Ming dynasty

What is Ming dynasty known for?


military skills

to test military skills. Hucker (1958), 19–20. In addition to taking over the established bureaucratic structure from the Yuan period, the Ming emperors established the new post of the travelling military inspector. In the early half of the dynasty, men of noble lineage dominated the higher ranks of military office; this trend was reversed during the latter half of the dynasty as men from more humble origins eventually displaced them.<


frequent political

(1572 82) built up an effective network of alliances with senior officials. However, there was no one after him skilled enough to maintain the stability of these alliances; Hucker (1958), 31. officials soon banded together in opposing political factions. Over time Wanli grew tired of court affairs and frequent political quarreling amongst his ministers, preferring to stay behind the walls of the Forbidden City and out of his officials


combining+depictions

,'' or Chinese style paintings (Chinese painting) based on the late Ming dynasty artists from Suzhou and Jiangsu Provinces, which had been introduced to Japan by Sakaki Hyakusen. Tessai tended towards use of rich colors to portray scenes of people in landscape (landscape painting)s, with a composition intended to evoke or illustrate a historical or literary episode. He also sometimes made use of religious imagery, combining depictions of Buddhist (Buddhism) bodhisattva with Daoism


blue style

is almost all painted in the underglazed cobalt blue style that was perfected under the Ming dynasty, although a few examples of dishes over-painted with vitreous enamel glaze have survived (''see for example this dish in the Princessehof Museum, Leeuwarden'' It is often decorated with variations on the more traditional motifs found on Chinese porcelain, such as stylized flowers ( Peony peonies and chrysanthemums) and Buddhist auspicious emblems (Ashtamangala). However, most characteristic of Kraak decoration is the use of foliated radial panels. In other words, the surface of the porcelain is divided into segments, each containing its own discrete image (''see example in the Met'' Image:Palace kitchens Topkapi 2007 012.jpg thumb left Ming dynasty blue-and-white plate, 16th century (Topkapı Museum (Topkapı Palace), Istanbul) From the 13th century, Chinese pictorial designs, such as flying cranes (Crane (bird)), dragons and lotus flowers also started to appear in the ceramic productions of the Near-East, especially in Syria and Egypt. The influence of Blue and white porcelain of the Yuan (Yuan dynasty) and Ming dynasties (Ming dynasty) is evident in many ceramics made by Muslim potters. Iznik pottery from around Iznik in Anatolia was supported by the Ottoman court and produced the finest Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) work in pottery and panels of tiles, using the same vocabulary of bold and elegant floral designs derived from Chinese decoration. A characteristic bold red was developed. Iznik ware had a major influence on European decorative arts: for example, on Italian Maiolica. The pottery was produced in as early as the 15th century AD, and was preceded by Miletus ware from the same region. M.S. Tite 1989, Iznik Pottery: An Investigation of the Methods of Production, ''Archaeometry'' 31.2: 115. Its best period lasted until the late 16th century. It consists of a body, slip (slip (ceramics)), and glaze, where the body and glaze are “quartz-frit.” Tite 1989, 120. The “frits” in both cases “are unusual in that they contain lead oxide as well as soda (sodium oxide)”; the lead oxide would help reduce the thermal expansion coefficient (coefficient of thermal expansion) of the ceramic. Tite 1989, 129. Microscopic analysis reveals that the material that has been labeled “frit” is “interstitial glass” which serves to connect the quartz particles. Tite 1989, 120, 123. Michael S. Tite argues that this glass was added as frit and that the interstitial glass formed on firing. Tite 1989, 121. The technique was used in the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), and later, particularly during the reign of the Yongzheng emperor (1723-1735). Some '''An hua''' dishes were found inside a storage jar in the mid-15th Century (1450-1487?) ''Belankan'' shipwreck off the coast of Indonesia, found circa 1999. According to the ''Army Account of Military Arts and Science'' (Hanzi: 武備志; Pinyin: ''Wǔ Bèi Zhì''), a Ming dynasty strategy book written in 1629 by Mao Yuanyi, Korean fencing (朝鮮勢法; Cháoxiǎn shìfǎ) was a martial art that had reached Korea through Chinese martial artists , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


contemporary views

in various classifications can be problematic. Diamond, Norma "Defining the Miao: Ming, Qing, and Contemporary Views" in Cultural Encounters on China's Ethnic Frontiers, ed. Stevan Harrell. Univ. of Washington Press, Seattle, 1995 (99–101). This inconsistent usage of "Miao" makes it difficult to say for sure if Hmong and Mong people are always included in these historical writings. Linguistic evidence, however, places Hmong and Mong people in the same regions of southern China that they inhabit today for at least the past 2,000 years. Ratliff, Martha. "Vocabulary of environment and subsistence in the Hmong–Mien Proto-Language." in Hmong Miao in Asia. p: 160. By the mid-18th century, classifications become specific enough that it is easier to identify references to Hmong and Mong people. During the late Ming dynasty, due to political chaos, there was increased migration from southern Fujian and eastern Guangdong to Taiwan. The earliest immigrants who were involved in the land development of Taiwan included Yan Siqi (顏思齊) and Zheng Zhilong (鄭芝龍). In AD 1622, Yan Siqi and his forces occupied Bengang 笨港 (today's Beigang town 北港鎮 in Yunling county) and started to develop Chu-lô-san (諸羅山, today's Chiayi city). After the death of Yan, his power was inherited by Zheng Zhilong and he ruled the Straits of Taiwan. In 1628, Zheng Zhilong accepted the bureaucratic rule by Ming (Ming Dynasty) court. 臺灣省資料館,史蹟文物簡介,《歷代之經螢--明代》 In the Chinese (Chinese language) and Japanese (Japanese language) writing systems, there are common type styles based on the regular script for Chinese characters akin to serif and sans serif fonts in the West. In China the most popular category of serifed-like typefaces for body text is called Song (Songti) (宋体, ''Songti''), in Japan the most popular serif style is called ''Minchō'' ( , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


complex history

Kyakhta ). In 1858 Russia annexed the Amur River basin and Vladivostok and became involved with other Western powers in the complex history of modern China. During this time, he spent much of his time writing. Two of his early works, ''Zhenghe za ji'' ("Mischellaneous Notes from Zhenghe) and ''Xianling xiao lu'' ("Minor Records of Magistrates"), are no longer extant. From the bibliography chapter of the ''Book of Song'' and Ming dynasty gazetteers of Quzhou, he


century+writing

not be able to chew. Liu An was very troubled by that and the idea of grinding the soybean was actually suggested by his mother, although there is no historical evidence for this legend. In Bencao Gangmu, where Li was attributed to the development of bean curd (tofu) with no mention of soy milk being invented by anyone, the story was also told by another Ming dynasty writer, Li Yi (李翊). 戒庵老人漫筆「豆腐起於淮南王劉安之術。」 although earlier 10th century writing, the song of bean curd (豆腐詩


history years

painters and galleries at China Online Museum * Ming dynasty art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art (Category:Ming dynasty) Category:Imperial China Category:14th century in China *02


difficult position

of the Jianzhou Jurchens, was unifying the Jurchen (Jurchen people) tribes of Manchuria into a strong coalition that his son Hung Taiji (r. 1626-&ndash;1643) would eventually rename the "Manchus." After he declared Seven Grievances against the Ming dynasty in 1618, Nurhaci and the Ming engaged in several military conflicts. On such occasions, Nurhaci required help from King Gwanghaegun (r.1608&ndash;1623), putting Joseon in a difficult position because the Ming court was also requesting assistance. , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


small+poem

Dynasty had been created, Nüwa created the five-colored stones to protect the dynasty with occasional seasonal rains and other enhancing qualities. Thus in time, Shang Rong asked King Zhou of Shang to pay her a visit as a sign of deep respect. After King Zhou was completely overcome with lust at the very sight of the beautiful ancient goddess Nüwa (who had been sitting behind a light curtain), he would write a small poem on a neighboring wall and take his leave. When Nüwa later returned to her temple after visiting the Yellow Emperor, Nüwa would see the foulness of King Zhou's words. In her anger, she swore that the Shang Dynasty will end in payment for his foulness. In her rage, Nüwa would personally ascend to the palace in an attempt to kill the king, but was suddenly struck back by two large beams of red light. Manchu invasions After the war, Korean peninsula was seriously devastated. Meanwhile Nurhaci (r. 1583&ndash;1626), the chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens, was unifying the Jurchen (Jurchen people) tribes of Manchuria into a strong coalition that his son Hung Taiji (r. 1626-&ndash;1643) would eventually rename the "Manchus." After he declared Seven Grievances against the Ming dynasty in 1618, Nurhaci and the Ming engaged in several military conflicts. On such occasions, Nurhaci required help from King Gwanghaegun (r.1608&ndash;1623), putting Joseon in a difficult position because the Ming court was also requesting assistance. , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.

Ming dynasty

The '''Ming dynasty''', also '''Empire of the Great Ming''', was the ruling dynasty (Dynasties in Chinese history) of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol (Mongol Empire)-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by some as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history," Edwin Oldfather Reischauer, John King Fairbank, Albert M. Craig (1960) ''A history of East Asian civilization, Volume 1. East Asia: The Great Tradition'', George Allen & Unwin Ltd. was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu (Manchu people)-led Qing dynasty), regimes loyal to the Ming throne survived until 1662.

The Hongwu Emperor (ruled 1368 98) attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy (naval history of China)'s dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world. Ebrey (2006), 271. He also took great care breaking the power of the court eunuchs (Eunuch (court official)#China) Crawford, Robert. "Eunuch Power in the Ming dynasty". ''T'oung Pao'', Second Series, Vol. 49, Livr. 3 (1961), pp. 115-148. Accessed 14 October 2012. and unrelated magnates, enfeoffing (Enfeoffment) his many sons throughout China and attempting to guide these princes through the Huang Ming Zu Xun, a set of published dynastic instructions. This failed spectacularly when his teenage successor, the Jianwen Emperor, attempted to curtail his uncles' power, prompting the Jingnan Campaign, an uprising that placed the Prince of Yan upon the throne as the Yongle Emperor in 1402. The Yongle Emperor established Yan as a secondary capital and renamed it Beijing, constructed the Forbidden City, and restored the Grand Canal (Grand Canal of China) and the primacy of the imperial examinations (keju) in official appointments. He rewarded his eunuch supporters and employed them as a counterweight against the Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration (Treasure voyages) into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia and the coast of Africa.

The rise of new emperors and new factions diminished such extravagances; the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor during the 1449 Tumu Crisis ended them completely. The imperial navy was allowed to fall into disrepair while forced labor (Corvee#Imperial China) constructed the Liaodong palisade and connected and fortified the Great Wall of China into its modern form. Wide-ranging censuses of the entire empire were conducted decennially, but the desire to avoid labor and taxes and the difficulty of storing and reviewing the enormous archives at Nanjing hampered accurate figures. Zhang Wenxian. "The Yellow Register Archives of Imperial Ming China". ''Libraries & the Cultural Record'', Vol. 43, No. 2 (2008), pp. 148-175. Univ. of Texas Press. Accessed 9 October 2012. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from 160 to 200 million, For the lower population estimate, see . but necessary revenues were squeezed out of smaller and smaller numbers of farmers as more disappeared from the official records or "donated" their lands to tax-exempt eunuchs or temples. ''Haijin'' laws intended to protect the coasts from "Japanese" pirates (Wokou) instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves.

By the 16th century, however, the expansion of European trade (age of Discovery) spread the Columbian Exchange of crops, plants, and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and highly productive corn and potatoes, which diminished famines and spurred population growth. The growth of Portuguese (economic history of Portugal#Triangular trade between China, Japan, and Europe), Spanish (Economic history of Spain#Gold and silver from the New World), and Dutch (Economic history of the Netherlands (1500–1815)) trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced a massive influx of Japanese (Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine) and American (manila galleons) silver. This abundance of specie allowed the Ming to finally avoid using paper money, which had sparked hyperinflation during the 1450s. While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, the heterodoxy introduced by Wang Yangming permitted a more accommodating attitude. Zhang Juzheng's initially successful reforms proved devastating when a slowdown in agriculture produced by the Little Ice Age was met with Japanese and Spanish policies that quickly cut off the supply of silver now necessary for farmers to be able to pay their taxes. Combined with crop failure, floods, and epidemic, the dynasty was considered to have lost the Mandate of Heaven and collapsed before the rebel leader Li Zicheng and a Manchurian invasion.

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