Ming dynasty

What is Ming dynasty known for?


wearing red

which is where Lê Lợi was born. During the decade-long war against the Ming dynasty, Trịnh Khả served as an advisor to Lê Lợi. With victory, Trịnh Khả was elevated to a high position in the new court of Emperor Lê Lợi. Trịnh Khả (and the other councilors) were given the privilege of wearing red silk and were called '''Hanh-khien'''. Other members of this new elite were: Nguyễn Trãi, Tran Nguyen Han, Lê Sát, Phạm Văn Xảo, Dinh Liêt, and Lê Ngan. History of the major socio-cultural groups According to the government, the majority of Taiwan's 23.2 million population consist of 98% Han Chinese (GIO 2004) (#Reference-GIO-2004) with a minority Austronesian population of less than 500,000. Migration to Taiwan from southern Asia began approximately 12,000 BC, but large-scale migration to Taiwan did not occur until the 18th to the beginning of the 20th century as a result of political and economic chaos in Mainland China ( , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


great tradition

of the Mongol (Mongol Empire)-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by some as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history," Edwin Oldfather Reischauer, John King Fairbank, Albert M. Craig (1960) ''A history of East Asian civilization, Volume 1. East Asia: The Great Tradition'', George Allen & Unwin Ltd. was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell


science discovery

of Tibet: Volume 2, The Medieval Period: c. AD 850–1895, the Development of Buddhist Paramountcy'', 473–482, ed. Alex McKay. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-30843-7. * Temple, Robert. (1986). ''The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery, and Invention''. With a forward by Joseph Needham. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc. ISBN 0-671-62028-2. * Wakeman, Frederick, Jr. "Rebellion and Revolution: The Study of Popular Movements in Chinese History," ''The Journal of Asian Studies


song style

, pressed back into Yunnan province, he fled in Burma. A Manchu army followed and captured him there, and he was executed in June 1662. During the Ming dynasty people from Jiangsu migrated to Taomin in Northwest China, where the Taozhou dialect is spoken. Chen Ming developed a theory in which he claimed that the hua'er song style popular in northwest China was created by a synthesis between the songs of these Jiangsu migrants and the Tibetans and Qiang of Taomin. , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


title battle

temples, Confucius is represented by a memorial tablet. In 2006, the China Confucius Foundation commissioned a standard portrait of Confucius based on the Tang dynasty portrait by Wu Daozi. Cannon were used by Ming dynasty forces at the Battle of Lake Poyang. ref

were used by Ming dynasty forces at the Battle of Lake Poyang. Ming dynasty era ships had bronze cannon. One shipwreck in Shandong had a cannon dated to 1377 and an anchor dated to 1372.


intricate scenes

, such as He Chaozong, who became famous in the early 17th century for his style of white porcelain (Blanc-de-Chine) sculpture. In ''The Ceramic Trade in Asia'', Chuimei Ho estimates that about 16% of late Ming era Chinese ceramic exports were sent to Europe while the rest were destined for Japan and South East Asia. Brook (1998), 206. Carved designs in lacquerware and designs glazed onto porcelain wares displayed intricate scenes similar in complexity to those in painting. These items could be found in the homes of the wealthy, alongside embroidered silks and wares in jade (Chinese jade), ivory, and cloisonné. The houses of the rich were also furnished with rosewood furniture and feathery latticework. The writing materials in a scholar's private study, including elaborately carved brush holders made of stone or wood, were designed and arranged ritually to give an aesthetic appeal. Spence (1999), 10. Connoisseurship in the late Ming period centered around these items of refined artistic taste, which provided work for art dealers and even underground scammers who themselves made imitations and false attributions. The Jesuit Matteo Ricci while staying in Nanjing wrote that Chinese scam artists were ingenious at making forgeries and huge profits. Brook (1998), 224–5. However, there were guides to help the wary new connoisseur; Liu Tong (died 1637) wrote a book printed in 1635 which told his readers how to spot fake and authentic pieces of art. Brook (1998), 225. He revealed that a Xuande era (Xuande) (1426–1435) bronzework could be authenticated by judging its sheen; porcelain wares from the Yongle era (1402–1424) could be judged authentic by their thickness. Brook (1998), 225–6. Religion , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


short fiction

of various types, flourished during the Ming dynasty, especially in the economically prosperous lower Yangzi valley. Although short fiction had been popular as far back as the Tang dynasty (618–907), Ebrey (2006), 104–5. and the works of contemporaneous authors such as Xu Guangqi, Xu Xiake, and Song Yingxing were often technical and encyclopedic, the most striking literary development was the vernacular novel. While the gentry elite were educated enough to fully comprehend

; ref In the later years of the dynasty, Feng Menglong and Ling Mengchu innovated with vernacular short fiction. Theater scripts were equally imaginative. The most famous, ''The Peony Pavilion'', was written by Tang Xianzu (1550–1616), with its first performance at the Pavilion of Prince Teng in 1598. thumb left ''Lofty Mount Lu (Image:Lofty Mt.Lu by Shen Zhou.jpg)'', by Shen Zhou, 1467. Informal essay and travel writing was another highlight. Xu Xiake


military arts

dynasty (1368-1644), and later, particularly during the reign of the Yongzheng emperor (1723-1735). Some '''An hua''' dishes were found inside a storage jar in the mid-15th Century (1450-1487?) ''Belankan'' shipwreck off the coast of Indonesia, found circa 1999. According to the ''Army Account of Military Arts and Science'' (Hanzi: 武備志; Pinyin: ''Wǔ Bèi Zhì''), a Ming dynasty strategy book written in 1629 by Mao Yuanyi, Korean fencing (朝鮮勢法; Cháoxiǎn shìfǎ) was a martial art


bold red

pottery from around Iznik in Anatolia was supported by the Ottoman court and produced the finest Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) work in pottery and panels of tiles, using the same vocabulary of bold and elegant floral designs derived from Chinese decoration. A characteristic bold red was developed. Iznik ware had a major influence on European decorative arts: for example, on Italian Maiolica. The pottery was produced in as early as the 15th century AD, and was preceded


theory quot

Studies'' (Volume 21, December 1958): 1–66. * Kolmaš, Josef. (1967). ''Tibet and Imperial China: A Survey of Sino-Tibetan Relations Up to the End of the Manchu Dynasty in 1912: Occasional Paper 7''. Canberra: The Australian National University, Centre of Oriental Studies. * Kuttner, Fritz A. "Prince Chu Tsai-Yü's Life and Work: A Re-Evaluation of His Contribution to Equal Temperament Theory," ''Ethnomusicology'', Vol. 19, No. 2 (May 1975): 163–206. * Laird, Thomas. (2006). ''The Story

Ming dynasty

The '''Ming dynasty''', also '''Empire of the Great Ming''', was the ruling dynasty (Dynasties in Chinese history) of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol (Mongol Empire)-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by some as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history," Edwin Oldfather Reischauer, John King Fairbank, Albert M. Craig (1960) ''A history of East Asian civilization, Volume 1. East Asia: The Great Tradition'', George Allen & Unwin Ltd. was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu (Manchu people)-led Qing dynasty), regimes loyal to the Ming throne survived until 1662.

The Hongwu Emperor (ruled 1368 98) attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy (naval history of China)'s dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world. Ebrey (2006), 271. He also took great care breaking the power of the court eunuchs (Eunuch (court official)#China) Crawford, Robert. "Eunuch Power in the Ming dynasty". ''T'oung Pao'', Second Series, Vol. 49, Livr. 3 (1961), pp. 115-148. Accessed 14 October 2012. and unrelated magnates, enfeoffing (Enfeoffment) his many sons throughout China and attempting to guide these princes through the Huang Ming Zu Xun, a set of published dynastic instructions. This failed spectacularly when his teenage successor, the Jianwen Emperor, attempted to curtail his uncles' power, prompting the Jingnan Campaign, an uprising that placed the Prince of Yan upon the throne as the Yongle Emperor in 1402. The Yongle Emperor established Yan as a secondary capital and renamed it Beijing, constructed the Forbidden City, and restored the Grand Canal (Grand Canal of China) and the primacy of the imperial examinations (keju) in official appointments. He rewarded his eunuch supporters and employed them as a counterweight against the Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration (Treasure voyages) into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia and the coast of Africa.

The rise of new emperors and new factions diminished such extravagances; the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor during the 1449 Tumu Crisis ended them completely. The imperial navy was allowed to fall into disrepair while forced labor (Corvee#Imperial China) constructed the Liaodong palisade and connected and fortified the Great Wall of China into its modern form. Wide-ranging censuses of the entire empire were conducted decennially, but the desire to avoid labor and taxes and the difficulty of storing and reviewing the enormous archives at Nanjing hampered accurate figures. Zhang Wenxian. "The Yellow Register Archives of Imperial Ming China". ''Libraries & the Cultural Record'', Vol. 43, No. 2 (2008), pp. 148-175. Univ. of Texas Press. Accessed 9 October 2012. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from 160 to 200 million, For the lower population estimate, see . but necessary revenues were squeezed out of smaller and smaller numbers of farmers as more disappeared from the official records or "donated" their lands to tax-exempt eunuchs or temples. ''Haijin'' laws intended to protect the coasts from "Japanese" pirates (Wokou) instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves.

By the 16th century, however, the expansion of European trade (age of Discovery) spread the Columbian Exchange of crops, plants, and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and highly productive corn and potatoes, which diminished famines and spurred population growth. The growth of Portuguese (economic history of Portugal#Triangular trade between China, Japan, and Europe), Spanish (Economic history of Spain#Gold and silver from the New World), and Dutch (Economic history of the Netherlands (1500–1815)) trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced a massive influx of Japanese (Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine) and American (manila galleons) silver. This abundance of specie allowed the Ming to finally avoid using paper money, which had sparked hyperinflation during the 1450s. While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, the heterodoxy introduced by Wang Yangming permitted a more accommodating attitude. Zhang Juzheng's initially successful reforms proved devastating when a slowdown in agriculture produced by the Little Ice Age was met with Japanese and Spanish policies that quickly cut off the supply of silver now necessary for farmers to be able to pay their taxes. Combined with crop failure, floods, and epidemic, the dynasty was considered to have lost the Mandate of Heaven and collapsed before the rebel leader Li Zicheng and a Manchurian invasion.

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