Medes

What is Medes known for?


modern scientific

, that the alfalfa plant came from the Medes land (in today's Iran). (The ancient Greeks and Romans also used the name ''medica'' to mean a citron fruit, once again because it was believed to have come from the Medes land). The ancient Roman name ''medica'' is the root of the modern scientific name for the alfalfa genus, ''Medicago''. Despite the report in Palladius and in some other Roman and ancient Greek writers, there is little evidence that alfalfa was in widespread use in the Mediterranean region in those days. * Before continuing his pursuit of Darius III, who has retreated into Bactria, Alexander assembles all the Persian treasure and entrusts it to Harpalus, who is to hold it at Ecbatana as chief treasurer. Parmenion is also left behind in Media (Medes) to manage communications between Alexander and the rest of his rapidly growing lands. * Alexander appoints Atropates as the satrap of Media (Medes) while Mithrenes is appointed by Alexander as satrap of Armenia. * Crossing the Elburz Mountains to the Caspian Sea, Alexander seizes Zadracarta in Hyrcania and receives the submission of a group of satraps and Persian notables, some of whom he confirms in their offices. He then travels westward and defeats the Mardi, a mountain people who inhabit the Elburz Mountains. He also accepts the surrender of Darius' Greek mercenaries. Macedonian Empire * On returning to Susa, Persia (Achaemenid Empire), Alexander the Great punishes those who he considers to have failed in their duties in his absence in India, particularly those who have plundered tombs and temples. Alexander continues his policy of replacing senior officials and executing defaulting governors. Over a third of his satraps are replaced and six are put to death. Three generals in Media (Medes), including Cleander, the brother of Coenus (who has died in 326 BC), are accused of extortion and are arrested, tried and executed. * While at Susa, Alexander holds a feast to celebrate his capture of the Persian Empire (Achaemenid Empire). Book of Tobit In some versions of the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit, Ahasuerus is given as the name of an associate of Nebuchadnezzar (Nebuchadrezzar II), who together with him, destroyed Nineveh just before Tobit's death. Book of Tobit, 14:15. A traditional Catholic view is that he is identical to the Ahasuerus of Daniel 9:1 Maas, A. (1907). Assuerus. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from New Advent: http: www.newadvent.org cathen 02005c.htm In the Codex Sinaiticus Greek (LXX) edition, the two names in this verse appear instead as one name, Ahikar (also the name of another character in the story of Tobit). Other Septuagint texts have the name ''Achiachar''. Western scholars have proposed that ''Achiachar'' is a variant form of the name "Cyaxares I (Cyaxares) of Media (Medes)", who historically did destroy Nineveh, in 612 BC. Tiglath-Pileser III seized the Assyrian throne during a civil war and killed the royal family. He made sweeping changes to the Assyrian government, considerably improving its efficiency and security. Assyrian forces became a standing army. Tiglath-Pileser III subjected Babylonia to tribute, severely punished Urartu (Armenia), and defeated the Medes and the Hittites. He reconquered Syria (destroying Damascus) and the Mediterranean seaports of Phoenicia. Tiglath-Pileser III also occupied Philistia and Israel. Later in his reign, Tiglath-Pileser III assumed total control of Babylonia. Assyrian power in the Near East greatly increased as the result of Tiglath-Pileser's military reforms (see "Reforms" below) and his campaigns of conquest. Upon ascending the throne, he claimed (in Annal 9, which dates to 745 BC, his first regnal year) to have annexed (annexation) Babylonia, from "Dur-(Kuri)galzu, Sippar of Shamash, ... the cities of Ba bylonia up to the Uqnu river by the shore of the Lo wer Sea " Tadmor, ''Inscriptions'', p. 43. (which referred to the Persian Gulf), and subsequently placed his eunuch over them as governor. Also in his first year of reign he defeated the powerful kingdom of Urartu (in modern Armenia), whose hegemony under the rulership of Sarduri II had extended to Asia Minor, northern Mesopotamia,western Iran and Syria; there he found unrivalled horses for his war-chariots. Luckenbill, ''Ancient Records'', vol II, p. 84. He also defeated the Medes before making war on and conquering the Neo-Hittites, Syria and Phoenicia. He took Arpad (Arpad (Syria)) in 740 BC after three years of siege, annexed it as a province (over which he placed one of his eunuchs as governors), and subjected Hamath to tribute. Assyrian inscriptions record in 740 BC, the fifth year of his reign, a victory over Azariah (Uzziah (Uzziah of Judah)), king of Judah (kingdom of Judah), whose achievements are described in 2 Chronicles 26.He also subjugated Damascus, the Arabs under Queen Zabibe, Menahem of Israel and Sam'al's king Azriyau, who all paid him tribute. ), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)


creation quot

The Medes, Parthians and Persians begin to appear on the Iranian plateau from ca. 800 BC, and the Achaemenids replaced Elamite rule from 559 BC. Around the first millennium of the Common Era (AD), the Pashtuns and Baloch (Baloch people) began to settle on the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau, on the mountainous frontier of northwestern and western Pakistan, displacing the earlier Indo-Aryans from the area. Most provinces were in or just around the former Sassanid Persia, often continuing old satrapies and or surviving as modern provinces. Not counting the caliph's new home region of Syria, nor Egypt (including eastern Libya; both only recently lost by Byzantium to the Sassanids), these were Iraq and Mesopotamia (both Arabized, around ancient Ctesiphon and modern Baghdad respectively around ancient Nineveh and modern Mosul), Khuzestan around ancient Susa, still partly Arabic), Armenia, Iberia (Caucasian Iberia) (i.e. Trans-Caucasian Georgia), Arran-Schirwan (east of it) all three of the northern front, Azerbaijan (a Turkic people) and the ethnic heart of Iran (Fars (Fars Province) which is the eponymous home province, Djibal -the ancient Media (Medes)-, Gilan, Tabaristan and Djurdjan (Gorgan) (all three on the Caspian Sea coast), Kerman, Sistan and Khorasan (Greater Khorasan) (including Herat in present Afghanistan); under the Omayyad dynasty (661-750) the caliphate expanded further east, adding Sindh (now southern Pakistan), Zabulistan (including Kabul and Ghazna, later the eponymous seat of a mighty break-away Ghaznavid dynasty) and in Central Asia Tocharistan (around Balkh) and Transoxania (Sogdia, Fergana and Mawara An-Nahr (Transoxania), with Samarkand). thumb 200px Old gate of Imamzadeh Ja'far, Borujerd Imamzadeh Jafar (File:Borujerd-Iran 39.jpg) shrine. Borujerd area has been populated at least since 3000 BC. Medes used its pastures to produce and train thousands of horses each year. Seleucids used Roomian Castle as a strategic military garrison. Sassanid empires promoted Borujerd to a city level and built a fire-temple there. During the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651), Borujerd castle was used by Iranian army to support the troops and the final battle occurred in Nihavand, 55 km north West of Borujerd. Yazdgerd III escaped to Borujerd castle and his army reunited again there. The Islamic Arab governor, Abudolf ibn Hamulah, rebuilt the city and constructed the Jame Mosque of Borujerd on top of a Zoroastrian fire temple. Etymological studies also further indicate that current dialects spoken from Baku to Khalkhal to Semnan (Semnan (city)), all originated from


natural tradition

that these tribes are traceable to India. After giving details of the character of the wandering Israelites, he said: "And we find that the very natural character of Israel reappear in all its life and reality in countries where people call themselves Bani Israel and universally claim to be the descendants of the Lost Tribes. The nomenclature of their tribes and districts, both in ancient Geography, and at the present day, confirms this universal natural tradition. Lastly, we have the route


ancient written

Azerbaijan, and Scythian invaders who arrived during the eighth century BC. It is believed that the Medes mixed with Mannai. ), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)


science architecture

in the Zagros Mountains, and moved his capital to the city of Kalhu (Calah Nimrud). The palaces, temples and other buildings raised by him bear witness to a considerable development of wealth, science, architecture and art. He also built a number of new heavily fortified towns, such as Imgur-Enlil (Balawat), Tushhan, Kar-Ashurnasirpal and Nibarti-Ashur. Ashurnasirpal II also had a keen interest in Botany and Zoology; collecting all manner of plants, seeds


Silverberg

to Constantinople and of a Patriarch of India to Rome at the time of Pope Callixtus II (1119–1124). Silverberg, pp. 29–34. These visits apparently from the Saint Thomas Christians of India cannot be confirmed, evidence of both being secondhand reports. What is certain is that the German chronicler Otto of Freising reported in his ''Chronicon'' of 1145 that the previous year he had met a certain Hugh (Hugh of Jabala), bishop of Jabala in Syria, at the court

of Pope Eugene III in Viterbo. Halsall, Paul (1997). "Otto of Freising: The Legend of Prester John". Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Retrieved June 20, 2005. Silverberg, pp. 3–7 Bowden, p. 177 Hugh was an emissary of Prince Raymond (Raymond of Antioch) of Antioch (Principality of Antioch) seeking Western aid against the Saracens after the Siege


great holding

, respectively). The Old Persian text contains 414 lines in five columns; the Elamite text includes 593 lines in eight columns, and the Babylonian text is in 112 lines. The inscription was illustrated by a life-sized bas-relief of Darius I, the Great (Darius the Great), holding a bow (bow (weapon)) as a sign of kingship, with his left foot on the chest of a figure lying on his back before him. The supine figure is reputed to be the pretender Gaumata. Darius is attended to the left


power+building

250px Sumqayit is located about 31 kilometers (approximiately 20 miles) northwest of Azerbaijan's capital Baku, near the Caspian Sea. According to historians, Medean tribes (Medes) lived in the area. During the construction boom, when the foundation of the executive power building was being excavated, remains of an ancient caravanserai along with personal items and kitchenware was found at the site. A popular legend about the city states that a caravan (Convoy) was passing by the area


including modern

of central Asia. Alexander founded a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate ("The Furthest") in modern Tajikistan. The campaign took Alexander through Media (Medes), Parthia, Aria (Aria (satrapy)) (West Afghanistan), Drangiana, Arachosia (South and Central Afghanistan), Bactria (North and Central Afghanistan), and Scythia. ), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)


quot matches

their relationship was to the subsequent list of personal names and "kings". But Matais were Medes and linguistically the name "Parsuwash" matches the Old Persian word ''pārsa''– an Achaemenid ethno-linguistic designation. cf. Skjærvø, Prods Oktor (2006), "Iran, vi(1). Earliest Evidence", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. 13 Kingdom of Armenia was bordered by Caucasian Albania in the east, by Caucasian Iberia in the north

Medes

thumb 200px The Apadana Palace, northern stairway (detail) – ancient 5th-century BCE bas-relief shows a Mede soldier in traditional Mede costume (behind Persian archer) (Image:Persepolis Apadana noerdliche Treppe Detail.jpg)

The '''Medes''' . C) ".. succeeded in uniting into a kingdom the many Iranian-speaking Median tribes" (from Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Media (ancient region, Iran) ). D) "Proto-Iranian split into Western (Median, ancient Persian, and others) and Eastern (Scythian, Ossetic, Saka, Pamir and others)..." ( year 2007 page 303 ) group "N" who lived in an area known as Media (Media (region)) (North-western Iran and south-east Turkey) and who spoke a northwestern Iranian language (Northwestern Iranian) referred to as the Median language. Their arrival to the region is associated with the first wave of migrating Iranic Aryans (Aryan race) tribes into Ancient Iran from the late 2nd millennium BCE (circa 1000 BC) (the Bronze Age collapse) through the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE (circa 900 BC).

This period of migration coincided with a power vacuum in the Near East, with the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365-1020 BC) which had dominated north western Iran and eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus going into a comparative decline, allowing new peoples to pass through and settle. In addition, Elam, the dominant power in Ancient Iran was suffering a period of severe weakness, as was Babylonia to the west.

From the 10th to late 7th centuries BCE, the Medes and Persians (Persian people) fell under the domination of the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire based in northern Mesopotamia, but which stretched from Cyprus to Ancient Iran, and from the Caucasus to Egypt and Arabia. Assyrian kings such as Tiglath-Pileser IV, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal and Ashur-etil-ilani imposed ''Vassal Treaties'' upon the Median and Persian rulers, and also protected them from predatory raids by marauding Scythian and Cimmerian hordes. Georges Roux, ''Ancient Iraq'', 1992

During the reign of Sinsharishkun (622-612 BC) the Assyrian empire, which had been in a state of constant civil war since 626 BC, began to unravel. Subject peoples, such as the Medes, Persians, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Scythians, Cimmerians, Lydians and Arameans quietly ceased to pay tribute to Assyria.

An alliance with the Persians (Persian people), and rebelling Babylonians (Neo-Babylonian empire), Scythians, Chaldeans, and Cimmerians, helped the Medes and Persians to capture Nineveh in 612 BCE, which resulted in the eventual collapse of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by 605 BC. The Medes were subsequently able to establish their Median kingdom (with Ecbatana as their royal centre) beyond their original homeland (central-western Iran) and had eventually a territory stretching roughly from northeastern Iran to the Halys River in Anatolia. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, between 616 BCE and 605 BCE, a unified Median state was formed, which, together with Babylonia, Lydia, and Egypt (Ancient Egypt), became one of the four major powers of the ancient Near East. The Median kingdom was conquered in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great, who established the Iranian dynasty—the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle (Medes#Archaeological evidence)" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. The Medes had almost the same equipment as the Persians and indeed the dress common to both is not so much Persian as Median. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is almost entirely unknown. However a number of words from the Median language are still in use, and there are languages being geographically and comparatively (Comparative method (linguistics)) traced to the northwestern Iranian language of Median. The Medes had an Ancient Iranian Religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian (Zoroastrianism) Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later and during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zarathustra (Zoroastrianism) spread in western Iran.

Besides Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), the other cities existing in Media were Laodicea (modern Nahavand) and the mound that was the largest city of the Medes, Rhages (also called Rey), on the outskirts of Shahr Rey (Rey, Iran), south of Tehran. The fourth city of Media was Apamea (Apamea (Media)), near Ecbatana, whose precise location is unknown. In later periods, Medes and especially Mede soldiers are identified and portrayed prominently in ancient Persian archaeological sites such as Persepolis, where they are shown to have a major role and presence in the military of the Persian Empire's Achaemenid dynasty.

According to the ''Histories of Herodotus (Histories (Herodotus))'', there were six Median tribes: Herodotus 1.101

The six Median tribes resided in Media proper, the triangle between Ecbatana, Rhagae and Aspadana, in today's central Iran , the area between Tehran , Isfahan and Hamadan. Of the Median tribes, the Magi resided in Rhaga, modern Tehran . It was a sort of sacred caste, which ministered to the spiritual needs of the Medes. The Paretaceni tribe resided in and around Aspadana, modern Isfahan, the Arizanti lived in and around Kashan and the Busae tribe lived in and around the future Median capital of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan. The Struchates and the Budii lived in villages in the Median triangle. http: books.google.no books?id rQipbjusDyQC&pg PA292&dq %22villages+in+media%22&hl no&ei Jg3ZToSBI8T74QTD-tj5DQ&sa X&oi book_result&ct result&resnum 6&ved 0CEgQ6AEwBQ#v onepage&q %22villages%20in%20media%22&f false

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