the mid-20th century. Until the early 20th century, Classical Chinese served as both the written lingua franca and the diplomatic language in Far East Asia including China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, the Ryūkyū Kingdom, and Vietnam. Arabic became the "lingua franca" of the Arab Islamic Empire (Caliphate) (from CE 733 – 1492), which at a certain point spread from the borders of China and Northern India (North India) through Central Asia, Persian
Christianity In China And Central Asia year 2009 publisher LIT Verlag Münster url http: books.google.com books?id 7f9gS40A_3IC&pg PA321 The Panaad Stadium in Bacolod City has been a venue for national and international athletic events; such as the 23rd Southeast Asian Games men's football and the 2006 ASEAN football qualifiers. On February 9, 2011, the stadium hosted a match between the Philippines national football team and Mongolia in the 2012 AFC Challenge Cup qualification with an attendance of 20,000 people. An example of this is on the Transmongolian Railway, where Russia and Mongolia use broad gauge while China uses standard gauge. At the border, each carriage has to be lifted in turn to have its bogies changed. The whole operation, combined with passport and customs control, can take several hours. The Brandt Line is a visual depiction of the north–south divide, proposed by German (Germany) Chancellor Willy Brandt in the 1980s. It approximately encircles the world at a latitude of 30° N, passing between North (North America) and Central America, north of Africa and the Middle East, climbing north over China, Mongolia and Korea, but dipping south so as to include Australia and New Zealand in the "Rich North". The '''wildcat''' (''Felis silvestris'') is a small cat (Felinae) with several subspecies and a very broad distribution, found throughout most of Africa, Europe, and southwest (Southwest Asia) and central Asia into India, China, and Mongolia. Commons:Category:Mongolia WikiPedia:Mongolia Dmoz:Regional Asia Mongolia
migration migratory apart from the Papuan Harrier which is sedentary. The breeding range covers north-east China, Mongolia and south-east Siberia (as far west as Lake Baikal) with small numbers in northern Japan (Hokkaidō and northern Honshū). There is some overlap with Western Marsh Harrier around Lake Baikal and interbreeding (Hybrid (biology)) has taken place. Climate cycles The modern field of climate history suggests that the successive waves of Eurasian nomadic
Commons:Category:Mongolia WikiPedia:Mongolia Dmoz:Regional Asia Mongolia
mountains. Must ride horses or reindeer from Tsagaanuur. It can be a long hard ride. *Local Bonda Lake Camp in Khatgal village near Lake Khovsgol offers various nature and cultural featuring: fishing, hiking, winter tours, nomad visits, horse back riding, visiting reindeer herders and Darhad valley. Horse riding, you have chance discover Lake Khovsgol and its beautiful waters, meet Tsataan (nomadic reindeer herders) living in yurts in the north of Khovsgol area. This region is incredibly
in forensic entomology is conducted by physician and entomologist Hermann Reinhard in Germany. with Friedrich Moritz Brauer (1882). "Beiträge zur Gräberfauna" "Contributions on the fauna of graves" . ''Verh. k. & k. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien'' '''31''' pp. 207-210. Expansion He continued the expansion of the state in the region later known as Manchuria, pushing deeper into Mongolia and raiding Korea and Ming China. His personal military abilities were widely praised and he effectively developed the military-civil administration known as the ''Eight Banners'' or Banner system. This system was well-suited to accept the different peoples, primarily Chinese (Han Chinese) and Mongols, who joined the Manchu state either following negotiated agreements or military defeat. After the Arab Islamic invasion and conquest of the 7th century AD, Assyria as a province was dissolved, but the Assyrians themselves survived, being referred to as Ashuriyun by the Arabs. Assyrians initially experienced some periods of religious and cultural freedom interspersed with periods of severe religious and ethnic persecution. As heirs to ancient Mesopotamian civilisation, they also contributed hugely to the Arab Islamic Civilization during the Ummayads and the Abbasids by translating works of Greek philosophers to Syriac (Syriac Language) and afterwards to Arabic (Arabic Language). They also excelled in philosophy, science and theology ( such as Tatian, Bar Daisan, Babai the Great, Nestorius, Toma bar Yacoub etc.) and the personal physicians of the Abbasid Caliphs were often Assyrian Christians such as the long serving Bukhtishu dynasty. Rémi Brague, Assyrians contributions to the Islamic civilization However, non-Islamic proselyting was punishable by death under Sharia law, which led the Assyrians into preaching in Transoxania, Central Asia, India, Mongolia and China where they established numerous churches. The Church of the East was considered to be one of the major Christian powerhouses in the world, alongside Latin Christianity in Europe and the Byzantine Empire. Commons:Category:Mongolia WikiPedia:Mongolia Dmoz:Regional Asia Mongolia
closer to his family's historical geographic power base, in 1421 the emperor Yongle moved the capital north from Nanjing to present-day Beijing. From the new capital he could apply greater imperial supervision to the effort to defend the northern borders. At considerable expense, China launched annual military expeditions from Beijing to weaken the Mongolians. The expenditures necessary for these land campaigns directly competed with the funds necessary to continue naval expeditions
. The pelt is usually a mix of rusty ocherous and light grey. ''Mammals of the Soviet Union'' Vol.II Part 1a, SIRENIA AND CARNIVORA (Sea cows; Wolves and Bears), V.G Heptner and N.P Naumov editors, Science Publishers, Inc. USA. 1998. ISBN 1-886106-81-9 Has the largest range among wolf subspecies and is the most common in Europe and Asia, ranging through Western Europe, Scandinavia, Russia, China, Mongolia, and the Himalayan
Lake Zaysan in Kazakhstan, meeting the Ishim (Ishim River) and Tobol rivers before merging with the Ob near Khanty-Mansiysk in western Siberia, Russia after . thumb left The Zebra Dove (File:Geopelia striata NBII.jpg) has been widely introduced around the world. The largest range of any species is that of the Rock Dove. This species had a large natural distribution from Britain (Great Britain) and Ireland to northern Africa, across Europe
through grade 12 for students of all nationalities. Permission to run the school was granted by the Mongolian Ministry of Education in May 1992. The '''Eurasian Wolf''' (''Canis lupus lupus''), also known as the '''European''', '''Common''', or '''Forest Wolf''', is a subspecies of grey wolf which has the largest range among wolf subspecies and is the most common in Europe and Asia, ranging through
. During parts of the Song Dynasty period, when the Western Xia took control of the more northerly path of the Silk Route, the more southerly Didao (Lintao County)-Hezhou-Xining alternative path of the Silk Route may have become particularly important, making all three cities important commercial centers. Historians think that it was then, during the Song Dynasty, that the Muslims of Hezhou probably built their first mosque. Vale
by crowds. The art of Bökh appears on bronze plates discovered in the ruins of the Xiongnu empire (206 BC–220 AD). Originally, Bökh was a military sport intended to provide mainly strength, stamina and skills training to troops. Genghis Khan (1206–1227) http: www.sfgate.com cgi-bin article.cgi?file chronicle archive 2005 03 27 TRGNHBUA801.DTL and the all later Emperors of the Mongol Empire (1206–1368) and also the Emperors of later Khanates
'''Mongolia''' , ''Mongol Uls'') is a landlocked country in east (East Asia)-central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Ulaanbaatar, the capital (capital (political)) and also the largest city, is home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic.
The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, and his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan Dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict and occasional raids on the Chinese borderlands. In the 16th centuries, Tibetan Buddhism (Buddhism in Mongolia) began to spread in Mongolia and it has been accelerated by the unwavering support of Qing government after Mongolia had been incorporated by the Qing dynasty. In 1900s, almost half of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. Michael Jerryson, ''Mongolian Buddhism: The Rise and Fall of the Sangha,'' (Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 2007), 89.
At the end of the 18th century, all of Mongolia had been incorporated into the area ruled by the Manchu (Manchu people)s' Qing Dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing Dynasty the Mongols established Temporary Government of Khalkha (Khalkha Mongols) in 30 November 1911. On 29 December 1911 Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty and this National Liberation Revolution (Wars of national liberation) ended 220 years (Northern Yuan Dynasty#Decline (1688-1691)) of Manchu rule (153 years after the collapse of the Zunghar Khanate).
Shortly thereafter, the country came under Soviet influence, resulting in the proclamation of the Mongolian People's Republic as a Soviet satellite state in 1924. After the breakdown of communist regimes in Europe (Revolutions of 1989) in late 1989, Mongolia saw its own democratic revolution (1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia) in early 1990; it led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.
At , Mongolia is the 19th largest (List of countries and dependencies by area) and one of the most sparsely populated (List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density) independent countries in the world, with a population of around 3 million people. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south.
Approximately 30% of the population are nomadic or semi-nomadic. The predominant religion in Mongolia is Tibetan Buddhism. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs. The majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes.