NKVD

What is NKVD known for?


albums quot

created an extrajudicial body composed of two persons, the so called "Dvoika", a Committee of the People's Commissar for Internal Affairs (chief of the NKVD) and the Prosecutor of the USSR (Prosecutor General of the USSR), and instituted a special procedure for handling of such cases. Specifically, regional (oblast, krai, respublic) NKVD units had to compile lists of the Polish cases, bind them into so-called "albums" and send the "albums" to Moscow, where


service special

to German (Nazi Germany) Schutzstaffel ("SS") and Sicherheitsdienst ("SD") (German Security Service) or Soviet Russian NKVD, and Politruk unit, for watching exterior enemies or suspicious persons and watching inside of own unit for possible defectors or traitors; and used the security doctrine of "Kikosaku". *Overseas Security and Colonial Police Service special unit dedicated to the maintenance of security in occupied territories in Southeast Asia


quot collaboration

462–464 Piesakowski, T. (1990) ''The fate of Poles in the USSR 1939~1989'' Gryf Pages 198–199 After several months of brutal interrogation and torture Garlinski, J.(1985) ''Poland in the Second World War'' Macmillan ISBN 0-333-39258-2 Page 335 they were presented with the forged accusations of "collaboration with Nazi Germany" and "planning a military alliance with Nazi Germany" Garlinski, J.(1985

. They were brought to Moscow for interrogation in the Lubyanka. After several months of brutal interrogation and torture they were presented with the forged accusations of "collaboration with Nazi Germany" and "planning a military alliance with Nazi Germany" ref


set field

;ref name upheav , in the area patrolled by the 97th Unit of Soviet Border Troops, 471 people had crossed the border illegally from the districts of Hlyboka, Hertsa, Putila, and Storozhynets. The zone assigned to this unit extended from the border to about 7.5 km south of Chernivtsi. * Kakha Bendukidze, former Russian (Russians) businessman, currently working in the administration of President Mikheil Saakashvili. * Lavrenti Beria, head of the NKVD (the predecessor to the KGB), supervisor and one of the initiators of the Soviet Union's Nuclear Project * Giga Bokeria, Georgian (Georgia (country)) political leader With the onset of the Second World War, he was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, (the Soviet secret police) and on 14 June 1941, was in the Sosva prison camp, and was sentenced to death but died before the execution at Sosva, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia (see Gulag)) Medvedev was born in Bryansk in a steelworker's family. During the Russian Civil War he joined the Red Army and in 1920 he joined the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Between 1920 and 1935 worked in the Cheka, OGPU and the NKVD in Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Great Purge Uborevich was arrested during the Great Purge of the Red Army. In May 1937, Uborevich was tried by the NKVD in an event known as the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization. He was executed in June 1937 and posthumously rehabilitated (Rehabilitation (Soviet)) in 1957. ''Superman: Red Son'' In Mark Millar's ''Superman: Red Son'', Martha and her husband are anti-communist protesters in the Soviet Union. They are executed by the NKVD under Commissar Pyotr Roslov (Pete Ross), which leads to their son vowing to overthrow the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Until recently his true date of death was not officially known. Soviet sources such as the ''Soviet Encyclopedia'' stated that he died in 1943 during the German occupation (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). Recently, it has become known that Kucherenko was arrested and after a period of 8 months of prolonged torture was finally shot by the NKVD in 1937. His body was buried in a mass grave on the territory of the KGB recreational facility in the area of Piatykhatky on the outskirts of Kharkiv. Soon after the German forces were pushed out of the city, Filipkowski was invited to a conference with Michał Rola-Żymierski and arrested by the Soviet NKVD in Zhytomir on August 3, 1944; at the same time most of his soldiers were also arrested and sent to Soviet prisons - or had to flee back to German-held part of Poland. Filipkowski was held in a number of Soviet prisons, including the prison in Kiev, a Smersh camp of the 1st Ukrainian Front, and NKVD camps in Kharkov, Ryazan, Dyagilev, Gryazovets and Brest (Brest, Belarus). In November 1947 he was handed over to the Ministry of Public Security of Poland in Biała Podlaska, interrogated and set free. However, soon afterwards his younger son Andrzej (b. 1925), also a former soldier of the Home Army, was arrested by the Communists and was held in prisons until the destalinization thaw of 1956. * In the NKVD (w:NKVD) as it was now in 1936 , Stalin (w:Stalin) had a powerful and experienced instrument. At its head stood Yagoda (‪w:Genrikh Yagoda‬). His deputy in security matters was Stalin’s crony Agranov (‪w:Yakov Agranov‬), who had finished his special operations at Leningrad and handed over that city to the dreadful Sakovsky, who is said to have boasted that if he had Karl Marx to interrogate he would soon make him confess that he was agent of Bismark (Otto von Bismark). ** Robert Conquest (w:Robert Conquest) (1990, 2000), The Great Terror: A Reassessment (40th Anniversary Edition) Oxford University Press p. 81.


military line

fate and decided to shoot himself to death in his home in Kadrina on 5 February 1941. He was buried in Tallinn Sisekalmistu cemetery. right thumb Infantry in a trench in the Mannerheim Line (File:Trenches mannerheim line winter war.png) Soviet intelligence worked in Finland on multiple levels. The Finnish communist party, running in the Soviet Union, had its own military line to the Central Committee. Its intelligence concentrated on the Finnish army, taking notes on the locations of Finnish artillery and defensive positions. The most important Soviet intelligence organisations in Finland were the NKVD and the Fourth Department of the Army General Staff (Military counterintelligence of the Soviet Army). Leningrad Military District, the Baltic Fleet and border troops under the NKVD, conducted espionage operations. Geust & Uitto 2006 (#UittoGeust2006), pages 15–16 ''The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich'' is a comprehensive historical interpretation of the Nazi (Nazism) era, positing that German history logically proceeded from Martin Luther to Adolf Hitler; Rosenfeld 1994, p. 102. "The notion that 'rectitude and authenticity were integrally German attributes, in contrast to Roman or Latin influences which were degrading' held to have originated with Luther developed with German Romanticism in the 19th Century, and culminated with National Socialism (Nazism)." Johnson 2001. , in the area patrolled by the 97th Unit of Soviet Border Troops, 471 people had crossed the border illegally from the districts of Hlyboka, Hertsa, Putila, and Storozhynets. The zone assigned to this unit extended from the border to about 7.5 km south of Chernivtsi. * Kakha Bendukidze, former Russian (Russians) businessman, currently working in the administration of President Mikheil Saakashvili. * Lavrenti Beria, head of the NKVD (the predecessor to the KGB), supervisor and one of the initiators of the Soviet Union's Nuclear Project * Giga Bokeria, Georgian (Georgia (country)) political leader With the onset of the Second World War, he was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, (the Soviet secret police) and on 14 June 1941, was in the Sosva prison camp, and was sentenced to death but died before the execution at Sosva, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia (see Gulag)) Medvedev was born in Bryansk in a steelworker's family. During the Russian Civil War he joined the Red Army and in 1920 he joined the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Between 1920 and 1935 worked in the Cheka, OGPU and the NKVD in Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Great Purge Uborevich was arrested during the Great Purge of the Red Army. In May 1937, Uborevich was tried by the NKVD in an event known as the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization. He was executed in June 1937 and posthumously rehabilitated (Rehabilitation (Soviet)) in 1957. ''Superman: Red Son'' In Mark Millar's ''Superman: Red Son'', Martha and her husband are anti-communist protesters in the Soviet Union. They are executed by the NKVD under Commissar Pyotr Roslov (Pete Ross), which leads to their son vowing to overthrow the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Until recently his true date of death was not officially known. Soviet sources such as the ''Soviet Encyclopedia'' stated that he died in 1943 during the German occupation (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). Recently, it has become known that Kucherenko was arrested and after a period of 8 months of prolonged torture was finally shot by the NKVD in 1937. His body was buried in a mass grave on the territory of the KGB recreational facility in the area of Piatykhatky on the outskirts of Kharkiv. Soon after the German forces were pushed out of the city, Filipkowski was invited to a conference with Michał Rola-Żymierski and arrested by the Soviet NKVD in Zhytomir on August 3, 1944; at the same time most of his soldiers were also arrested and sent to Soviet prisons - or had to flee back to German-held part of Poland. Filipkowski was held in a number of Soviet prisons, including the prison in Kiev, a Smersh camp of the 1st Ukrainian Front, and NKVD camps in Kharkov, Ryazan, Dyagilev, Gryazovets and Brest (Brest, Belarus). In November 1947 he was handed over to the Ministry of Public Security of Poland in Biała Podlaska, interrogated and set free. However, soon afterwards his younger son Andrzej (b. 1925), also a former soldier of the Home Army, was arrested by the Communists and was held in prisons until the destalinization thaw of 1956. * In the NKVD (w:NKVD) as it was now in 1936 , Stalin (w:Stalin) had a powerful and experienced instrument. At its head stood Yagoda (‪w:Genrikh Yagoda‬). His deputy in security matters was Stalin’s crony Agranov (‪w:Yakov Agranov‬), who had finished his special operations at Leningrad and handed over that city to the dreadful Sakovsky, who is said to have boasted that if he had Karl Marx to interrogate he would soon make him confess that he was agent of Bismark (Otto von Bismark). ** Robert Conquest (w:Robert Conquest) (1990, 2000), The Great Terror: A Reassessment (40th Anniversary Edition) Oxford University Press p. 81.


extremely powerful

, in the area patrolled by the 97th Unit of Soviet Border Troops, 471 people had crossed the border illegally from the districts of Hlyboka, Hertsa, Putila, and Storozhynets. The zone assigned to this unit extended from the border to about 7.5 km south of Chernivtsi. * Kakha Bendukidze, former Russian (Russians) businessman, currently working in the administration of President Mikheil Saakashvili. * Lavrenti Beria, head of the NKVD (the predecessor to the KGB), supervisor and one of the initiators of the Soviet Union's Nuclear Project * Giga Bokeria, Georgian (Georgia (country)) political leader With the onset of the Second World War, he was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, (the Soviet secret police) and on 14 June 1941, was in the Sosva prison camp, and was sentenced to death but died before the execution at Sosva, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia (see Gulag)) Medvedev was born in Bryansk in a steelworker's family. During the Russian Civil War he joined the Red Army and in 1920 he joined the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Between 1920 and 1935 worked in the Cheka, OGPU and the NKVD in Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Great Purge Uborevich was arrested during the Great Purge of the Red Army. In May 1937, Uborevich was tried by the NKVD in an event known as the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization. He was executed in June 1937 and posthumously rehabilitated (Rehabilitation (Soviet)) in 1957. ''Superman: Red Son'' In Mark Millar's ''Superman: Red Son'', Martha and her husband are anti-communist protesters in the Soviet Union. They are executed by the NKVD under Commissar Pyotr Roslov (Pete Ross), which leads to their son vowing to overthrow the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Until recently his true date of death was not officially known. Soviet sources such as the ''Soviet Encyclopedia'' stated that he died in 1943 during the German occupation (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). Recently, it has become known that Kucherenko was arrested and after a period of 8 months of prolonged torture was finally shot by the NKVD in 1937. His body was buried in a mass grave on the territory of the KGB recreational facility in the area of Piatykhatky on the outskirts of Kharkiv. Soon after the German forces were pushed out of the city, Filipkowski was invited to a conference with Michał Rola-Żymierski and arrested by the Soviet NKVD in Zhytomir on August 3, 1944; at the same time most of his soldiers were also arrested and sent to Soviet prisons - or had to flee back to German-held part of Poland. Filipkowski was held in a number of Soviet prisons, including the prison in Kiev, a Smersh camp of the 1st Ukrainian Front, and NKVD camps in Kharkov, Ryazan, Dyagilev, Gryazovets and Brest (Brest, Belarus). In November 1947 he was handed over to the Ministry of Public Security of Poland in Biała Podlaska, interrogated and set free. However, soon afterwards his younger son Andrzej (b. 1925), also a former soldier of the Home Army, was arrested by the Communists and was held in prisons until the destalinization thaw of 1956. * In the NKVD (w:NKVD) as it was now in 1936 , Stalin (w:Stalin) had a powerful and experienced instrument. At its head stood Yagoda (‪w:Genrikh Yagoda‬). His deputy in security matters was Stalin’s crony Agranov (‪w:Yakov Agranov‬), who had finished his special operations at Leningrad and handed over that city to the dreadful Sakovsky, who is said to have boasted that if he had Karl Marx to interrogate he would soon make him confess that he was agent of Bismark (Otto von Bismark). ** Robert Conquest (w:Robert Conquest) (1990, 2000), The Great Terror: A Reassessment (40th Anniversary Edition) Oxford University Press p. 81.


special design

the Department of Special Design Bureaus at the NKVD USSR (Отдел особых конструкторских бюро НКВД СССР). In 1939, the unit was renamed the Special Technical Bureau at the NKVD USSR (Особое техническое бюро НКВД СССР) and placed under the leadership of General Valentin Kravchenko, under Beria's (Lavrentiy Beria) immediate supervision. In 1941 it received a secret name, the 4th Special Department of the NKVD USSR (4-й спецотдел НКВД СССР). * Józef Haller (Józef Haller de Hallenburg), politician, commander of the Polish Army in France during World War I * Stanisław Haller, general, was murdered by the NKVD in the Katyn massacre in 1940. * Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski, Grand Crown Hetman (Hetman) (1682 3-1702) * Władysław Sikorski, general, commander-in-chief of the Polish Armed Forces and Prime Minister of Poland (1939–1943) * Piotr Skuratowicz, general of the Polish Army, was murdered by the NKVD in the Katyn massacre * Stanisław Sosabowski, commander of the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade, which saw action at the Battle of Arnhem during Operation Market Garden (1944) However, on October 21, 1937, Tupolev was arrested together with Vladimir Petlyakov and the entire directorate of the TsAGI and EDO on trumped up charges of sabotage, espionage and of aiding the Russian Fascist Party. Many of his colleagues were executed. In 1939, Tupolev was moved from a prison to an NKVD sharashka for aircraft designers in Bolshevo near Moscow, where many ex-TsAGI people had already been sent to work. The sharashka soon moved to Moscow and was dubbed "Tupolevka" after its most eminent inmate. Tupolev was tried and convicted in 1940 with a ten year sentence, but was released in 1944 "to conduct important defence work." (He was not rehabilitated (Political rehabilitation#In the Soviet Union) fully until two years after Joseph Stalin's death in 1953.) In early 1944 MI6 re-established Section IX, its prewar anti-Soviet section, and Kim Philby took a position there. He was able to alert the NKVD about all British intelligence on the Soviets—including what the American OSS (Office of Strategic Services) had shared with the British about the Soviets. Hall, with the help of Sax (who had open communist sympathies) together visited New York, where Hall, after some searching, arranged a meeting with a Soviet diplomat. He presented a detailed sketch of the "Fat Man" nuclear device to the official, who transmitted the information to the NKVD from New York using a one-time pad cipher. Hall's code-name was MLAD, a Slavic (Slavic language) root meaning "young". Soviet Union Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Chechens established a short-lived Caucasian Imamate which included parts of Chechnya, Dagestan and Ingushetia; there was also secular pan-Caucasian Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus. Armstrong, Patrick. "Conflict in Chechnya: A Background Perspective." ''Journal of Conflict Studies.'' November 1999; Evangelista, Matthew. ''The Chechen Wars: Will Russia Go the Way of the Soviet Union?'' Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8157-2498-5; Dunlop, John B. ''Russia Confronts Chechnya: Roots of a Separatist Conflict.'' Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-521-63184-X; Seely, Robert. ''Russo-Chechen Conflict, 1800–2000: A Deadly Embrace.'' Florence, Ky.: Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0-7146-4992-9. The Chechen states were opposed , in the area patrolled by the 97th Unit of Soviet Border Troops, 471 people had crossed the border illegally from the districts of Hlyboka, Hertsa, Putila, and Storozhynets. The zone assigned to this unit extended from the border to about 7.5 km south of Chernivtsi. * Kakha Bendukidze, former Russian (Russians) businessman, currently working in the administration of President Mikheil Saakashvili. * Lavrenti Beria, head of the NKVD (the predecessor to the KGB), supervisor and one of the initiators of the Soviet Union's Nuclear Project * Giga Bokeria, Georgian (Georgia (country)) political leader With the onset of the Second World War, he was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, (the Soviet secret police) and on 14 June 1941, was in the Sosva prison camp, and was sentenced to death but died before the execution at Sosva, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia (see Gulag)) Medvedev was born in Bryansk in a steelworker's family. During the Russian Civil War he joined the Red Army and in 1920 he joined the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Between 1920 and 1935 worked in the Cheka, OGPU and the NKVD in Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Great Purge Uborevich was arrested during the Great Purge of the Red Army. In May 1937, Uborevich was tried by the NKVD in an event known as the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization. He was executed in June 1937 and posthumously rehabilitated (Rehabilitation (Soviet)) in 1957. ''Superman: Red Son'' In Mark Millar's ''Superman: Red Son'', Martha and her husband are anti-communist protesters in the Soviet Union. They are executed by the NKVD under Commissar Pyotr Roslov (Pete Ross), which leads to their son vowing to overthrow the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Until recently his true date of death was not officially known. Soviet sources such as the ''Soviet Encyclopedia'' stated that he died in 1943 during the German occupation (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). Recently, it has become known that Kucherenko was arrested and after a period of 8 months of prolonged torture was finally shot by the NKVD in 1937. His body was buried in a mass grave on the territory of the KGB recreational facility in the area of Piatykhatky on the outskirts of Kharkiv. Soon after the German forces were pushed out of the city, Filipkowski was invited to a conference with Michał Rola-Żymierski and arrested by the Soviet NKVD in Zhytomir on August 3, 1944; at the same time most of his soldiers were also arrested and sent to Soviet prisons - or had to flee back to German-held part of Poland. Filipkowski was held in a number of Soviet prisons, including the prison in Kiev, a Smersh camp of the 1st Ukrainian Front, and NKVD camps in Kharkov, Ryazan, Dyagilev, Gryazovets and Brest (Brest, Belarus). In November 1947 he was handed over to the Ministry of Public Security of Poland in Biała Podlaska, interrogated and set free. However, soon afterwards his younger son Andrzej (b. 1925), also a former soldier of the Home Army, was arrested by the Communists and was held in prisons until the destalinization thaw of 1956. * In the NKVD (w:NKVD) as it was now in 1936 , Stalin (w:Stalin) had a powerful and experienced instrument. At its head stood Yagoda (‪w:Genrikh Yagoda‬). His deputy in security matters was Stalin’s crony Agranov (‪w:Yakov Agranov‬), who had finished his special operations at Leningrad and handed over that city to the dreadful Sakovsky, who is said to have boasted that if he had Karl Marx to interrogate he would soon make him confess that he was agent of Bismark (Otto von Bismark). ** Robert Conquest (w:Robert Conquest) (1990, 2000), The Great Terror: A Reassessment (40th Anniversary Edition) Oxford University Press p. 81.


causing massive

artillery battery of seven launchers was first used in battle at Rudnya in Smolensk province of Russia, under the command of Captain Ivan Flyorov, destroying a concentration of German troops with tanks, armored vehicles and trucks at the marketplace, causing massive German Army casualties and its retreat from the town in panic. The event had been witnessed by a future military historian, then a 20-year old Russian Sergeant Andrey Sapronov (90 years old in 2011). There is a widespread Soviet myth


intelligence activities

, living former agents retain generous pensions and privileges established by the USSR and later confirmed by all of the member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States. They have not been prosecuted in any way, although some have been identified by their victims. Intelligence activities These included: * Establishment of a widespread spy network through the Comintern. * Operations of Richard Sorge, the "Red Orchestra (Red Orchestra (spy))", Willi Lehmann


history made

2004, p. xxiv. Author William L. Shirer summarised his perspective: "...the course of German history... made blind obedience to temporal rulers the highest virtue of Germanic man, and put a premium on servility." Shirer, p. 1080. This reportorial perspective , the ''Sonderweg'' interpretation of German history (special path or unique course) was then common in American scholarship (Scholarly method). Yet, despite extensive

NKVD

The '''People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs''' ( ) was a law enforcement agency of the Soviet Union that directly executed the rule of power of the All Union Communist Party (Communist Party of the Soviet Union). It was closely associated with the Soviet secret police, which at times was part of the agency, and is known for its political repression (Soviet political repressions) during the era of Joseph Stalin.

The NKVD contained the regular, public police force of the USSR, including traffic police (Traffic#Rules of the road), firefighting, border guards and archives. It is best known for the activities of the Gulag and the Main Directorate for State Security (Main Directorate for State Security (USSR)) (GUGB), the predecessor of the KGB. The NKVD conducted mass extrajudicial executions, ran the Gulag system of forced labor camps and suppressed underground resistance, and was also responsible for mass deportations of entire nationalities (Population transfer in the Soviet Union) and Kulaks to unpopulated regions of the country. It was also tasked with protection of Soviet borders (NKVD Border Troops) and espionage, which included political assassinations abroad, influencing foreign governments and enforcing Stalinist policy (Stalinism) within communist movements in other countries.

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