Until 1990, the Mongolian Government was modeled on the Soviet system; only the communist party––the MPRP––officially was permitted to function. After some instability during the first two decades of communist rule in Mongolia, there was no significant popular unrest until December 1999. Collectivization (collective farming) of animal husbandry, introduction of agriculture, and the extension of fixed abodes were all carried out without perceptible popular opposition. '''Economic
was proclaimed successor to the throne after the death of his brother Mongke, as was his youngest brother Ariq Boke. The succession war between him and Ariq Boke began. Kublai Khan won the war eventually, though his claim as the successor to Mongke was only partially recognized by the Mongols in the west. In 1271, Kublai Khan renamed his empire "Yuan", establishing the Yuan Dynasty, instead of "Ikh Mongol Uls" (Great Mongolian Nation or Great Mongol Empire). C.P.Atwood
. However, they do not care how you get there or where you go afterwards. Get around If you plan to travel around the countryside without a guide, take a GPS and get some maps. The "Mongolia Road Atlas" is available in many book stores, it is over 60 pages and covers the whole country: note there is a Latin character version and Cyrillic character version, in the countryside most people won't understand the Latin version. More detailed maps are available at the Mongolian Government Map Store. These maps are 1:500,000. Also some other special purpose maps and a very good map of downtown Ulaanbaatar. The map store is on Ih Toiruu St. Go west from the State Department store on the main street, called Peace, Peace and Friendship, or Ekhtavan Ave, two blocks to the large intersection with traffic lights, Turn right (North) and the map store is about half way along the block. There is an Elba electronic appliance store set back from the street, a yellow and blue building, the next building is a large Russian style office building 4 floors in height, the map store entrance is on the west side, toward the south end of the building, it lines up with the North wall of the Elba building. Whichever method of long-distance travel is chosen, keep in mind that everything in Mongolia has a tendency to break down. Don't be shocked if part of the suspension breaks and the driver jimmy-rigs a carved wooden block in the place of a mount. For more serious breakdowns, it can easily take an entire day or longer for somebody to come along and help, so leave plenty of slack in itineraries. Finally, Mongolians are rather notorious for being late. A bus that is scheduled to leave at 08:00 will probably not be out of the city until almost eleven. By plane thumb An AeroMongolia plane (image:AeroMongoliaFokker50.jpg) The easiest way to travel long distance is using one of the domestic airlines; AeroMongolia, Eznis, or Hunnu Air. Almost all flights are between Ulaanbaatar and the Aimag centers. Except for mines in the south Govi and Choibalsan, which use B-737s, most flights use turboprop regional planes like the Fokker-50. AeroMongolia uses a two-tier price structure, with the costs for foreigners being significantly higher than for locals, while Eznis and Hunnu have only one price. Other than price, there isn't much difference between the airlines. Air travel agents, guest houses, and hotels can help you to obtain your domestic air ticket in Mongolia. * Commons:Category:Mongolia WikiPedia:Mongolia Dmoz:Regional Asia Mongolia
Kunbum Lamasery (Kumbum Monastery), which was said to accommodate 4,000 persons. In late September, 1845 they joined the returning embassy, which comprised 2,000 men and 3,700 animals. thumb Performance of Ca trù (File:Ca trù.jpg), an ancient genre of chamber music from northern Vietnam, inscribed by UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2009 '''Traditional Vietnamese music''' is highly diverse and syncretistic (Syncretism), combining native and foreign influences. Throughout
. The '''boodog''' or goat marmot barbecue, is particularly worth experiencing. For about MNT15,000-20,000, a nomad will head out with his gun, shoot a marmot, and then cook it for you using hot stones in its skin without a pot. Along the same lines as '''boodog''' is '''khorkhog''' (made of mutton), which is prepared like so: build a fire; toss stones into fire until red hot; place water, hot stones, onions, potatoes, carrots, and, finally, mutton chops, into a large vacuum-sealed kettle; let
groups of China, the morin khuur of Mongolia, the Byzaanchy of Tuva, the Kokyu of Japan, Haegeum of Korea, kyl kiak of Kyrgyzstan, Saw sam sai of Thailand and many others. These are generally used in playing traditional folk tunes, but have also become popular in arrangements of contemporary music, including such genres as classical (classical music), jazz (jazz music), and rock (rock music). http: www.philmultic.com home
mountains. Must ride horses or reindeer from Tsagaanuur. It can be a long hard ride. *Local Bonda Lake Camp in Khatgal village near Lake Khovsgol offers various nature and cultural featuring: fishing, hiking, winter tours, nomad visits, horse back riding, visiting reindeer herders and Darhad valley. Horse riding, you have chance discover Lake Khovsgol and its beautiful waters, meet Tsataan (nomadic reindeer herders) living in yurts in the north of Khovsgol area. This region is incredibly
; Administration Rehe was located north of the Great Wall, west of Manchuria, and east of Mongolia. The capital of Rehe was the city of Chengde. The second largest city in the province was Chaoyang (Chaoyang, Liaoning), followed by Chifeng. The province covered an area of 114,000 square kilometers. thumb upright Large male reindeer (Image:Rentier fws 1.jpg) The reindeer is a widespread and numerous species in the northern Holarctic, being present in both tundra and taiga (boreal forest). Novak, R. M. (editor) (1999). ''Walker's Mammals of the World.'' Vol. 2. 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. pp. 1128–1130. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9 Originally, the reindeer was found in Scandinavia, eastern Europe, Russia, Mongolia, and northern China north of the 50th latitude (50th parallel north). In North America, it was found in Canada, Alaska (USA), and the northern conterminous USA from Washington (Washington (U.S. state)) to Maine. In the 19th century, it was apparently still present in southern Idaho. It also occurred naturally on Sakhalin, Greenland, and probably even in historical times in Ireland. During the late Pleistocene era, reindeer were found as far south as Nevada and Tennessee in North America and Spain in Europe. Commons:Category:Mongolia WikiPedia:Mongolia Dmoz:Regional Asia Mongolia
their diets are not very diverse, consisting of meat, flour, and dairy, they will seek to serve guests a feast of boiled or fried meat and hot milky tea, with traditional entertainments of music, singing, and maybe dance. There is some variation depending on which tribe or region, with Kazakhs near Ölgii being the most different with different language, diet, and dress, including the practice of '''eagle hunting'''. While the Tuvans have a beautiful, eerie singing style of Throat singing
Corporation title Big red hits NZ as dust storm crosses Tasman * '''''2010:''''' 2010 China drought and dust storms: A sandstorm that started in Mongolia blasted Beijing on March 20, and covered large areas of China in the following days. Commons:Category:Mongolia WikiPedia:Mongolia Dmoz:Regional Asia Mongolia
'''Mongolia''' , ''Mongol Uls'') is a landlocked country in east (East Asia)-central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Ulaanbaatar, the capital (capital (political)) and also the largest city, is home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic.
The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, and his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan Dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict and occasional raids on the Chinese borderlands. In the 16th centuries, Tibetan Buddhism (Buddhism in Mongolia) began to spread in Mongolia and it has been accelerated by the unwavering support of Qing government after Mongolia had been incorporated by the Qing dynasty. In 1900s, almost half of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. Michael Jerryson, ''Mongolian Buddhism: The Rise and Fall of the Sangha,'' (Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 2007), 89.
At the end of the 18th century, all of Mongolia had been incorporated into the area ruled by the Manchu (Manchu people)s' Qing Dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing Dynasty the Mongols established Temporary Government of Khalkha (Khalkha Mongols) in 30 November 1911. On 29 December 1911 Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty and this National Liberation Revolution (Wars of national liberation) ended 220 years (Northern Yuan Dynasty#Decline (1688-1691)) of Manchu rule (153 years after the collapse of the Zunghar Khanate).
Shortly thereafter, the country came under Soviet influence, resulting in the proclamation of the Mongolian People's Republic as a Soviet satellite state in 1924. After the breakdown of communist regimes in Europe (Revolutions of 1989) in late 1989, Mongolia saw its own democratic revolution (1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia) in early 1990; it led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.
At , Mongolia is the 19th largest (List of countries and dependencies by area) and one of the most sparsely populated (List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density) independent countries in the world, with a population of around 3 million people. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south.
Approximately 30% of the population are nomadic or semi-nomadic. The predominant religion in Mongolia is Tibetan Buddhism. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs. The majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes.