of the Parliament Hill, among others. It is the setting for the local legend of the Headless Nun. "Story Quarry", ''French Fort Cove Nature Park''. Retrieved August 21, 2006. Middle Island thumb right 200px Irish Memorial on Middle Island (IR Walker 2007) (File:Middle Island Miramichi Memorial.JPG) Middle Island was used as a quarantine station when, in 1847, typhus and scarlet fever spread throughout
, was the hub of these troubles. The tension increased and decreased with each fishing season, reaching its climax came in April 2003, when a riot broke in the port of Shippagan, where three native-owned fishing ships and a fish processing plant were burnt down. Since then, efforts have been made to bring Acadians and natives closer together, and the tension has slowly abated.
of Miramichi (Miramichi, New Brunswick) is best known for its country and bluegrass music, featuring a blend of Acadian, Irish and Scot's traditional style of music. The Miramichi Folksong Festival preserves the history and rich musical traditions of northeastern New Brunswick. Ganong also comments on the origin of the name, noting that in 1758, during the Gulf of St. Lawrence Campaign (1758), British General James Wolfe directed Colonel James Murray (British army officer
Miramichi Natural History Museum The Miramichi Natural
of the Miramichi River where it enters Miramichi Bay. The Miramichi River valley is the second longest valley in New Brunswick, after the Saint John River Valley. Neighbourhoods The city of Miramichi was formed in 1995 through the forced amalgamation (Municipal amalgamations in New Brunswick) of two towns, Newcastle (Newcastle, New Brunswick) and Chatham (Chatham, New Brunswick), and several smaller communities
Newcastle-Russellville ) and portions of Chatham Parish (Chatham Parish, New Brunswick), Glenelg Parish (Glenelg Parish, New Brunswick) and Nelson Parish (Nelson Parish, New Brunswick). History Mi'kmaq and French communities (before 1765) Long prior to European settlement, the Miramichi region was home to members
public schools operated by the New Brunswick Department of Education. Post-secondary education, including a distance education component from the University of New Brunswick, is offered primarily through the Miramichi campus of New Brunswick Community College. '''Public schools''' Francophone Sud School District: * École Carrefour Beausoleil (K-12) New Brunswick Anglophone North School District (English): * High schools
into the bay. Named after the Loggie family who were prominent local merchants, Loggieville was an incorporated village in Northumberland County (Northumberland County, New Brunswick) until municipal amalgamation in 1995. Early life Foran was a member of the local school board and of the Newcastle municipal council for four terms, including service as deputy mayor and acting mayor prior to Newcastle becoming a part of the City of Miramichi (Miramichi, New Brunswick). When
Although they were clearly preceded by the Mi'kmaq (Mi'kmaq people) and Acadian peoples, credit for the first permanent white settlement at Miramichi is often granted to Scottish settlers, led by William Davidson (William Davidson (lumberman)). William Davidson (a.k.a. John Godsman) and John Cort had obtained a large grant encompassing much of the Miramichi region in 1765, and promoted the area in both Scotland and New England as a new home to potential settlers. American Revolution and Battle at Miramichi (1779) At the beginning of the American Revolution the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet were supportive of the Americans against the British. They participated in the Maugerville Rebellion (Maugerville, New Brunswick) and the Battle of Fort Cumberland in 1776. Three years later, in June 1779, Mi’kmaq in the Miramichi attacked and plundered some of the British in the area. The following month, British Captain Augustus Harvey, in command of HMS ''Viper'', arrived in the area and battled with the Mi’kmaq. One Mi’kmaq was killed and 16 were taken prisoner to Quebec. The prisoners were eventually brought to Halifax, where they were later released upon signing an oath of allegiance to the British Crown on 28 July 1779. http: www.biographi.ca 009004-119.01-e.php?id_nbr 2486; Sessional papers, Volume 5 By Canada. Parliament July 2 – September 22, 1779; Wilfred Brenton Kerr. The Maritime Provinces of British North America and the American Revolution. p. 96 After the battle, Davidson temporarily found refuge along the Saint John River (Saint John River (Bay of Fundy)). A subsequent treaty signed 22 September 1779 ensured a more peaceful coexistence. Following the American Revolution some loyalist (Loyalist (American Revolution)) families moved to Miramichi. Davidson's original grant was revoked, and competition for the best lands escalated tensions between the early Scottish and new loyalist settlers. Great Miramichi Fire of 1825 See full article here (Miramichi Fire), a large forest fire that was one of worst in recorded history in North America. Devastated a number of communities in northern New Brunswick. Irish immigration (1815–1850) The Irish began arriving in Miramichi in numbers after 1815 at the end of the Napoleonic War and with a few exceptions ceased coming to the area before the great Irish famine of 1847. They came to the area voluntarily to better their lives. Contrary to prevailing belief, not all of them were Catholic though very few Protestants among them identified openly as Irish and most of their descendants in Miramichi do not do so even to this day. Most arrived form the ports of Belfast and Cork each of which had strong commercial ties with Miramichi. Like the Scots they came on timber ships as individuals or in small family groups and the average age upon arrival was twenty-four. There was some chain emigration whereby additional family members joined the emigrant later but this was minimal. The Miramichi River valley was not settled by large transplantations of Scottish clans or large scale movements of starving and evicted Irish. Though there are one or two interesting exceptions. In 1815 after trade had developed with Newfoundland, Miramichi was surprised and shaken by the arrival of the so-called "Two Boaters", perhaps as many as 2000. These were the Irish who had taken advantage of cheap fares to St.Johns in the spring and summer of 1815. They were mostly poor laborers and farmers and it seems that initially they settled mainly in the Chatham Douglastown area. With no prospect of obtaining a land grant jobs in the woods or in the mills were the only means of getting established. Most of them were able to get at least temporary employment upon arrival, but it was short lived. In 1819 a sharp decline in timber prices resulted in massive layoffs in Miramichi including most of the "Two Boat" Irish of the Chatham area. Following their grueling experience in St. Johns and now unemployed they became disenchanted by their new found misery so many miles from home. They began to create disturbances in the village of Chatham. Violent outrages were committed in broad daylight, property was stolen and in the worst cases houses and barns were burned to the ground. The people of the area soon dubbed then "those uncivilized immigrants from Ireland", whom local magistrates were powerless to control. But the Irish were not the only troublemakers along the river at that time. They were often mistakenly blamed for outrageous disturbances caused by unruly sailors idling about the port during the spring and summer months. These idle sailors whooped it up at Miramichi particularly on Sundays when the taverns were closed but often the Irish got the blame. In 1822 a detachment of the 78th regiment stationed in Fredericton was temporarily sent to Chatham to keep the peace. But it was not the soldiers of 78th regiment who quieted the Irish. It took an improved economy, jobs and new found opportunity to do the trick. The Looshtauk Tragedy (1847) Unlike the ports of Quebec, Saint John, St Andrews, Boston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, Charleston and New Orleans, Miramichi did not receive large numbers of destitute and starving Irish during the famine years. Fewer than four so-called coffin ships made it to Miramichi between 1844 and 1849 with less than three hundred people on board. They were ships plying to Quebec with sick and dying passengers, stricken with cholera and other diseases. They diverted to 'Miramichi in desperation and on arrival were quarantined at Middle Island where they were treated in appalling conditions. There was great fear of them and some Miramichers including the Irish referred to them as ``yellow mealers` believing all they had had to eat was corn. The arrival of the famine ship Looshtauk on June 2, 1847, was a major tragedy at Miramichi. She left Liverpool for Quebec with 462 passengers on board. During the first two weeks at sea more than 100 died of sickness and the majority of the crew contracted severe fever and were unfit for duty. With only a few able seamen available to man the ship and few other options, the captain headed to the nearest port - Miramichi. When news of the dire conditions on board became known she was forbidden by the port authorities to dock even at Middle Island. The captain could not get permission to land the sick and dying or to bury the dead for over six days in which further severe anguish and the loss of forty more lives occurred. The arrival of two more famine ships the Richard White and the Bolivar further exacerbated the problem. The authorities finally but reluctantly constructed temporary shelters on the island and allowed the sick passengers and crew to land. A further fifty or so people died in the makeshift facilities provided, including the young Chatham doctor John Vondy who volunteered to stay full-time to administer to the sick and dying and within a few days succumbed to the fever himself. The Irish in the 1870s and 1880s By the 1870s the Irish were well established in Miramichi and by this decade less than 20% of them were recent immigrants. In total they represented forty percent of the population of the region spread fairly evenly over the entire Miramichi watershed. Eighty percent were Catholic and only the upriver parish of Ludlow had a Protestant Irish majority. By the 1880s they controlled 15% of businesses and professions in the town of Chatham and probably the same number in Newcastle. However the majority were still listed as skilled and unskilled workers. Industry and politics (1765–1850) thumb 200px Rankin House, former home of Miramichi lumber baron (File:Rankin House.jpg) Alexander Rankin at Douglastown (IR Walker 1983) Although subsistence farming constituted one part of the new settlement's economy, the thin, acid soils of the Miramichi were not conducive to agriculture; thus, the lumber industry and Atlantic salmon fishery were the mainstays. A shipbuilding industry was established by Davidson in 1773, largely to facilitate overseas lumber exports, including masts for the British navy, and to provide winter employment for the men. Davidson's first ship, "Miramichi", was lost with her cargo off the Spanish coast. Miramichi benefited greatly from the Napoleonic wars and American independence, as Britain became dependent on its remaining North American colonies, including New Brunswick, for lumber. However, the Great Miramichi Fire of 1825, the advent of steel-hulled ships, and perhaps over-cutting of eastern white pine, would eventually contribute to a long-term decline in the area's economy. The Miramichi Fire burnt almost 1 4 of New Brunswick's forest, and consumed most of the buildings along the northern side of the river. Only 12 buildings remained in Newcastle. The towns of Newcastle and Chatham developed a long history of rivalry, including a small "war" fought between the communities ("the fighting election of 1843"). The 1843 election was fought on a political level between John T. Williston of Chatham (supported by local entrepreneur Joseph Cunard of Chatham, brother of Samuel Cunard) and John Ambrose Street of Newcastle (backed by the prominent lumber baron, Alexander Rankin of Douglastown). The Rankin and Cunard factions literally fought the election in the streets of Newcastle (Newcastle, New Brunswick) and Chatham (Chatham, New Brunswick) with sticks, stones, coal and other missiles. Railway (1875–1950) In 1875 the region's largest construction project in history was completed when the federal government's Intercolonial Railway (ICR) opened between Moncton and Campbellton (Campbellton, New Brunswick). The following year it would link Halifax (Halifax Regional Municipality) with Rivière-du-Loup and the Canadian railway network. One of the biggest geographic obstacles presented in the project was the crossing of the Miramichi River. Surveyors deemed the ideal location for bridging to be at the upper reaches of tidewater between Nelson (Nelson, New Brunswick) and Newcastle (Newcastle, New Brunswick), crossing the Southwest Miramichi (Southwest Miramichi River), then a short section of land at Derby, followed by the Northwest Miramichi (Northwest Miramichi River). The combined length of these bridges would be among the largest constructed to date in Canada (surpassed only by the Victoria Bridge (Victoria Bridge (Montreal)) in Montreal) and were the first
Officer of the Canadian Red Cross for 27 years. In 1923 he developed the Blue Cross Plan which was put into effect in Ontario in 1941. Dr. Routley also helped establish the Ontario Hospital Association in 1923. The main power grid forms an "O"-shaped loop and is linked by 345 kV lines. The main substations (Electrical substation) are located in Edmundston, Saint-André (Saint-André, New Brunswick), Eel River (Eel River Converter Station), Bathurst, New Brunswick Bathurst
Curtis , and the fiction and non-fiction of Chatham-born writer Raymond Fraser. Local young adult author Valerie Sherrard's first historical novel, ''Three Million Acres of Flame'', deals with the 1825 Miramichi Fire, one of the largest recorded land fires in North American history. Festivals Local festivals which celebrate Miramichi culture, and the ancestral roots of the original settlers include: * Miramichi Folksong Festival * Annual Pow-wows hosted on the nearby Eel
'''Miramichi''' ˈmɛɚˌməˌʃi is the largest city in northern New Brunswick, Canada. New Brunswick Provincial Archives – Miramichi It is situated at the mouth of the Miramichi River where it enters Miramichi Bay. The Miramichi River valley is the second longest valley in New Brunswick, after the Saint John River Valley.