Ming dynasty

What is Ming dynasty known for?


painting landscapes

Ming Dynasty of the Ma-Xia (Ma Yuan 馬遠 , Xia Gui 夏珪), 'academic', style of painting landscapes of the Southern Song. http: www.chinaonlinemuseum.com painting-zhe-school.php Tessai's early works followed the ''bunjinga'' styles of the early 19th century, although he also worked in almost all of the styles associated with Kyoto: ''Rimpa, Yamato-e, Otsu-e,'' etc. However, his mature style concentrated on ''Nanga (Nanga (Japanese painting)),'' or Chinese style paintings (Chinese painting) based on the late Ming dynasty artists from Suzhou and Jiangsu Provinces, which had been introduced to Japan by Sakaki Hyakusen. Tessai tended towards use of rich colors to portray scenes of people in landscape (landscape painting)s, with a composition intended to evoke or illustrate a historical or literary episode. He also sometimes made use of religious imagery, combining depictions of Buddhist (Buddhism) bodhisattva with Daoist (Daoism) or Confucian (Confucianism) figures to symbolize the unity of Asian religious traditions. Tessai's final works either use very brilliant colors, or else were monochrome ink with dense, rough brushwork and occasional slight jarring touches of bright pigments. thumb 270px The art of gentleman scholars tended to idealize retreat into the beauties of nature and contemplation, an idea parallel to the travel literature (Image:Ma Yüan 002.jpg) of Su Shi and Yuan Hongdao; painting by Song Dynasty artist Ma Yuan, c. 1200–1230. As used for imperial China, '''landed gentry''' does not correspond to any term in Chinese. One standard work remarks that under the Ming dynasty, called ''shenshi'' or ''shenjin'', meaning variously degree-holders, literati, scholar-bureaucrats or officials, they are loosely known in English as the Chinese gentry." Brian Hook, ed., ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of China'' (Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed. 1991): 200 Attempts have been made to define them as the class, mostly landowners, who had passed the examinations and so were eligible to hold office, were retired mandarins (mandarin (China)) or their families and descendants. Chang Chung-li Zhongli Zhang , ''The Chinese Gentry; Studies on Their Role in Nineteenth-Century Chinese Society'' (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1955). Their power and influence eclipsed that of the hereditary and largely military aristocrats (Chinese nobility) after the Tang (Tang dynasty) dynasty, for by the Song Dynasty the civil service exam (Imperial examination) replaced the nine-rank system which favored nobles. thumb upright Silver sycee (File:ChinesischeSilberbarren.jpg) (''yuanbao'') ingots The early Ming dynasty ( , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


time writing

Kyakhta ). In 1858 Russia annexed the Amur River basin and Vladivostok and became involved with other Western powers in the complex history of modern China. During this time, he spent much of his time writing. Two of his early works, ''Zhenghe za ji'' ("Mischellaneous Notes from Zhenghe) and ''Xianling xiao lu'' ("Minor Records of Magistrates"), are no longer extant. From the bibliography chapter of the ''Book of Song'' and Ming dynasty gazetteers of Quzhou, he is also known to have written a number of other books, all of which are also lost. Most of them were concerned with the administration of local and central government. At least one detailed ways in which the central government could improve its capacity to fend off the Jurchens who had seized north China. The Dutch East India company's army was defeated by a Chinese Ming dynasty army led by Koxinga at the Siege of Fort Zeelandia on Taiwan. The Chinese used ships and naval bombardment with cannon to force a surrender. , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


century+blue

raising a minor city-state to world prominence. The world map includes some 1,700 provinces and sea zones. Many provinces in the Americas, Africa, and Oceania are not owned by any country, allowing for colonization. thumb right 200px Kangxi reign mark on a piece of late nineteenth century blue and white porcelain. (Image:Kangxi mark.jpg) Image:Mid15thCenturyPotteryNorthernItaly.jpg thumb 200px Italian pottery of the mid-15th century shows heavy influences from Chinese ceramics


complex history

Kyakhta ). In 1858 Russia annexed the Amur River basin and Vladivostok and became involved with other Western powers in the complex history of modern China. During this time, he spent much of his time writing. Two of his early works, ''Zhenghe za ji'' ("Mischellaneous Notes from Zhenghe) and ''Xianling xiao lu'' ("Minor Records of Magistrates"), are no longer extant. From the bibliography chapter of the ''Book of Song'' and Ming dynasty gazetteers of Quzhou, he


conducting local

to silver into a steep decline. In the 1630s a string of one thousand copper coins (Cash (Chinese coin)) equaled an ounce of silver; by 1640 that sum could fetch half an ounce; and, by 1643 only one-third of an ounce. Spence (1999), 20. For peasants this meant economic disaster, since they paid taxes in silver while conducting local trade and crop sales in copper. Spence (1999), 20–1. Famines became common in northern China in the early 17th century because of unusually dry and cold weather that shortened the growing season - effects of a larger ecological event now known as the Little Ice Age. Spence (1999), 21. Famine, alongside tax increases, widespread military desertions, a declining relief system, and natural disasters such as flooding and inability of the government to manage irrigation and flood-control projects properly caused widespread loss of life and normal civility. The central government, starved of resources, could do very little to mitigate the effects of these calamities. Making matters worse, a widespread epidemic spread across China from Zhejiang to Henan, killing an unknown but large number of people. Spence (1999), 22–4. The deadliest earthquake of all time, the Shaanxi earthquake of 1556 (1556 Shaanxi earthquake), occurred during the Jiajing Emperor's reign, killing approximately 830,000 people. Tsunami among world's worst disasters. ''BBC News.'' 30 December 2004. Rise of the Manchu thumb upright Shanhaiguan District Shanhaiguan (File:Shanhaiguan.jpg) along the Great Wall, the gate where the Manchus were repeatedly repelled before being finally let through by Wu Sangui in 1644. A Jurchen (Jurchen people) tribal leader named Nurhaci (r. 1616 , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


historical writings

in various classifications can be problematic. Diamond, Norma "Defining the Miao: Ming, Qing, and Contemporary Views" in Cultural Encounters on China's Ethnic Frontiers, ed. Stevan Harrell. Univ. of Washington Press, Seattle, 1995 (99–101). This inconsistent usage of "Miao" makes it difficult to say for sure if Hmong and Mong people are always included in these historical writings. Linguistic evidence, however, places Hmong


+important+work

model as their Protestant peers did. Wong (1963), 31 (footnote 1). Although Shen Kuo (1031–95) and Guo Shoujing (1231–316) had laid the basis for trigonometry (History of trigonometry) in China, another important work in Chinese trigonometry would not be published again until 1607 with the efforts of Xu Guangqi and Matteo Ricci. Needham (1959), Volume 3, 110. Ironically, some inventions which had their origins


service location

+Bozan+was+an+Uighur+born+in+1898.+He+Joined+the+CCP+in+May+1937.+The+eulogy+continued:+As+one+of+the+historians+of+the+older+generation+who+applied+historical&hl en&ei ahW9TNbvL8GBlAepzZjDDw&sa X&oi book_result&ct result&resnum 1&ved 0CCUQ6AEwAA title Daily report: People's Republic of China, Issue 34; Issues 36-41 author year 1979 publisher Distributed by National Technical Information Service location isbn page pages accessdate 2010-06-28 ref>


arts location

of China: numbers and distribution author Ingvar Svanberg year 1988 publisher Centre for Mult i ethnic Research, Uppsala University, Faculty of Arts location isbn 9186624202 page 7 pages accessdate 2010-06-28


academic style

Ming Dynasty of the Ma-Xia (Ma Yuan 馬遠 , Xia Gui 夏珪), 'academic', style of painting landscapes of the Southern Song. http: www.chinaonlinemuseum.com painting-zhe-school.php Tessai's early works followed the ''bunjinga'' styles of the early 19th century, although he also worked in almost all of the styles associated with Kyoto: ''Rimpa, Yamato-e, Otsu-e,'' etc. However, his mature style concentrated on '' Nanga (Japanese painting) Nanga

Ming dynasty

The '''Ming dynasty''', also '''Empire of the Great Ming''', was the ruling dynasty (Dynasties in Chinese history) of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol (Mongol Empire)-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by some as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history," Edwin Oldfather Reischauer, John King Fairbank, Albert M. Craig (1960) ''A history of East Asian civilization, Volume 1. East Asia: The Great Tradition'', George Allen & Unwin Ltd. was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu (Manchu people)-led Qing dynasty), regimes loyal to the Ming throne survived until 1662.

The Hongwu Emperor (ruled 1368 98) attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy (naval history of China)'s dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world. Ebrey (2006), 271. He also took great care breaking the power of the court eunuchs (Eunuch (court official)#China) Crawford, Robert. "Eunuch Power in the Ming dynasty". ''T'oung Pao'', Second Series, Vol. 49, Livr. 3 (1961), pp. 115-148. Accessed 14 October 2012. and unrelated magnates, enfeoffing (Enfeoffment) his many sons throughout China and attempting to guide these princes through the Huang Ming Zu Xun, a set of published dynastic instructions. This failed spectacularly when his teenage successor, the Jianwen Emperor, attempted to curtail his uncles' power, prompting the Jingnan Campaign, an uprising that placed the Prince of Yan upon the throne as the Yongle Emperor in 1402. The Yongle Emperor established Yan as a secondary capital and renamed it Beijing, constructed the Forbidden City, and restored the Grand Canal (Grand Canal of China) and the primacy of the imperial examinations (keju) in official appointments. He rewarded his eunuch supporters and employed them as a counterweight against the Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration (Treasure voyages) into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia and the coast of Africa.

The rise of new emperors and new factions diminished such extravagances; the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor during the 1449 Tumu Crisis ended them completely. The imperial navy was allowed to fall into disrepair while forced labor (Corvee#Imperial China) constructed the Liaodong palisade and connected and fortified the Great Wall of China into its modern form. Wide-ranging censuses of the entire empire were conducted decennially, but the desire to avoid labor and taxes and the difficulty of storing and reviewing the enormous archives at Nanjing hampered accurate figures. Zhang Wenxian. "The Yellow Register Archives of Imperial Ming China". ''Libraries & the Cultural Record'', Vol. 43, No. 2 (2008), pp. 148-175. Univ. of Texas Press. Accessed 9 October 2012. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from 160 to 200 million, For the lower population estimate, see . but necessary revenues were squeezed out of smaller and smaller numbers of farmers as more disappeared from the official records or "donated" their lands to tax-exempt eunuchs or temples. ''Haijin'' laws intended to protect the coasts from "Japanese" pirates (Wokou) instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves.

By the 16th century, however, the expansion of European trade (age of Discovery) spread the Columbian Exchange of crops, plants, and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and highly productive corn and potatoes, which diminished famines and spurred population growth. The growth of Portuguese (economic history of Portugal#Triangular trade between China, Japan, and Europe), Spanish (Economic history of Spain#Gold and silver from the New World), and Dutch (Economic history of the Netherlands (1500–1815)) trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced a massive influx of Japanese (Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine) and American (manila galleons) silver. This abundance of specie allowed the Ming to finally avoid using paper money, which had sparked hyperinflation during the 1450s. While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, the heterodoxy introduced by Wang Yangming permitted a more accommodating attitude. Zhang Juzheng's initially successful reforms proved devastating when a slowdown in agriculture produced by the Little Ice Age was met with Japanese and Spanish policies that quickly cut off the supply of silver now necessary for farmers to be able to pay their taxes. Combined with crop failure, floods, and epidemic, the dynasty was considered to have lost the Mandate of Heaven and collapsed before the rebel leader Li Zicheng and a Manchurian invasion.

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