Nag Hammadi

What is Nag Hammadi known for?


scholarship

it. Professor John D Turner believes that this double attack led to Sethianism fragmentation into numerous smaller groups (Audians, Borborites, Archontics and perhaps Phibionites, Stratiotici, and Secundians ). Scholarship on Gnosticism has been greatly advanced by the discovery and translation of the Nag Hammadi texts, which shed light on some of the more puzzling

his post as Chief Inspector of Antiquities for Upper Egypt (Egyptian Antiquities Service). Suddenly, at the age of 25, Arthur Weigall was appointed to replace Howard Carter at Luxor, responsible for protecting and managing the antiquities of a region that extended from Nag Hammadi to the border with Sudan. Scholarship on Gnosticism has been greatly advanced by the discovery and translation of the Nag Hammadi texts, which shed light on some of the more


interpretations based

; ref Scholarship on Gnosticism has been greatly advanced by the discovery and translation of the Nag Hammadi texts, which shed light on some of the more puzzling comments by Plotinus and Porphyry (Porphyry (philosopher)) regarding the Gnostics. More importantly, the texts help to distinguish different kinds of early Gnostics. It now seems clear that "Sethian" and "Valentinian (Valentinus (Gnostic))" This is what the scholar A. H. Armstrong wrote as a footnote in his translation of Plotinus' Enneads in the tract named against the Gnostics. Footnote from Page 264 1. From this point to the end of ch.12 Plotinus is attacking a Gnostic myth known to us best at present in the form it took in the system of Valentinus. The Mother, Sophia-Achamoth, produced as a result of the complicated sequence of events which followed the fall of the higher Sophia, and her offspring the Demiurge, the inferier and ignorant maker of the material universe, are Valentinian figures: cp. Irenaeus, ''Adversus haereses (On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis)'' 1.4 and 5. Valentinius had been in Rome, and there is nothing improbable in the presence of Valentinians there in the time of Plotinus. But the evidence in the Life ch.16 suggests that the Gnostics in Plotinus's circle belonged rather to the other group called Sethians on Archonties, related to the Ophites or Barbelognostics: they probably called themselves simply "Gnostics." Gnostic sects borrowed freely from each other, and it is likely that Valentinius took some of his ideas about Sophia from older Gnostic sources, and that his ideas in turn influenced other Gnostics. The probably Sethian Gnostic library discovered at Nag Hammadi included Valentinian treatise: ep. Puech, Le pp. 162-163 and 179-180. gnostics attempted "an effort towards conciliation, even affiliation" with late antique philosophy Schenke, Hans Martin. "The Phenomenon and Significance of Gnostic Sethianism" in The Rediscovery of Gnosticism. E. J. Brill 1978 , and were rebuffed by some Neoplatonists (Neoplatonism), including Plotinus. Plotinus considered his opponents "heretics" Introductory Note This treatise (No.33 in Porphyry's chronological order) is in fact the concluding section of a single long treatise which Porphyry, in order to carry out the design of grouping his master's works, more or less according to subject, into six sets of nine treatise, hacked roughly into four parts which he put into different Enneads, the other three being III. 8 (30) V. 8 (31) and V .5 (32). Porphyry says (Life ch. 16.11) that he gave the treatise the Title "Against the Gnostics" (he is presumably also responsible for the titles of the other sections of the cut-up treatise). There is an alternative title in Life. ch. 24 56-57 which runs "Against those who say that the maker of the universe is evil and the universe is evil. The treatise as it stands in the Enneads is a most powerful protest on behalf of Hellenic philosophy against the '''un-Hellenic heresy''' (as it was from the Platonist as well as the orthodox Christian point of view) of Gnosticism. A.H. Armstrong introduction to II 9. Against the Gnostics Pages 220-222 ,"imbeciles" and "blasphemers" They claimed to be a privileged caste of beings, in whom alone God was interested, and who were saved not by their own efforts but by some dramatic and arbitrary divine proceeding; and this, Plotinus claimed, led to immorality. Worst of all, they despised and hated the material universe and denied its goodness and the goodness of its maker . For a Platonist, is utter blasphemy -- and all the worse because it obviously derives to some extent from the sharply other-worldly side of Plato's own teaching (e.g. in the Phaedo). At this point in his attack Plotinus comes very close in some ways to the orthodox Christian opponents of Gnosticism, who also insist that this world is the work of God in his goodness. But, here as on the question of salvation, the doctrine which Plotinus is defending is as sharply opposed on other ways to orthodox Christianity as to Gnosticism: for he maintains not only the goodness of the material universe but also its eternity and its divinity. A.H. Armstrong introduction to II 9. Against the Gnostics Pages 220-222 erroneously arriving at misotheism as the solution to the problem of evil, taking all their truths over from Plato. The teaching of the Gnostics seems to him untraditional, irrational and immoral. They despise and revile the ancient Platonic teachings and claim to have a new and superior wisdom of their own: but in fact anything that is true in their teaching comes from Plato, and all they have done themselves is to add senseless complications and pervert the true traditional doctrine into a melodramatic, superstitious fantasy designed to feed their own delusions of grandeur. They reject the only true way of salvation through wisdom and virtue, the slow patient study of truth and pursuit of perfection by men who respect the wisdom of the ancients and know their place in the universe. A.H. Armstrong introduction to II 9. Against the Gnostics Pages 220-222 This state of affairs continued through to modern times; in 1945, however, there was a chance discovery of a cache of 4th-century Gnostic manuscripts near Nag Hammadi, Egypt. The texts, which had been sealed inside earthen jars, were discovered by a local man called Mohammed Ali, and now this collection of texts is known as the ''Nag Hammadi library''; this allowed for the modern study of undiluted 'Gnostic scripture' for the first time. The translation of the texts from Coptic (Coptic language), their language of composition, into English and other modern languages took place in the years approaching 1977, when the full Nag Hammadi library was published in English translation. This has clarified recent discussions of gnosticism, though many would agree that the topic still remains fraught with difficulties. The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian (Early Christianity) Gnostic texts discovered near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. The writings in these codices comprised fifty-two mostly Gnostic tractates (treatise); they also include three works belonging to the ''Corpus Hermeticum (Hermetica)'' and a partial translation of Plato's ''Republic'' (Plato's Republic). The codices are currently housed in the Coptic Museum in Cairo.


cover

codices , together with pages torn from another book, in December 1945. The mother of the farmers burned one of the books and parts of a second (including its cover). Thus twelve of these books (one missing its cover) and the loose pages survive. . "The Nag Hammadi library consists of twelve books, plus eight leaves removed

from a thirteenth book in late antiquity and tucked inside the front cover of the sixth. These eight leaves comprise a complete text, an independent treatise taken out of a book of collected essays." (p.10) The writings in these codices, dating back to the 2nd century AD, www.nag-hammadi.com comprised 52 mostly Gnostic (Gnosticism) tractates (treatise), were found in a single grave site. The contents of the coptic binding


quot short

the translations now available. The fact that four manuscript "editions" of this text survived—two "long" versions and two "short" versions—suggests how important this text was in early gnostic Christian circles. It should also be noted that in the three Nag Hammadi codices where the ''Apocryphon of John'' appears, the text in each case is the first text of the collection. Oxyrhynchus 654 had a heading which seems to describe the work as a collection of "sayings


title news

), Copts were going out of Mar-Yuhanna (St. John) church in Nag Hammadi city when three Muslim men in a car near the church opened fire killing 8 Christians and injuring another 10.


writings

from a thirteenth book in late antiquity and tucked inside the front cover of the sixth. These eight leaves comprise a complete text, an independent treatise taken out of a book of collected essays." (p.10) The writings in these codices, dating back to the 2nd century AD, www.nag-hammadi.com comprised 52 mostly Gnostic (Gnosticism) tractates (treatise), were found in a single grave site. The contents of the coptic binding

; ref Category:Populated places in Qena Governorate cs:Rukopisy z Nag Hammádí The Gnostic tradition (Gnosticism) was a prolific source of apocryphal gospels. While these writings borrowed the characteristic poetic features of apocalyptic literature from Judaism, Gnostic sects largely insisted on allegorical interpretations based on a secret apostolic tradition. With them, these apocryphal books

from fragments of papyrus found at Oxyrhynchus in the 1890s. The '''Gospel According to Thomas''', commonly shortened to the '''Gospel of Thomas''', is a well preserved early Christian (early Christianity), non-canonical sayings-gospel (Logia) discovered near Nag Hammadi, Egypt, in December 1945, in one of a group of books known as the Nag Hammadi library. The Gospel of Thomas was found among a collection of fifty-two writings that included, in addition


extraordinary

climate, like that of Egypt, papyrus is stable, formed as it is of highly rot-resistant cellulose; but storage in humid conditions can result in molds attacking and destroying the material. In European conditions, papyrus seems to have lasted only a matter of decades; a 200-year-old papyrus was considered extraordinary. Imported papyrus that was once commonplace in Greece and Italy has since deteriorated beyond repair, but papyrus is still being found in Egypt; extraordinary


early

were highly esteemed. A well-known Gnostic apocryphal book is the Gospel of Thomas, the only complete text of which was found in the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. The Gospel of Judas, a Gnostic gospel, also received much media attention when it was reconstructed in 2006. As far back as the early 2nd century, there is evidence that the codex—usually of papyrus—was the preferred format among Christians (Christianity): in the library of the Villa of the Papyri

in the development of early codices, or if they simply adopted the format to distinguish themselves from Jews. The earliest surviving fragments from codices come from Egypt and are variously dated (always tentatively) towards the end of the 1st century or in the first half of the 2nd. This group includes the Rylands Library Papyrus P52, containing part of St John's Gospel, and perhaps dating from between 125 and 160. Turner ''The Typology of the Early Codex'', U Penn 1977, and Roberts &

comments by Plotinus and Porphyry (Porphyry (philosopher)) regarding the Gnostics. More importantly, the texts help to distinguish different kinds of early Gnostics. It now seems clear that "Sethian" and "Valentinian (Valentinus (Gnostic))" This is what the scholar A. H. Armstrong wrote as a footnote in his translation of Plotinus' Enneads in the tract named against the Gnostics. Footnote from Page 264 1. From this point to the end of ch.12 Plotinus


attacking

# 389, and Roberts & Skeat 71, call it a "medical manual."" However, by the 3rd century Neoplatonists, such as Plotinus, Porphyry and Amelius are all attacking the Sethians. It looks as if Sethianism began as a pre-Christian tradition, possibly a syncretic Hebrew that incorporated elements of Christianity and Platonism as it grew, only to have both Christianity and Platonism reject and turn against

is attacking a Gnostic myth known to us best at present in the form it took in the system of Valentinus. The Mother, Sophia-Achamoth, produced as a result of the complicated sequence of events which followed the fall of the higher Sophia, and her offspring the Demiurge, the inferier and ignorant maker of the material universe, are Valentinian figures: cp. Irenaues adv. Haer 1.4 and 5. Valentinius had been in Rome, and there is nothing improbable in the presence of Valentinians there in the time

climate, like that of Egypt, papyrus is stable, formed as it is of highly rot-resistant cellulose; but storage in humid conditions can result in molds attacking and destroying the material. In European conditions, papyrus seems to have lasted only a matter of decades; a 200-year-old papyrus was considered extraordinary. Imported papyrus that was once commonplace in Greece and Italy has since deteriorated beyond repair, but papyrus is still being found in Egypt; extraordinary


jesus

to an excerpt from Plato's ''Republic'' (The Republic (Plato)), gospels claiming to have been written by Jesus' disciple Philip (Philip the Apostle). Scholars have speculated that the works were buried in response to a letter from Bishop Athanasius (Athanasius of Alexandria) who for the first time declared a strict canon (Biblical canon) of Christian scripture. Bound by a method now called Coptic binding, the books (technically called codices (codex)) were found

with the description of creation in Genesis (Book of Genesis). This description from Hippolytus also corresponds to two versions of a text called ''Epistle of Eugnostos'' found in Nag Hammadi, where the same monad to decad relationship is described. (''Eugnostos'' in turn, has apparent resemblances to the gnostic text ''The Sophia of Jesus Christ'', where the word ''monad'' appears again.) Doctrine The term particularly applies to the ''Corpus Hermeticum'', Marsilio Ficino's Latin

and strands of thought emanating from Jesus' life and teaching or which may be contemporary with them, some of which can be contrasted with Paul's thought. Of the more significant are Ebionism (Ebionites) and Gnosticism. However, there is no universal agreement as to Gnosticism's relationship either to Christianity in general or the writings of Paul (Paul and Gnosticism). The expression is used by modern Christian scholars, such as Ziesler Ziesler John, ''Pauline Christianity

Nag Hammadi

thumbnail Naga' Hammadi sugar refinary plate date 1901 (File:Raffinerie Say.JPG)

'''Nag Hammadi''' ( meaning "geese grazing grounds". It is located on the west bank of the Nile in the Qena Governorate, about 80 kilometres north-west of Luxor.

It has a population of about 30,000, who are mostly farmers. Sugar and aluminium are produced in Nag Hammadi.

The town of Nag Hammadi was established by Mahmoud Pasha Hammadi, who was a member of the Hammadi family in Sohag, Egypt. Mahmoud Pasha Hammadi was a major landholder in Sohag, and known for his strong opposition to the British occupation.

Mahmoud Pasha Hammadi created Nag Hammadi for the indigenous people from Sohag who were forced to abandon their homeland by the British occupation. In recognition of this, the new town was given the name "Hammadi".

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