life, and Liu An is only the powerful noble at that time where he can order the mass-production of such items and spread it around thus making him famous for soy milk and bean curd. 《中國行業神》, 李喬 Yet most soy bean related work place still places Liu An as the god of bean curd and worship him as the inventor of both soy milk and bean curd. 《中國民間神像》, 宋兆麟 General Originally built during the Northern Qi dynasty
raising a minor city-state to world prominence. The world map includes some 1,700 provinces and sea zones. Many provinces in the Americas, Africa, and Oceania are not owned by any country, allowing for colonization. thumb right 200px Kangxi reign mark on a piece of late nineteenth century blue and white porcelain. (Image:Kangxi mark.jpg) Image:Mid15thCenturyPotteryNorthernItaly.jpg thumb 200px Italian pottery of the mid-15th century shows heavy influences from Chinese ceramics
;Ebrey (1999), 158. and by courtesans who were as literate and skillful in calligraphy, painting, and poetry as their male guests. Brook (1998), 230. The liberal views of Wang Yangming were opposed by the Censorate and by the Donglin Academy, reëstablished in 1604. These conservatives wanted a revival of orthodox Confucian ethics. Conservatives such as Gu Xiancheng (1550–1612) argued against Wang's idea of innate moral
and layout of the Yuan dynasty palace. Later, European Jesuits such as Matteo Ricci and Nicolas Trigault would briefly mention indigenous Chinese clockworks that featured drive wheels. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 438. However, both Ricci and Trigault were quick to point out that 16th-century European clockworks were far more advanced than the common time keeping devices in China, which they listed as water clocks, incense clocks, and "other instruments ... with wheels rotated by sand as if by water" (Chinese: 沙漏). Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 509. Chinese records— namely the ''Yuan Shi'' (Chinese: 元史)—describe the 'five-wheeled sand clock', a mechanism pioneered by Zhan Xiyuan (fl. (floruit) 1360–80) which featured the scoop wheel of Su Song's earlier astronomical clock and a stationary dial face (Dial (measurement)) over which a pointer circulated, similar to European models of the time. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 511. This sand-driven wheel clock was improved upon by Zhou Shuxue (fl. 1530–58) who added a fourth large gear wheel, changed gear ratios, and widened the orifice for collecting sand grains since he criticized the earlier model for clogging up too often. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 510–1. thumb upright Portrait of Matteo Ricci (Image:Ricciportrait.jpg) by Yu Wenhui, Latinized as Emmanuel Pereira, dated the year of Ricci's death, 1610 The Chinese were intrigued with European technology, but so were visiting Europeans of Chinese technology. In 1584, Abraham Ortelius (1527–1598) featured in his atlas ''Theatrum Orbis Terrarum'' the peculiar Chinese innovation of mounting masts and sails onto carriages (Wheelbarrow#Chinese sailing carriage), just like Chinese ships (Junk (ship)). Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 276. Gonzales de Mendoza (Juan González de Mendoza) also mentioned this a year later— noting even the designs of them on Chinese silken robes —while Gerardus Mercator (1512–94) featured them in his atlas, John Milton (1608–74) in one of his famous poems, and Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest (1739–801) in the writings of his travel diary in China. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 274–6. thumb upright Bodhisattva Manjusri (Image:He Chaozong 1.JPG) in '' Blanc-de-Chine'', by He Chaozong, 17th century; Song Yingxing devoted an entire section of his book to the ceramics industry (Chinese ceramics) in the making of porcelain items like this. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 171–2. The encyclopedist Song Yingxing (1587–1666) documented a wide array of technologies, metallurgic and industrial processes in his ''Tiangong Kaiwu'' (Chinese: 天工開物) encyclopedia of 1637. This includes mechanical and hydraulic powered devices for agriculture and irrigation, Song (1966), 7–30, 84–103. nautical technology such as vessel types and snorkeling gear for pearl divers, Song (1966), 171–2, 189, 196. Needham (1971), Volume 4, Part 3, 668 Needham (1971), Volume 4, Part 3, 634, 649–50, 668–9. the annual processes of sericulture and weaving with the loom, Song (1966), 36–6. metallurgic processes such as the crucible technique and quenching, Song (1966), 237, 190. manufacturing processes such as for roasting iron pyrite in converting sulphide to oxide in sulfur used in gunpowder compositions— illustrating how ore was piled up with coal briquettes in an earthen furnace with a still-head that sent over sulfur as vapor that would solidify and crystallize (crystallization) Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 126. —and the use of gunpowder weapons such as a naval mine ignited by use of a rip-cord and steel flint wheel (wheellock). Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 205, 339 F. Focusing on agriculture in his ''Nongzheng Quanshu'', the agronomist Xu Guangqi (1562–1633) took an interest in irrigation, fertilizers, famine relief, economic and textile crops, and empirical observation of the elements that gave insight into early understandings of chemistry. Needham (1984), Volume 6, Part 2, 65–6. There were many advances and new designs in gunpowder weapons during the beginning of the dynasty, but by the mid to late Ming the Chinese began to frequently employ European-style artillery and firearms. Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 372. The ''Huolongjing'', compiled by Jiao Yu and Liu Ji (Liu Ji (14th century)) sometime before the latter's death on 16 May 1375 (with a preface added by Jiao in 1412), Needam (1986), Volume 5, Part 7, 24–5. featured many types of cutting-edge gunpowder weaponry for the time. This includes hollow, gunpowder-filled exploding cannonballs (round shot), Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 264. land mines that used a complex trigger mechanism of falling weights, pins, and a steel wheellock to ignite the train of fuses, Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 203–5. naval mines, Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 205. fin-mounted winged rockets for aerodynamic control, Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 498–502. multistage rockets propelled by booster rockets before igniting a swarm of smaller rockets issuing forth from the end of the missile (shaped like a dragon's head), Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 508. and hand cannons that had up to ten barrels (gun barrel). Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 229. Li Shizhen (1518–93)— one of the most renowned pharmacologists (pharmacology) and physicians in Chinese history (Traditional Chinese medicine) —belonged to the late Ming period. His ''Bencao Gangmu'' is a medical text with 1,892 entries, each entry with its own name called a ''gang''. The ''mu'' in the title refers to the synonyms of each name. , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.
, and Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest (1739–801) in the writings of his travel diary in China. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 274–6. thumb upright Bodhisattva Manjusri (Image:He Chaozong 1.JPG) in '' Blanc-de-Chine'', by He Chaozong, 17th century; Song Yingxing devoted an entire section of his book to the ceramics industry (Chinese ceramics) in the making of porcelain items like this. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 171–2. ref>
,'' or Chinese style paintings (Chinese painting) based on the late Ming dynasty artists from Suzhou and Jiangsu Provinces, which had been introduced to Japan by Sakaki Hyakusen. Tessai tended towards use of rich colors to portray scenes of people in landscape (landscape painting)s, with a composition intended to evoke or illustrate a historical or literary episode. He also sometimes made use of religious imagery, combining depictions of Buddhist (Buddhism) bodhisattva with Daoist (Daoism) or Confucian (Confucianism) figures to symbolize the unity of Asian religious traditions. Tessai's final works either use very brilliant colors, or else were monochrome ink with dense, rough brushwork and occasional slight jarring touches of bright pigments. thumb 270px The art of gentleman scholars tended to idealize retreat into the beauties of nature and contemplation, an idea parallel to the travel literature (Image:Ma Yüan 002.jpg) of Su Shi and Yuan Hongdao; painting by Song Dynasty artist Ma Yuan, c. 1200–1230. As used for imperial China, '''landed gentry''' does not correspond to any term in Chinese. One standard work remarks that under the Ming dynasty, called ''shenshi'' or ''shenjin'', meaning variously degree-holders, literati, scholar-bureaucrats or officials, they are loosely known in English as the Chinese gentry." Brian Hook, ed., ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of China'' (Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed. 1991): 200 Attempts have been made to define them as the class, mostly landowners, who had passed the examinations and so were eligible to hold office, were retired mandarins (mandarin (China)) or their families and descendants. Chang Chung-li Zhongli Zhang , ''The Chinese Gentry; Studies on Their Role in Nineteenth-Century Chinese Society'' (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1955). Their power and influence eclipsed that of the hereditary and largely military aristocrats (Chinese nobility) after the Tang (Tang dynasty) dynasty, for by the Song Dynasty the civil service exam (Imperial examination) replaced the nine-rank system which favored nobles. thumb upright Silver sycee (File:ChinesischeSilberbarren.jpg) (''yuanbao'') ingots The early Ming dynasty ( , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.
of Tibet: Volume 2, The Medieval Period: c. AD 850–1895, the Development of Buddhist Paramountcy'', 473–482, ed. Alex McKay. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-30843-7. * Temple, Robert. (1986). ''The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery, and Invention''. With a forward by Joseph Needham. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc. ISBN 0-671-62028-2. * Wakeman, Frederick, Jr. "Rebellion and Revolution: The Study of Popular Movements in Chinese History," ''The Journal of Asian Studies
Sidwell, Australian National University. Pacific Linguistics year 2005 publisher Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University location page 247 isbn 0858835614 pages accessdate 2010-11-28 After the 982 fall, of the capital Indrapura to Vietnam, some Cham fled to Guangzhou in addition to Hainan.
;ref name "robinson 1999 116 117" Robinson (1999), 116–7. thumb A Ming dynasty red lacquer (Image:B-ChinesischeLackdose.JPG) box with intricate carving of people in the countryside, surrounded by a floral border design. Literature (Chinese literature), painting (Chinese painting), poetry (Chinese poetry), music (Music of China), and Chinese opera
to be one of the three highest ranking heavenly generals. Liu, James T. C. "Yueh Fei (1103-41) and China's Heritage of Loyalty." ''The Journal of Asian Studies''. Vol. 31, No. 2 (Feb., 1972), pp. 291-297, pg. 296 Wong, Eva. ''The Shambhala Guide to Taoism''. Shambhala, 1996 (ISBN 1570621691), p. 162 The Zokuzokyo (Xuzangjing) (卍續藏) version, which is a supplement of another version of the canon, is often used as a supplement for Buddhist texts
The '''Ming dynasty''', also '''Empire of the Great Ming''', was the ruling dynasty (Dynasties in Chinese history) of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol (Mongol Empire)-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by some as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history," Edwin Oldfather Reischauer, John King Fairbank, Albert M. Craig (1960) ''A history of East Asian civilization, Volume 1. East Asia: The Great Tradition'', George Allen & Unwin Ltd. was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu (Manchu people)-led Qing dynasty), regimes loyal to the Ming throne survived until 1662.
The Hongwu Emperor (ruled 1368 98) attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy (naval history of China)'s dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world. Ebrey (2006), 271. He also took great care breaking the power of the court eunuchs (Eunuch (court official)#China) Crawford, Robert. "Eunuch Power in the Ming dynasty". ''T'oung Pao'', Second Series, Vol. 49, Livr. 3 (1961), pp. 115-148. Accessed 14 October 2012. and unrelated magnates, enfeoffing (Enfeoffment) his many sons throughout China and attempting to guide these princes through the Huang Ming Zu Xun, a set of published dynastic instructions. This failed spectacularly when his teenage successor, the Jianwen Emperor, attempted to curtail his uncles' power, prompting the Jingnan Campaign, an uprising that placed the Prince of Yan upon the throne as the Yongle Emperor in 1402. The Yongle Emperor established Yan as a secondary capital and renamed it Beijing, constructed the Forbidden City, and restored the Grand Canal (Grand Canal of China) and the primacy of the imperial examinations (keju) in official appointments. He rewarded his eunuch supporters and employed them as a counterweight against the Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration (Treasure voyages) into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia and the coast of Africa.
The rise of new emperors and new factions diminished such extravagances; the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor during the 1449 Tumu Crisis ended them completely. The imperial navy was allowed to fall into disrepair while forced labor (Corvee#Imperial China) constructed the Liaodong palisade and connected and fortified the Great Wall of China into its modern form. Wide-ranging censuses of the entire empire were conducted decennially, but the desire to avoid labor and taxes and the difficulty of storing and reviewing the enormous archives at Nanjing hampered accurate figures. Zhang Wenxian. "The Yellow Register Archives of Imperial Ming China". ''Libraries & the Cultural Record'', Vol. 43, No. 2 (2008), pp. 148-175. Univ. of Texas Press. Accessed 9 October 2012. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from 160 to 200 million, For the lower population estimate, see . but necessary revenues were squeezed out of smaller and smaller numbers of farmers as more disappeared from the official records or "donated" their lands to tax-exempt eunuchs or temples. ''Haijin'' laws intended to protect the coasts from "Japanese" pirates (Wokou) instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves.
By the 16th century, however, the expansion of European trade (age of Discovery) spread the Columbian Exchange of crops, plants, and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and highly productive corn and potatoes, which diminished famines and spurred population growth. The growth of Portuguese (economic history of Portugal#Triangular trade between China, Japan, and Europe), Spanish (Economic history of Spain#Gold and silver from the New World), and Dutch (Economic history of the Netherlands (1500–1815)) trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced a massive influx of Japanese (Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine) and American (manila galleons) silver. This abundance of specie allowed the Ming to finally avoid using paper money, which had sparked hyperinflation during the 1450s. While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, the heterodoxy introduced by Wang Yangming permitted a more accommodating attitude. Zhang Juzheng's initially successful reforms proved devastating when a slowdown in agriculture produced by the Little Ice Age was met with Japanese and Spanish policies that quickly cut off the supply of silver now necessary for farmers to be able to pay their taxes. Combined with crop failure, floods, and epidemic, the dynasty was considered to have lost the Mandate of Heaven and collapsed before the rebel leader Li Zicheng and a Manchurian invasion.