third Reich (Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen) (DRL) by Karl Ritter von Halt. Von Halt had been named President of the Committee for the organization of the Fourth Winter Olympics in Garmisch by ''Reichssportführer'' Hans von Tschammer und Osten. Doctrine The HJ were viewed as future "Aryan (Aryan race) supermen" and were indoctrinated in anti-Semitism. One aim was to instill the motivation that would enable HJ members, as soldiers, to fight faithfully for the Third Reich. The HJ put more emphasis on physical (body) and military training than on academic study. Hakim 1995 The ''Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen'' (NSRBL), the umbrella organization promoting and coordinating sport activities in Germany during the Nazi period, had the responsibility of overseeing the physical fitness development programs provided to the German youth. "Hitlerjugend: An In-Depth History." ''axishistory.com''. Retrieved: 1 February 2010. Carl Diem became the secretary of the all-German sports organization Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (:de:Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen) (DRL) the forerunner of the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, the Sports Organ of the Third Reich.


sports

Monument at Pariser Platz in Berlin. The promotion of sports during the Nazi regime went hand-in-hand with theatrical nationalistic triumphalism (Art of the Third Reich). formed July 27, 1934 preceding1 ''Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen'' (DRA) preceding2 dissolved 31 May 1945 superseding jurisdiction Nazi Germany Occupied Europe headquarters '' Olympic Stadium, Berlin Reichssportfeld

; War-related triumphalism spelt doom for the once mighty NSRL thumb Many of the modern improvements of sports events by the DRL NSRL are still in use. Carl Diem's idea: The Olympic fire in Berlin (File:Olympic Fire in Berlin 1936.jpg) thumb Standard of a Gau of the NSRL (File:Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Gaufahne.svg) thumb NSRL Hanging banner (File:NSRBL Hängefahne.svg) The '''Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen''' ('''NSRL'''), more rarely "NSRBL", (meaning


quot top

. Moreover, even if not duly credited, many of the NSRL's systemic improvements in sports are still in use in today's sports organizations. By Sport border "0" cellpadding "2" - valign "top" * Department 1: Artistic gymnastics, Gymnastics and ''Summer Games'' (1) * Department 2: Football (Association football), Rugby (Rugby union), and Cricket * Department 3: Light athletics (Track and field athletics) * Department 4: Team handball Handball

competences of the NSRL as a league were served by sports federations some of which still exist today: border "0" cellpadding "2" - valign "top" * 16. Deutscher Segler-Verband ''(Sailing)'' * 17. Deutscher Bergsteiger-Verband ''(Mountaineering)'' * 18. Deutscher Wanderverband ''(Hiking)'' * 19. Deutscher Kegler-Bund ''(Bowling)'' * 20. Deutscher Schützen-Verband ''(Shooting)'' * 21. Deutscher Golf-Verband ''(Golf)'' * 22. Bob

.'' By region The regional structure of the NSRL followed the Nazi Party model. Often two or more gaue (Reichsgau) were included in one region where it was expedient to do so. border "0" cellpadding "2" - valign "top" * Region 1: East Prussia * Region 2: Pomerania * Region 3: Berlin-Brandenburg * Region 4: Silesia * Region 5: Saxony * Region 6: Mitte (1) * Region 7: Nordmark (2) * Region 8: Lower Saxony * Region 9: Westphalia


sports field

Hitler changing the name of the Reich Sports Body to '''Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen''' ('''NSRL'''), thereby "elevating it to an organization served by the NSDAP (Nazi Party)". This name change meant that the NSRL would be "placed under" the Nazi Party. Its seat would be the '''Haus des Deutschen Sports''' (House of the German Sports) in the Reichssportfeld (Sports Field of the Reich) in Berlin. Twilight and end of the Nazi Sports Office World War II radically altered the role of the NSRL in Germany and the areas under its leadership. Dire war preparations would make the influence of physical exercises in Nazi German society wane in favour of militarism. The massive sports pageantry events in the large cities, carefully organized to arouse nationalistic fervor, were replaced by military parades of German warriors. Successful sportsmen found it increasingly difficult to compete with frontline war heroes in capturing the attention of the German public. Even though the NSRL continued playing a big role in sporting activities among the youth for a few years, the atmosphere had changed. Many Germans had to go to fight to the fronts, so the NSRL concentrated in training and staging local or regional events for younger athletes. Already in 1940 monetary funds for organizing sporting venues, like the prestigious Kiel Week sailing competition, were not forthcoming. Contributors felt emboldened to deny funds to the formerly influential branches of the Nazi Sports Office owing to the war-related shifting of priorities. Albert Oeckl - sein Leben und Wirken für die deutsche Öffentlichkeitsarbeit During this time the NSRL sold lottery tickets as a source of self-financement. Von Tschammer's influence and power within the NSDAP also began rapidly eroding despite having been a committed topmost Nazi leader. He would, however, never witness Germany's defeat and humiliation in the war, for he died from pneumonia in Berlin in March 1943. Arno Breitmeyer, a fellow SA (Sturmabteilung) officer became the new ''Reichssportführer''. As the war dragged on, a huge amount of members of the many branches of the NSRL, among them youngsters in their early teens, had to go to fight to the fronts. Since players were not available, except in shoddily-organized military sports events in scattered frontline locations, sports life in Germany came practically to a standstill. The last ''von Tschammer und Osten Pokal'' football trophy was played in Vienna in 1943 and the following two years plunged the NSRL into irrelevance. The once mighty Nazi Sports Body had to give up its weight and its position of pride long before the war was lost. On May 31, 1945, after Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II (Aftermath of World War II), the American Military Government (Allied Occupation Zones in Germany) issued a special law outlawing the Nazi party and all of its branches. Known as "Law number five", this Denazification decree disbanded the NS Reichsbund für Leibesübungen along with all its facilities and departments. The disbandment of the NSRL meant that all the sports organizations of Germany had to be established anew during the postwar reconstruction (Reconstruction of Germany) of both West Germany and the DDR (East Germany). Even after German reunification in 1990, there has never been such a powerful and all-encompassing sports organization in Germany as the DRL NSRL was at its height. Structure As a sports governing body seeking to control and integrate all sport activities in Germany, the DRL NSRL provided a highly organized structure. This structuralization, whose nationalistic seriousness was often outright theatrical, was in line with the Nazi Party's goal of reminding Germans constantly that they were members of a large extended country, the Third Reich. According to Paragraph 2 of the DRL's Statutes: ''The purpose of the League of the Reich for Physical Exercise is the training of the body and character of Germans grouped together in member organizations through planned physical exercises and care of the national conscience (Volksbewußtsein) in the spirit of the National Socialist state''. Regarding method and purpose, and keeping aside the ideology, the well-ordered and solemn DRL NSRL system proved itself efficient. The 1936 Summer Olympics, as well as other key events, provided ample opportunity to test the good organization that the Sports Body of the Reich was able to provide. The NSRL's obvious competence succeeded in instilling a spirit of unity and pride among the German sportsmen and women as well as their supporters. Moreover, even if not duly credited, many of the NSRL's systemic improvements in sports are still in use in today's sports organizations. By Sport border "0" cellpadding "2" - valign "top" * Department 1: Artistic gymnastics, Gymnastics and ''Summer Games'' (1) * Department 2: Football (Association football), Rugby (Rugby union), and Cricket * Department 3: Light athletics (Track and field athletics) * Department 4: Handball (Team handball) * Department 5: Swimming (Swimming (sport)) * Department 6: Heavy athletics (Track and field athletics) * Department 7: Boxing * Department 8: Fencing * Department 9: Hockey * Department 10: Tennis * Department 11: Rowing (rowing (sports)) * Department 12: Canoeing * Department 13: Ice- (Iceskating) and Rollerskating * Department 14: Ski * Department 15: Deutscher Radfahrer-Verband, ''Bicycling'' Besides the departments above, certain competences of the NSRL as a league were served by sports federations some of which still exist today: border "0" cellpadding "2" - valign "top" * 16. Deutscher Segler-Verband ''(Sailing)'' * 17. Deutscher Bergsteiger-Verband ''(Mountaineering)'' * 18. Deutscher Wanderverband ''(Hiking)'' * 19. Deutscher Kegler-Bund ''(Bowling)'' * 20. Deutscher Schützen-Verband ''(Shooting)'' * 21. Deutscher Golf-Verband ''(Golf)'' * 22. Deutscher Bob- und Schlittensport-Verband (Bob- und Schlittenverband für Deutschland) ''(Bobsleigh, Luge and Skeleton)'' * 23. Deutscher Tisch-Tennis-Bund ''(Table-tennis)'' * 24. Deutscher Amateur-Billiard-Verband ''(Billiard (Cue sports))'' ''(1) The “Summer Games” include the following games known collectively as “Turnspiele“ in German: Schlagball (a German bat-and-ball sport), Fistball, Korbball (closely related to korfball), Schleuderball and Ringtennis.'' By region The regional structure of the NSRL followed the Nazi Party model. Often two or more gaue (Reichsgau) were included in one region where it was expedient to do so. border "0" cellpadding "2" - valign "top" * Region 1: East Prussia * Region 2: Pomerania * Region 3: Berlin-Brandenburg * Region 4: Silesia * Region 5: Saxony * Region 6: Mitte (1) * Region 7: Nordmark (2) * Region 8: Lower Saxony * Region 9: Westphalia * Region 10: Lower Rhine (Lower Rhine region (Germany)) * Region 11: Middle Rhine (Mittelrhein (wine region)) * Region 12: Hessen * Region 13: Southwest (3) * Region 14: Baden * Region 14a: Alsace * Region 15: Württemberg-Hohenzollern * Region 16: Bavaria * Region 17: Ostmark (4) * Region 18: Sudetenland * Region 19: Danzig-West Prussia (Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia) * Gau Wartheland (Reichsgau Wartheland) ''(1) Thuringia, Anhalt and the Province of Saxony. — (2) Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg and Mecklenburg. — (3) The Palatinate (Palatinate (region)) and (from 1935 onwards) the Saar Region (Saar (League of Nations)). — (4) Austria from 1938 onwards .'' Distribution of members By January first 1937 the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen had 45,096 Associations with 3,582,776 active members (of which 517,992 were female and 3,064,784 male). On April first 1939 there were 44,622 Associations with 3,668,206 active members (of which 526,084 were female). The kind of sports practiced were the following: class "wikitable" - ! align "left" Sport !Associations Sections ! Total practising ! Total female - 1. Artistic gymnastics align "right" 12,773 align "right" 662,567 align "right" 234,190 - 2. Football align "right" 10,928 align "right" 483,302 align "right" 0 - 2. Rugby align "right" 52 align "right" 1,925 align "right" 0 - 2. Cricket align "right" 6 align "right" 88 align "right" 0 - 3. Light athletics align "right" 7,366 align "right" 268,183 align "right" 58,817 - 4. Handball align "right" 4,774 align "right" 152,943 align "right" 14,229 - 4. Basketball align "right" 156 align "right" 3,396 align "right" 522 - 5. Swimming align "right" 2,643 align "right" 129,142 align "right" 41,482 - 6. Weightlifting (Powerlifting) align "right" 809 align "right" 12.777 align "right" 0 - 6. Wrestling align "right" 748 align "right" 15,263 align "right" 0 - 6. Jiu-Jitsu (Jujutsu) align "right" 220 align "right" 7,957 align "right" 68 - 7. Boxing align "right" 872 align "right" 17,904 align "right" 0 - 8. Fencing align "right" 548 align "right" 9,088 align "right" 2,505 - 9. Hockey align "right" 411 align "right" 20,446 align "right" 5,748 - 10. Tennis align "right" 1,840 align "right" 79,932 align "right" 40,361 - 11. Rowing align "right" 757 align "right" 49,942 align "right" 11,433 - 12. Canoeing align "right" 1,155 align "right" 45,652 align "right" 8,183 - 13. Iceskating align "right" 369 align "right" 13,944 align "right" 4,907 - 13. Rollerskating align "right" 142 align "right" 4,409 align "right" 2,364 - 14. Ski align "right" 2,099 align "right" 88,395 align "right" 26,793 - 15. Bicycling align "right" 2,951 align "right" 61,131 align "right" 5,093 - 16. Sailing align "right" 460 align "right" 19,069 align "right" 832 - 17. Mountaneering align "right" 510 align "right" 168,450 align "right" 28,536 - 18. Hiking align "right" 2,961 align "right" 198,346 align "right" 30,683 - 19. Bowling align "right" 1,049 align "right" 50,325 align "right" 2,848 - 20. Shooting align "right" 14,310 align "right" 418,404 align "right" 2,730 - 21. Golf align "right" 59 align "right" 3,953 align "right" 1,401 - 22. Bobsleigh align "right" 21 align "right" 311 align "right" 29 - 22. Luge and Skeleton align "right" 67 align "right" 2,197 align "right" 682 - 23. Table tennis align "right" 777 align "right" 15,810 align "right" 3,937 - 24. Billiards align "right" 246 align "right" 5,046 align "right" 67 ''Numbering according to Departments and Departmental Federations.'' Events Championships in the individual types of sports were duly organized by the corresponding associations and federations. Among the events directly organized by the NS Reichsbund für Leibesübungen the most important were: * The 4th '''Deutsche Kampfspiele''', July 23 – 29 1934, in Nürnberg * '''Deutsches Turn- und Sportfest''', July 26 – 31 1938, in Breslau Trophy names *The name of today's DFB-Pokal, (Deutscher Fußball-Bund-Pokal (German Football Association) or German Football-Federation Cup), first contested in the 1934–35 season, was known between 1935 and 1943 as ''Tschammer-Pokal'' after then "Reichssportführer" (Sports Chief of the Reich) Hans von Tschammer und Osten. *The amateur Länderpokal (DFB), first established in 1909, was known between 1935 and 1942 as ''Reichsbundpokal''. See also The 1936 Winter Olympics were organized on behalf of the Sports Office of the Third Reich (Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen) (DRL) by Karl Ritter von Halt. Von Halt had been named President of the Committee for the organization of the Fourth Winter Olympics in Garmisch by ''Reichssportführer'' Hans von Tschammer und Osten. Doctrine The HJ were viewed as future "Aryan (Aryan race) supermen" and were indoctrinated in anti-Semitism. One aim was to instill the motivation that would enable HJ members, as soldiers, to fight faithfully for the Third Reich. The HJ put more emphasis on physical (body) and military training than on academic study. Hakim 1995 The ''Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen'' (NSRBL), the umbrella organization promoting and coordinating sport activities in Germany during the Nazi period, had the responsibility of overseeing the physical fitness development programs provided to the German youth. "Hitlerjugend: An In-Depth History." ''axishistory.com''. Retrieved: 1 February 2010. Carl Diem became the secretary of the all-German sports organization Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (:de:Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen) (DRL) the forerunner of the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, the Sports Organ of the Third Reich.

Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen

thumb Berlin, gate of the Olympic Stadium (File:Berlin olympiastadion main entrance olympic rings dec 2004.jpg) thumb DRL membership booklet cover. The German eagle became the emblem of the DRL after the 1936 Olympic Games. (File:DRLmembership-booklet.png) thumb The idea of a "master race (File:ArnoBrekerDiePartei.jpg)" was propagated along with the promotion of physical exercises to look after one's own body and to prepare oneself to be a warrior for the volk thumb The Gaue of Greater Germany. As the Third Reich Expanded, the annexed territories of Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia came under the sphere of the NSRL (File:Reichsgaue.png) thumb War propaganda: "Germany wins on all fronts." War-related triumphalism spelt doom for the once mighty NSRL (File:Nazi Propaganda - V-Deutschland Siegt An Allen Fronten.jpg) thumb Many of the modern improvements of sports events by the DRL NSRL are still in use. Carl Diem's idea: The Olympic fire in Berlin (File:Olympic Fire in Berlin 1936.jpg) thumb Standard of a Gau of the NSRL (File:Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Gaufahne.svg)

thumb NSRL Hanging banner (File:NSRBL Hängefahne.svg) The '''Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen''' ('''NSRL'''), more rarely "NSRBL", (meaning: ''National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise''), known as '''Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen''' ('''DRL''') until 1938, was the umbrella organization for sports during the Third Reich.

The NSRL was led by the ''Reichssportführer'', who after 1934 was at the same time presiding over the German National Olympic Committee. The NSRL's leaders were Hans von Tschammer und Osten (1933–1943), Arno Breitmeyer (1943–1944) and Karl Ritter von Halt (1944–1945).

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