with Schelde Naval Shipbuilding for two Light frigate SIGMA 9813 and one Light frigate SIGMA 10145 which are modified versions of the existing SIGMA Class design. '''Alain Souchon''' (born Alain Kienast on May 27, 1944, Casablanca, Morocco) is a French (French people) singer, songwriter and actor. He has released 15 albums and has played roles in seven films. Abdullah spent 2 years playing for the youth teams before joining the senior team., making his senior debut
influences have shaped the countries architectural styles. The architecture can range from ornate with bold with colors to simple, clean lines with earth tones. Morocco’s architecture has been described as exotic, majestic, eclectic, contemporary and traditional a true mix. Influences from the Arab world, Spain, Portugal and France are still can be seen in Moroccan architecture, both on their own and blended with Berber and Islamic styles. Among the buildings, and old Kasbah walls, sit French
Bradley in the war film ''Flags of Our Fathers (Flags of Our Fathers (film))'', directed by Clint Eastwood and following the journey of the United States Marines who lifted the flag at the battle of Iwo Jima. Phillippe has said that the film was the "best experience" of his career because of its "personal meaning" to him, WikiPedia:Morocco Dmoz:Regional Africa Morocco Commons:Category:Morocco
the hijab. The hijab in these cases is seen as a sign of political Islam (Political aspects of Islam) or fundamentalism against secular government. Literature An early work in the defense of vernacular was Bernard Rudofsky's 1964 book ''Architecture Without Architects: a short introduction to non-pedigreed architecture (Architecture Without Architects)'', based on his MoMA exhibition. The book was a reminder of the legitimacy and "hard-won knowledge" inherent
WikiPedia:Morocco Dmoz:Regional Africa Morocco Commons:Category:Morocco
scale, HI-affiliated '''youth hostels (Hostels)''' can be found in the major cities (dorm beds from around MAD50) while the cheapest '''budget hotels''' (singles from around MAD65) are usually located in the ''medina''. These hotels can be very basic and often lack hot water and showers, while others will charge you between MAD5 and MAD10 for a hot water shower. Instead, consider public ''hammams'' as there are quite a lot of them in the ''medina'' and in rural areas. Newer, cleaner and slightly more expensive budget (singles from around MAD75) and mid-range hotels that are sprinkled throughout the ''ville nouvelles''. Many hotels, especially those in the ''medina'' have delightful roof terraces, where you can sleep if the weather's too hot. If you don't need a room, you can often rent mattresses on the roof from MAD25. For those looking to '''camp''', almost every town and city has a campground, although these can often be some way out of the centre. Many of these grounds have water, electricity and cafes. In rural areas and villages, locals are usually more than happy to let you camp on their property; just make sure you ask first. With the exception of large high end hotels, expect the hot water supply in hotels to not be as stable as in more established countries. In Marrakech, MHamid, near Ourzazate and possibly other places, the hot water temperature varies dramatically while you take a shower. At most places, both in cities and in the countryside, you have the possibility to sleep on the roof or terrace. This will normally cost you MAD20-25 and you're provided with mattresses and a warm blanket. Just ask the receptionist in the hotel auberge gite. If you wan to ask in French, which works fairly well, you can say ''ca sera possible de dormir sur la terrace, s'il vous plait?'' Often you can bargain on the price and if it's more than 30 dirham you should bargain. Learn Most foreigners looking to study in Morocco are seeking either Arabic or French '''language courses'''. All major cities have language centres, and some will even arrange homestays with an Arabic-speaking family during your course. Cope Some Moroccans that you meet on the streets have come up with dozens of ways to part you from your money. Keep your wits about you, but don't let your wariness stop you from accepting any offers of generous Moroccan hospitality. Put on a smile and greet everybody that greets you, but still be firm if you are not interested. This will leave you significantly better off than just ignoring them. * '''''Faux guides'' and touts''' congregate around tourist areas and will offer to show you around the ''medinas'', help you find accommodation, take you to a handicraft warehouse, or even score some drugs. While these men can often be harmless, never accept drugs or other products from them. Be polite, but make it clear if you're not interested in their services, and if they get too persistent, head for a taxi, ''salon de the'', or into the nearest shop - the shopkeeper will show the faux guide away. :The best way to avoid Faux guides and touts is to avoid eye contact and ignore them, this will generally discourage them as they will try ''to invest'' their time in bothering another more willing tourist. Another way is to walk quickly; if eye contact happens just give them a smile, preferably a ''strong'' and ''beaming'' one rather than a ''shy'' one meaning ''no! thanks'' (they are very clever in judging human emotions and will bother you if they feel a weakness). The word ''La'' (Arabic for No) can be particularly effective, since it doesn't reveal your native language. Just another is to pretend you only speak some exotic language and don't understand whatever they say. Be polite and walk away. If you engage in arguing or a conversation with them, you will have a hell of time getting rid of them, as they are incredibly persistent and are masters in harassment, nothing really embarrasses them as they consider this being their way of earning their living. *Some of the more common tactics to be aware of are as follows. :Many '''Faux guides''' will pretend they are students when they approach you and that they just want to practice their English and learn about your culture, invariably if you follow them, there is a big chance you will end up in a carpet or souvenirs shop. A variant is they will show you an English letter and will ask you to translate it for them, or will ask for your help to their English speaking friend cousin relative etc abroad. :Expect to be told that anywhere and everywhere is 'closed'. Invariably, this is not the case, but a con to get you to follow them instead. Do not do this. :Do not accept 'free gifts' from vendors. You will find that a group of people will approach you accusing you of stealing it, and will extort the price from you. :Always insist that prices are fixed beforehand. This is especially true for taxi fares, where trips around a city should cost no more than MAD20, in general, or be done on the meter. This cannot be stressed enough. In ALL situations (including Henna tattoos) always agree on a price before! :When bargaining, never name a price that you are not willing to pay. :At bus train stations, people will tell you that there have been cancellations, and that you won't be able to get a bus train. Again, this is almost always a con to get you to accept a hyped-up taxi fare. :In general, do not accept the services of people who approach you. :Never be afraid to say no. *'''Drugs''' are another favourite of scam artists. In cities around the Rif Mountains, especially Tetouan and Chefchaouen, you will almost certainly be offered ''kif'' (dope). Some dealers will sell you the dope, then turn you in to the police for a cut of the ''baksheesh'' you pay to bribe your way out, while others will get you stoned before selling you lawn clippings in plasticine. * '''Ticket inspectors''' on trains have reportedly attempted to extricate a few extra dirham from unsuspecting tourists by finding something 'wrong' with their tickets. Make sure your tickets are in order before you board, and if you find yourself being hassled, insist on taking the matter up with the station manager at your destination. * '''Moroccan toilets''', even those in hotels or restaurants, could lack '''toilet paper'''. It is worth buying a roll (French: "'''papier hygenique'''"). Try to learn at least a phrasebook level of competency in French or Arabic (Spanish may help you in the North - but not largely). Just being able to say ''"Ith'hab!" or "Seer f'halek"'' ("Go Away!") may be useful to you... Many locals (especially the nice ones who are not trying to take advantage of you) will speak limited English. If you can at least verify prices in French with locals, you could end up saving a lot of money. What to wear You won't need high and heavy mountain boots unless you go in coldest time of the year like February: it's quite warm in the country even when it's heavy raining in November. Even in medinas, streets are paved if not asphalted—just be sure your footwear is not toeless in medina, as it may be dirty or unsanitary. For trekking in valleys, low trekking shoes will be likely enough. For a desert trip to dunes, ensure your pockets can be easily shaken out as sand gets in there very quickly. Time Morocco operates Daylight Saving Time. In 2015, it will begin again at 02:00, Sunday, 26 April and end at 03:00, Sunday, 27 September. Stay safe Overall, Morocco remains a relatively safe place; however, homosexuality is criminalised and is punishable by up to 3 years in prison in both Morocco and Western Sahara. Gay and lesbian tourists should be self-aware and careful. In 2014, 70-year-old British (Great Britain) traveller Ray Cole was prosecuted and imprisoned for four months after police searched his mobile telephone (mobile telephones) and found incriminating photographs. He is now sleeping on the floor of an overcrowded Moroccan prison filled with hardened criminals, despite interventions of the UK Foreign Office and a British member of parliament on his behalf. Like any country, Morocco has its share of problems. Many can be easily avoided by following common sense. Avoid dark alleys. Travel in a group whenever possible. Keep money and passports in a safety wallet or in a hotel safety deposit box. Keep backpacks and purses with you at all times. Make sure there is nothing important in outside or back pockets. There is some intolerance for public practice of non-Abrahamic religions and non-Sunni denominations. Women especially will experience almost constant harassment if alone, but this is usually just cat-calls and (disturbingly) hisses. Don't feel the need to be polite — no Moroccan woman would put up with behaviour like that. Dark sunglasses make it easier to avoid eye contact. If someone won't leave you alone, look for families, a busy shop, or a local woman and don't be afraid to ask for help. If you are so inclined, you could wear a ''hijab'' (headscarf), but this is not necessary. Morocco can be a liberal country and many Moroccan women do not wear headscarves. However, women should ''always'' dress conservatively (no low-cut tops, midriffs, or shorts), out of respect for the local culture. In cities, women can wear more revealing clothing, but as a general rule they should follow the lead from local women. Locals will also assume that Moroccan women venturing into ''ville nouvelle'' nightclubs or bars alone are prostitutes in search of clientèle. Foreign women entering such places will be not be so considered but will be thought of as approachable. Be careful about being drugged, especially as a solo traveller. The common and easy-to-make drug GHB only lasts 3 hours and is undetectable in the body after 7 hours, so if you are attacked take action immediately. Hustlers can be a big problem for people travelling to Morocco, and Tangier in particular. It's often difficult to walk down the street without being accosted by somebody offering to give you directions or sell you something. Your best bet is to politely refuse their services and keep walking, as all they are after is money. There are some legitimate tour guides, but your guide will receive a commission on anything you buy while you're with them, so don't let yourself be pressured into purchasing anything you don't want. '''Driving under the influence of alcohol is strictly illegal''' even if you took just one beer. In certain places, hustlers will do their best to intimidate you, and they can be very clingy, insisting that you give them money or offering their 'services'. Don't be intimidated by this; usually a firm "No" does the trick. Some of them can get nasty and abusive but before it gets to that stage walk towards a shop or crowd. Most Moroccans would immediately tell the person off if they see that you are being harassed. Generally, western women should not travel to Morocco alone to avoid problems. Armed fighting in the disputed areas of the Western Sahara is less frequent now, but clashes between government forces and the Polisario Front still occur. Don't wander too far off the beaten path either, as this region is also '''heavily-mined'''. Stay healthy General concerns *'''Inoculations''': No particular inoculations are needed for Morocco under normal circumstances, but check with the US's Centre for Disease Control (CDC) travel web pages for any recent disease outbreaks. As with most travel, it makes good sense to have a recent tetanus immunization. Consider Hepatitis A and B inoculations. *'''Food and Drink''': Avoid uncooked fruits and vegetables that you can not peel. Avoid any food that is not prepared when you order it (i.e. buffets, etc.). Usually fried and boiled foods are safe. Some travellers have also had problems with unrefrigerated condiments (such as mayonnaise) used in fast food outlets. *'''Water''': It is advisable to drink bottled water (check that the cap is sealed - some people might try to sell you tap water in recycled bottles). Be wary of ice or cordials that may be made with tap water. Some hotels provide free bottled water to guests and its wise to keep a supply in your room so as not to be tempted with tap water. *'''Shoes''': Keep your sandals tevas etc. for the beach. Moroccan streets double as garbage disposal areas and you may not want to wade through fish heads and chicken parts with open-toe shoes. *'''Malaria''': Present in the northern, coastal areas of the country but not a major problem. Take the usual precautions against being bitten (light coloured clothing, insect repellent, etc.) and if you are really worried see your doctor about anti-malarial medication before your departure. Medical help Pharmacies are denoted by a green cross, usually in neon. They sell medicines, contraceptives, and often beauty and related products. Medical treatment can be obtained from self-employed doctors, clinics and hospitals. Most general practitioners, specialists, and dentists are self-employed; look for signs saying "Docteur" . An average doctor’s check-up in a city costs between 150 and 300 dirhams. In general, the quality of their work is decent, but you can try to ask some locals for advices and recommendations. There are few English-speaking doctors, though French is widespread. Medical care can be difficult or impossible to find in rural areas Government hospitals are cheap and okay for minor injuries and minor problems, but they tend to be very crowded and for anything serious, a private clinic is generally preferable. Treatments in private clinics will be quite expensive and travellers will be required to pay for any treatment received up front. Respect *'''Greetings''' among close friends and family (but rarely between men and women!) usually take the form of three pecks on the cheek. In other circumstances handshakes are the norm. Following the handshake by touching your heart with your right hand signifies respect and sincerity. *'''Left hands''' used to traditionally be considered 'unclean' in the Muslim religion and Amazigh nomadic cultures, as they used to be reserved for hygiene in toilets. As in many cultures it could be considered impolite to shake hands or offer or accept something from someone with your left hand, more so is giving money by your left, so try to avoid that. While left-handed people may get an occasional exclamation, and local children may get pressured by parents to use their right in traditional societies, most people will understand if you do your own business with your left hand. * '''Elders''' Moroccans still have the tradition of highly respecting their elders and the sick. If someone who is handicapped, or older than you is passing, then stop and allow room for them. Or if a taxi arrives and you are waiting with an elder, then you should allow the older person to take precedence over you. Tourists are not held to these expectations, but it improves regard for tourists in Morocco when they adhere to the same traditions. Connect Telephone '''Public telephones''' can be found in city centres, but private '''telephone offices''' (also known as ''teleboutiques'' or ''telekiosques'') are also commonly used. The international dialling prefix (to dial ''out'' of the country) is 00. All numbers are ten digits long, counting the initial ''0'' and the whole number must be dialled even for local calls within the same area code. You can get a prepaid card (Télécarte) for public phones (MAD5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 dirhams). The rates are very reasonable. Eg for the Maroc Telecom card it is MAD0.50 min to any phone in most Western European countries, MAD3 min to Eastern Europe and North America, and mobile phones in Finland, Ireland, Iceland, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Norway. Useful numbers :Police: '''19''' :Fire Service: '''15''' :Highway Emergency Service: '''177''' :Domestic directory: 160 :International directory: 120 :Telegrams and telephone: 140 :Intercity operator: 100 Mobile The GSM '''mobile telephone''' network in Morocco can be accessed via one of two major operators: Meditel or Maroc Telecom. Prepaid cards are available. More information on available services, coverage and roaming partners are available at: GSMWorld. It is very easy and cheap to buy a local GSM prepaid card in one of the numerous phone shops showing a Maroc Telecom sign. The SIM card (carte Jawal) costs only MAD30 (€3) with MAD10 (€1) airtime. The rate is national: MAD3-4, to Europe ca. MAD10, SMS MAD3. The card is valid 6 months after the last recharge. Post The Moroccan postal service is generally reliable and offers a ''post restante'' service in major cities for a small fee. You will need some identification (preferably your passport) to collect your mail. Items shipped as '''freight''' are inspected at the post office before they are sent, so wait until this has been done before you seal the box. Don't leave postcards with the small post office at Marrakech Airport as they'll never be delivered, despite taking your money for postage stamps. Postboxes on streets seemed to be a more reliable means to send postcards. Email & internet Moroccans have really taken to the internet. '''Internet cafes''' are open late and are numerous in cities and smaller towns that see significant tourist traffic. Rates are about MAD4-10 per hour and they are often located next to, above, or below the ''telekiosque'' offices. Speeds are acceptable to excellent in the north, but can be a little on the slow side in rural areas. Most internet cafes will allow you to print and burn CDs for a small charge. Moroccans have also really taken to 3G coverage. There is excellent access to email and the internet via Mobile Phones and it is relatively cheap. There is 3G access throughout the mountains and in the desert, as well as in all cities. WikiPedia:Morocco Dmoz:Regional Africa Morocco Commons:Category:Morocco
publisher portal.unesco.org date 2006-12-19 accessdate 2009-05-27 The performance was in front of the Erg Chebbi Dunes of Merzouga, in the Sahara. A free event, it was attended by about 25,000 people. Images of water and the environment were projected onto nine vertical screens, held in place by sand which was watered to keep it hard. Several permanent drinking fountains were built on the site, along with a permanent electricity installation. Jarre was accompanied by over
Cinema et de la Television de Ouagadougou). FESPACO became an institution by governmental decree on January 7, 1972. In that year, the first official winner of the best film award was ''Le Wazzou Polygame'' by Oumarou Ganda of Niger. Since then, the best film award has been won by directors from Cameroon, Morocco, Mali, Ivory Coast, Algeria, Burkina Faso, Ghana and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. '''Mauretania Tingitana''' was a Roman
, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Iraq and Yemen. large number of international students are from Pakistan & Sudan , local and international, study under convertible loans or scholarships from the Education Sponsorship Unit of Petronas itself. left 200px thumb Bukharan girls in Samarkand, ca 1900 (File:Jewish girls Samarkand 1900s.jpg) The Bukharan Jews of Central Asia were essentially cut off from the rest of the Jewish world (Jewish diaspora) for more than 2,500 years but somehow managed to survive and preserve their Israelite identity and heritage in the face of tremendous odds. They are considered one of the oldest ethno-religious groups of Central Asia and over the years they have developed their own distinct culture. Throughout the years, Jews from other Eastern countries such as Iraq, Iran, Yemen, Syria, and Morocco migrated into Central Asia (usually by taking the Silk Road), as did Jews who were exiled from Spain during the Spanish Inquisition WikiPedia:Morocco Dmoz:Regional Africa Morocco Commons:Category:Morocco
. In Morocco and Tunisia the instrument, called ''zamr'', has a single or double bell. The Moroccan instrument has six holes in each pipe. The Moroccan ''mizmār'' or ''zamr rīfī'' is over 100 centimetres long, again with six holes in each pipe, ending in two bull's horns. Origins The melhun, originally a pure literary creation, emerged as a poetic art today known in Morocco under the name of "qasida" (meaning "poem") (Arabic (Arabic alphabet): القصيدة) or "zajal" (Arabic (Arabic alphabet): الزجل). Combined with music, it quickly spread across the country where it acquired fame particularly among artisans. '''Gnawa music''' is a mixture of sub-Saharan African, Berber (Berber people), and Sufi religious songs and rhythms. It combines music and acrobatic dancing. The music is both a prayer and a celebration of life. Though many of the influences that formed this music can be traced to sub-Saharan Africa, and specifically, the Western Sahel, its practice is concentrated in north Africa, mainly South-western Algeria and Morocco. (See Gnawa for more details) *'''Mohamed Kouyou''' - In 1984 he played at the opening of the Moroccan (Morocco) Pavilion at Disney World. He also plays in essaouira's gnawa festival *'''Essaïd Bourki''' - He has his origins in the south of Morocco. He performed with his group in Belgium in 1990. He is considered the secret master of Essaouira. Besieged in 1190 by vastly superior force under the Almoravid King of Morocco Yusuf I (Yaqub, Almohad Caliph), he and his knights managed to defeat the monarch's forces and thus defending the north of the fledgling Kingdom. The estate has hosted the Manhasset negotiations, a round of talks between Morocco and the Polisario Front, August 10–12, 2007, as part of a set of UN-led meetings centering on the future of Western Sahara, among others. Created in 1969, the Pan-African film and television festival of Ouagadougou has evolved into an internationally recognized and respected event in not only the African continent but in the world at large. Alimata Salambere, the cultural minister of Burkina Faso from 1987 to 1991 was one of the founders of FESPACO. At its third edition in 1972, the name of the festival became FESPACO (Festival Pan-Africain du Cinema et de la Television de Ouagadougou). FESPACO became an institution by governmental decree on January 7, 1972. In that year, the first official winner of the best film award was ''Le Wazzou Polygame'' by Oumarou Ganda of Niger. Since then, the best film award has been won by directors from Cameroon, Morocco, Mali, Ivory Coast, Algeria, Burkina Faso, Ghana and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. '''Mauretania Tingitana''' was a Roman province located in northwestern Africa, coinciding roughly with the northern part of present-day Morocco and Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The province extended from the northern peninsula, opposite Gibraltar, to Chellah (or Sala) and Volubilis to the south, C. Michael Hogan, ''Chellah'', The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham and as far east as the Oued Laou river. Its capital city was the city of Tingis, modern Tangier, after which it was named. Other major cities of the province were Iulia Valentia Banasa and Lixus (Lixus (ancient city)). University of Granada: Mauretania Tingitana (in Spanish) When the Umayyad Caliphs conquered all of Northern Africa, replacing Christianity and Paganism with Islam, both Mauretanias were reunited as the province of ''al-Maghrib'' (Arabic for 'the West', and still the official name of the Sherifian kingdom of Morocco). This province also included over half of modern Algeria. ''Cervus elaphus barbarus'' Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria E ''Gazella dorcas massaesyla'' Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia E ''Hyaena hyaena barbara'' Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia E Aquila heliaca adalberti Spain, Morocco, Algeria E World War I After temporary duty off Tampico, ''Nashville'' sailed from Norfolk on 2 August 1917, arriving Gibraltar on 18 August to patrol off the Moroccan (Morocco) coast. After serving as convoy escort off North Africa and in the western Mediterranean until 15 July 1918, ''Nashville'' departed Gibraltar, arriving on 1 August at Charleston, South Carolina. *Mombasa *Morocco enclaves **Agadir Yusef was an effective general and administrator, evidenced by his ability to organize and maintain the loyalty of the hardened desert warriors and the territory of Abu Bakr, as well as his ability to expand the empire, cross the Atlas Mountains onto the plains of Morocco, reaching the Mediterranean and capturing Fez (Fes, Morocco) in 1075, Tangier in 1079, Tlemcen in 1080, Ceuta in 1083, as well as Algiers, Ténès and Oran in 1082-83. He is regarded as the co-founder of the famous Moroccan city Marrakech (in Berber ''Murakush'', corrupted to ''Morocco'' in English). The site had been chosen and work started by Abu Bakr in 1070. The work was completed by Yusef, who then made it the capital of his empire, in place of the former capital Aghmāt (Aghmat). By the time Abu Bakr died in 1087, after a skirmish in the Sahara as result of a poison arrow, Yusef had crossed over into al-Andalus and also achieved victory at the Battle of az-Zallaqah (Battle of Sagrajas), also known as the ''Battle of Sagrajas'' in the west. He came to al-Andalus with a force of 15,000 men, armed with javelins (javelin (weapon)), daggers, most of his soldiers carried two swords, shields, cuirass of the finest leather and animal hide, as well as drummers for psychological combat. Yusef's cavalry was said to have included 6,000 shock troops from Senegal mounted on white Arabian horses. Camels were also put to use. On October 23, 1086, the Almoravid forces, accompanied by 10,000 Andalusian fighters from local Muslim provinces, decisively checked the Reconquista, defeating the largest Christian army ever assembled up to that point, significantly outnumbered. The death of Yusef's heir, however, prompted his speedy return to Africa. The Sanhaja confederation, which consisted of a hierarchy of Lamtuna, Musaffa and Djudalla Berbers (Berber people), represented the military's top brass. Amongst them were Andalusian Christians and heretic Africans, taking up duties as ''diwan al-gund'', Yusef's own personal bodyguard; including 2,000 black horsemen (cavalry), whose tasks also included registering soldiers and making sure they were compensated financially. The occupying forces of the Almoravids were made up largely horsemen, totaling no less than 20,000. Into the major cities of al-Andalus, Seville (7,000), Granada (1,000), Cordoba (Córdoba, Spain) (1,000), 5,000 bordering Castile (Castile (historical region)) and 4,000 in western Andalusia, succeeding waves of horsemen in conjunction with the garrisons that had been left there after the Battle of Sagrajas, made responding, for the Taifa emirs, difficult. Soldiers on foot used bows (Bow (weapon)) & arrows (Arrow (weapon)), sabres, pike (pike (weapon))s, javelins (javelin (weapon)), each protected by a cuirass of Moroccan (Morocco) leather and iron piked shields. During the siege of the fort-town Aledo, in Murcia, previously captured by the Spaniard (Spanish people) ''Garcia Giménez'', Almoravid and Andalusian (Andalusian people) hosts are said to have used catapults, in addition to their customary drum beat. Yusef also established naval bases in Cadiz, Almeria and neighboring ports along the Mediterranean. Ibn-Maymun, the governor of Almeria, had a fleet at his disposal. Another such example is the Banu-Ganiya fleet based off the Balearic Islands that dominated the affairs of the western Mediterranean for much of the 12th century. http: books.google.com books?id 374eAAAAIAAJ&printsec frontcover&source gbs_summary_r&cad 0#PPA5,M1 thumb Zellige (Image:Mekhnes Place El-Hedine Mosaique3.jpg), the Moroccan mosaic '''Morocco''' is a country with a multiethnic society and a rich culture, civilization, and etiquette. Throughout Moroccan history (History of Morocco), Morocco has hosted many peoples, in addition to the indigenous Berbers (Amazigh people), coming from the East (Phoenicians, Jews, and Arabs), South (Sub-Saharan African), and North (Romans (Ancient Rome) and Vandals). All of these have had an impact on the social structure of Morocco. It has also hosted many forms of belief, from Paganism, Judaism, Christianity to Islam. page 305 ) was a Muslim Berber (Berber people) religious (religion) scholar, teacher and political leader from southern Morocco. He was the founder and spiritual leader of the Almohad (Almohad dynasty) movement, a puritanical reform movement launched among the Masmuda Berbers (Berber people) of the Atlas Mountains. Ibn Tumart launched the open revolt against the ruling Almoravids (Almoravid dynasty) during the 1120s. After his death, his followers, the Almohads, went on to conquer much of North Africa and Spain. He is also known as El-Mahdi (المهدي) in reference to his prophesied redeeming. Many of the details of Ibn Tumart's life were recorded by hagiographers (hagiography), whose accounts probably mix legendary elements from the Almohad cult of their founding figure and spiritual leader. A French translation of the relation of the Almohad hagiographer Mohammed al-Baydhaq, can be found in Lévi-Provençal (1928). A Spanish translation of the arguably most reliable Almohad chronicle ''al-Bayan al-Mughrib'' of Ibn Idhari al-Marrakushi (Ibn Idhari), can be found in Huici Miranda (1951). Ibn Idhari was a principal source for the account, ''Kitab al-'Ibar'', of Ibn Khaldun. Ibn Khallikan's entry on Ibn Tumart can be found in English translation in ''Biographical Dictionary'', 1843 M. de Slane trans., Paris, vol. 3, p.205) Ibn Tumart was born sometime between 1078 and 1082 in the small village of Igiliz (exact location uncertain Fromherz (2005: p.177) identifies Igiliz (and Ibn Tumart's nearby cave) with the modern small village of Igli, some 30 km east of Taroudant in the Sous valley ) in the Sous valley of southern Morocco. H. Kennedy (1996) He was a member of the Hargha people, a Berber (Berber people) tribe of the Anti-Atlas range, part of the Masmuda (Berber (Berber languages): ''imesmuden'') tribal confederation. In 1120, Ibn Tumart and his small band of followers headed west into Morocco. He stopped by Fez (Fes, Morocco), the intellectual capital of Morocco, and engaged in polemical debates with the leading Malikite scholars of the city. Having exhausted them, the ''ulama'' of Fez decided they had enough and expelled him from the city. He proceeded south, hurried along from town to town like a vagabond (reportedly, he and his companions had to swim across the Bou Regreg, as they could not afford the ferry passage). Shortly after his arrival in Marrakesh, Ibn Tumart is said to have successfully sought out the Almoravid ruler Ali ibn Yusuf at a local mosque. In the famous encounter, when ordered to acknowledge the presence of the emir, Ibn Tumart reportedly replied "Where is the emir? I see only women here!" - an insulting reference to the tagelmust veil worn by the Almoravid ruling class. Messier (2010: p.141) (According to one source, Ibn Tumart attacked the emir's own sister for going unveiled). signatories parties 22: Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Liberia, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Serbia, Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Tunisia, and Ukraine depositor Secretary-General of the United Nations State parties to the convention There are 22 state parties where the convention is ratified: Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Liberia, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Serbia, Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Tunisia, and Ukraine *'''Mali''' - Bamako (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bamako) *'''Morocco''' - Rabat (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rabat), Tanger (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tanger) *'''Mozambique''' - Beira (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Beira), Maputo (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Maputo), Nampula (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nampula) '''Binter Canarias S.A.''' is an airline based in Gran Canaria, Spain. It is a regional carrier operating inter-island services within the Canary Islands, in addition to services to Morocco, and Portugal. The airline carried 2.9 million passengers in 2008. Binter Canarias The Company Binter Canarias received Europe's best regional airline 2005 http: www.bintercanarias.com noticias 117 2005 binter-canarias-europes-best-regional-airline-2005 and, on September 24, 2010, it was announced that Binter Canarias had won the European Regions Airline Association (ERA) Gold Award: Airline of the Year for 2010 2011. http: www.eraa.org about awards-a-honours http: www.lanzaroteinformation.com content binter-airline-year Islamic conquest and Reconquista For almost seven hundred years, Spain was the battleground for the opposing forces of the Islamic Caliphate and Western Christian forces. Both Muslims and Christian were motivated by religious conviction, which inspired the warfare. The initial Islamic invasion of Iberia (Umayyad conquest of Hispania) was sudden and unexpected. The varied Moorish tribes of Morocco united under the leadership of Arab generals sent by the reigning Umayyad caliph and crossed the Straits of Gibraltar in 711 under the leadership of the Berber (Berber people) Tariq ibn Ziyad. Tariq won a swift victory at the Guadalete (Battle of Guadalete) and defeated and killed the reigning Gothic king, Roderic. Montgomery, p.13. In a campaign lasting eight years, the whole of Iberia was subjected to Umayyad authority, except for the Asturias mountain range in the far northwest and the pockets of resistance in Navarre. The Islamic offensive ultimately paused after the losses it suffered in Frankland (Francia) and in the Asturias, where battles such as those at Tours (Battle of Tours) and Covadonga (Battle of Covadonga) showed some of the potential weaknesses of the Arab methods of warfare. Davis, p.105. Despite a resurgence during the 10th century, the Caliphate of Córdoba's attempts to reverse the Reconquista failed, and by the 11th century, Christian Iberia was united under Sancho the Great, the King of Navarre, whilst the caliphate was divided and engulfed by civil war, the period of the ''taifas''. The 11th century saw the development of a concept of Christian holy war, to be waged against Islam with the purpose of recapturing long lost territories - the Crusade (Crusades). Crusading, under other names, also took place in Spain; Franks and Normans and even Papal troops took to Spain in increasing numbers to join the locals in their fight against "the Moor." The last threat of the 11th century came in the form of the Almoravids, who with their well disciplined forces first established a hegemony over Morocco and then extended it over al-Andalus. While the ''Reconquista'' paused in the west, to the east Alfonso the Battler, the King of Aragon, redoubled efforts to retake the valley of the Ebro. In 1212, the ''Reconquistadores'' gained a decisive victory over the Almohads at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Shortly after the battle, the Castilians retook Baeza and, then, Úbeda, major fortified cities near the battlefield, and gateways to invade Andalucia. Thereafter, Ferdinand III of Castile retook Córdoba (Córdoba, Spain) in 1236, Jaén (Jaén, Spain) in 1246, and Seville in 1248; then he took Arcos, Medina-Sidonia, Jerez and Cádiz, effectively bringing the bulk of the reconquista to a conclusion. History TWR started in 1952, when Paul Freed set up the organization to reach Spain by broadcasting from Morocco. Later, after TWR was evicted from Morocco, the network operated from Monaco for many years using a high-powered transmitter system abandoned by the Nazis (Nazism) after World War II. Other major transmitting sites include Guam, Bonaire, Sri Lanka, Cyprus, and Swaziland. Tea was introduced to Morocco in the 18th century through trade with Europe. The '''''grands caids''''' were Berber feudal rulers of southern quarter of Morocco under the French Protectorate (French Morocco). WikiPedia:Morocco Dmoz:Regional Africa Morocco Commons:Category:Morocco
'''Morocco''' ( , meaning "The West") are commonly used as alternate names.
Morocco has a population of over 33 million and an area of . Its political capital is Rabat, although the largest city is Casablanca; other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Tetouan, Salé, Fes, Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, Kenitra, and Nador. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Its distinct culture is a blend of Arab (Arab people), indigenous Berber (Berber people), Sub-Saharan African, and European influences.
Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory (United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories) of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading to a guerrilla war with indigenous forces until a cease-fire in 1991. Peace processes (Western Sahara peace process) have thus far failed to break the political deadlock.
Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco (List of rulers of Morocco) holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military (Military of Morocco), foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government (Moroccan government), while legislative power (legislature) is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives (Assembly of Representatives of Morocco) and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahir (Moroccan Dahir)s which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister (List of heads of government of Morocco) and the president of the Constitutional court.
Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, while the official languages are Berber (Berber languages) and Arabic (Arabic language). Moroccan Arabic, referred to as ''Darija'', and French (French language) are also widely spoken.