Medes

What is Medes known for?


great amp

publisher Psychology Press year 2003 pages 186 url http: books.google.com books?id 8aLb5pnm1j4C&pg PA186&dq persepolis+Cyrus+the+Great&hl en&ei 1Bs0TeqkBMPflgeqp7CmCg&sa X&oi book_result&ct result&resnum 1&ved 0CCYQ6AEwAA#v onepage&q persepolis%20Cyrus%20the%20Great&f false Starting around 550 BCE, from the region of Persis in southern Iran, encompassing the present Fars (Fars Province) province, the Achaemenid Empire ancient


years made

Egypts former masters. The seat of empire was thus transferred to Babylonia for the first time since Hammurabi over a thousand years before. Nabopolassar was followed by his son Nebuchadnezzar II (Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon), whose reign of 43 years made Babylon once more the mistress of much the civilized world, taking over a fair portion of the former Assyrian Empire once ruled by its Assyrian brethren, the eastern and north eastern portion being taken by the Medes and the far


previous+campaign

;layout ;loc 6.43.1 VI, 44 However in 490 BC, following up the successes of the previous campaign, Darius decided to send a maritime expedition led by Artaphernes, (son of the satrap to whom Hippias had fled) and Datis, a Median (Medes) admiral. Mardonius had been injured in the prior campaign and had fallen out of favor. The expedition (First Persian invasion of Greece#490 BC: Datis and Artaphernes' Campaign) was intended to bring the Cyclades into the Persian empire


culture work

, Mauryas (Maurya Empire), Kushans (Kushan Empire), Hephthalites, Sassanids (Sassanid Empire), Arab Muslims (Islamic conquest), Turks (Turkic peoples), and others. In recent age, people of the Western world have nominally explored the area. ref>


ancient written

Azerbaijan, and Scythian invaders who arrived during the eighth century BC. It is believed that the Medes mixed with Mannai. ), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)


modern scientific

, that the alfalfa plant came from the Medes land (in today's Iran). (The ancient Greeks and Romans also used the name ''medica'' to mean a citron fruit, once again because it was believed to have come from the Medes land). The ancient Roman name ''medica'' is the root of the modern scientific name for the alfalfa genus, ''Medicago''. Despite the report in Palladius and in some other Roman and ancient Greek writers, there is little evidence that alfalfa was in widespread use in the Mediterranean region in those days. * Before continuing his pursuit of Darius III, who has retreated into Bactria, Alexander assembles all the Persian treasure and entrusts it to Harpalus, who is to hold it at Ecbatana as chief treasurer. Parmenion is also left behind in Media (Medes) to manage communications between Alexander and the rest of his rapidly growing lands. * Alexander appoints Atropates as the satrap of Media (Medes) while Mithrenes is appointed by Alexander as satrap of Armenia. * Crossing the Elburz Mountains to the Caspian Sea, Alexander seizes Zadracarta in Hyrcania and receives the submission of a group of satraps and Persian notables, some of whom he confirms in their offices. He then travels westward and defeats the Mardi, a mountain people who inhabit the Elburz Mountains. He also accepts the surrender of Darius' Greek mercenaries. Macedonian Empire * On returning to Susa, Persia (Achaemenid Empire), Alexander the Great punishes those who he considers to have failed in their duties in his absence in India, particularly those who have plundered tombs and temples. Alexander continues his policy of replacing senior officials and executing defaulting governors. Over a third of his satraps are replaced and six are put to death. Three generals in Media (Medes), including Cleander, the brother of Coenus (who has died in 326 BC), are accused of extortion and are arrested, tried and executed. * While at Susa, Alexander holds a feast to celebrate his capture of the Persian Empire (Achaemenid Empire). Book of Tobit In some versions of the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit, Ahasuerus is given as the name of an associate of Nebuchadnezzar (Nebuchadrezzar II), who together with him, destroyed Nineveh just before Tobit's death. Book of Tobit, 14:15. A traditional Catholic view is that he is identical to the Ahasuerus of Daniel 9:1 Maas, A. (1907). Assuerus. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from New Advent: http: www.newadvent.org cathen 02005c.htm In the Codex Sinaiticus Greek (LXX) edition, the two names in this verse appear instead as one name, Ahikar (also the name of another character in the story of Tobit). Other Septuagint texts have the name ''Achiachar''. Western scholars have proposed that ''Achiachar'' is a variant form of the name "Cyaxares I (Cyaxares) of Media (Medes)", who historically did destroy Nineveh, in 612 BC. Tiglath-Pileser III seized the Assyrian throne during a civil war and killed the royal family. He made sweeping changes to the Assyrian government, considerably improving its efficiency and security. Assyrian forces became a standing army. Tiglath-Pileser III subjected Babylonia to tribute, severely punished Urartu (Armenia), and defeated the Medes and the Hittites. He reconquered Syria (destroying Damascus) and the Mediterranean seaports of Phoenicia. Tiglath-Pileser III also occupied Philistia and Israel. Later in his reign, Tiglath-Pileser III assumed total control of Babylonia. Assyrian power in the Near East greatly increased as the result of Tiglath-Pileser's military reforms (see "Reforms" below) and his campaigns of conquest. Upon ascending the throne, he claimed (in Annal 9, which dates to 745 BC, his first regnal year) to have annexed (annexation) Babylonia, from "Dur-(Kuri)galzu, Sippar of Shamash, ... the cities of Ba bylonia up to the Uqnu river by the shore of the Lo wer Sea " Tadmor, ''Inscriptions'', p. 43. (which referred to the Persian Gulf), and subsequently placed his eunuch over them as governor. Also in his first year of reign he defeated the powerful kingdom of Urartu (in modern Armenia), whose hegemony under the rulership of Sarduri II had extended to Asia Minor, northern Mesopotamia,western Iran and Syria; there he found unrivalled horses for his war-chariots. Luckenbill, ''Ancient Records'', vol II, p. 84. He also defeated the Medes before making war on and conquering the Neo-Hittites, Syria and Phoenicia. He took Arpad (Arpad (Syria)) in 740 BC after three years of siege, annexed it as a province (over which he placed one of his eunuchs as governors), and subjected Hamath to tribute. Assyrian inscriptions record in 740 BC, the fifth year of his reign, a victory over Azariah (Uzziah (Uzziah of Judah)), king of Judah (kingdom of Judah), whose achievements are described in 2 Chronicles 26.He also subjugated Damascus, the Arabs under Queen Zabibe, Menahem of Israel and Sam'al's king Azriyau, who all paid him tribute. ), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)


strong building

through digging for archaeological purposes, was an ancient and strong building situated on the top of a mount above the wide Ziwiyeh Cave, Iran. It is located in an altitude of 1,835 m above sea level in Kurdistan province of Iran (Kurdistan Province (Iran)) on the south of Orumieh Lake. Artefacts found there belong to the 9th century BC (belonging to Medes era) and have been kept in some museums. A large golden necklace with some mythical animals engraved on it is one of the most famous things found in the area. Assyrians have a long history in Iran. During the Neo Assyrian Empire (911-608 BC), much of western Iran (including Media (Medes), Persia, Elam and Gutium) was subject to Assyria. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Assyria was ruled by Persia from 539 BC. Assyrians have possibly existed in north western Iran for many thousands of years. Dionysius, while praising Rome at the expense of her predecessors His was thus a quasi-exceptionalist (exceptionalism) view. G.W. Trompf, ''The Idea of Historical Recurrence in Western Thought'', p. 192. — Assyria, Media (Medes), Persia, and Macedonia (Macedonia (ancient kingdom)) — anticipated Rome's eventual decay. He thus implied the idea of recurring decay in the history of world empires — an idea that was to be developed by Diodorus Siculus (1st century BCE) and Pompeius Trogus (1st century BCE). G.W. Trompf, ''The Idea of Historical Recurrence in Western Thought'', pp. 186–87. The Parthian empire was led by the Arsacid dynasty, which reunited and ruled over the Iranian plateau, after defeating and disposing the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, beginning in the late 3rd century BC, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between 150 BC and 224 AD. It was the third native dynasty of ancient Iran (after the Median (Medes) and the Achaemenid (Achaemenid Empire) dynasties). Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east. In ancient times it was inhabited by an Iranian (Iranian peoples) tribe which ancient Greeks (Hellenistic civilization) were referring to as Sarangians or Drangians. The Drangians were first subdued by another Iranian people, the Medes, and later, by Cyrus the Great. According to Herodotus, during the reign of Darius I, the Drangians were placed in the same district as the Utians, Thamanaeans, Mycians, Drangians, and those deported to the Persian Gulf. In 330 BC, the region was conquered by Alexander the Great. Damal is on a route across the traditional Silk Road, connecting the Caucasus from Europe to Central Asia and has changed hands many times throughout history, between Medes, Persians, Ancient Romans, Byzantines (Byzantine Empire) and finally the Ottoman Turks. The region was briefly controlled by Imperial Russia but later restored to Turkey after World War One. History The first of many cultures and civilisations to settle on the plain were the Hittites who by 1650 BC were spread throughout Anatolia. Then came the Phrygians (1200 - 700 BC), Cimmerians, Medes and Persians. By the 1st millennium BCE, Medes, Persians (Persian people), Bactrians and Parthians populated the Iranian plateau, while others such as the Scythians, Sarmatians, Cimmerians and Alans populated the steppes north of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. The Saka tribes remained mainly in the south-east, eventually spreading as far east as Xinjiang. His paternal grandparents were Roman Client Monarchs, King Antiochus IV of Commagene and Queen Julia Iotapa. Antiochus IV and Iotapa were husband, wife and full blooded-siblings. He was of Armenian, Greek (Greeks) and Medes descent. Through his paternal grandparents, he was a direct descendant from the Greek Syrian Kingdom the Seleucid Empire and the Greek Egyptian (Ancient Egypt) Kingdom the Ptolemaic dynasty. The time of the Iranian peoples' migration to Iran can be mainly estimated through Assyrian records. Mary Boyce "''Zoroastrians, Their Religious Beliefs and Practices''" ''Under the Achaemenians'' pp. 48 Also, Herodotus (I, 101) had recalled one of the Mede tribes to be called "Magoi", better known as "Magis", a tribe known to have included many priests, who served both Medes and Persians. By the time of the Median empire (est. 612 BC), Zoroastrianism is known to have been well established in both Pars (Fārs Province) region (later capital of Persia) as well as in the Eastern regions. Mary Boyce "''Zoroastrians, Their Religious Beliefs and Practices''" pp. 49 Achaemenid dynasty Persians led by Cyrus the Great soon established the second Iranian dynasty, and the first Persian empire by defeating the Medes dynasty in 549BC. Mary Boyce, ''Zoroastrians, Their Religious Beliefs and Practices''" pp. 49 As Persians expanded their empire, Zoroastrianism was introduced to Greek historians such as Hermodorus, Hermippus, Xanthos, Eudoxus and Aristotle; each giving a different date regarding the life of Zoroaster but naturally believed him to be a Persian prophet and called him "Master of the magi" Mary Boyce, "''Zoroastrians, Their Religious Beliefs and Practices''": ''Under the Achamenians'' In Turkey, Christianity has attracted a number of converts both among Kurds and Turks in the past decade. In Iraqi Kurdistan, several evangelical groups have been formed. While in some cases they have faced intolerance by extremist Muslims, their activities are largely tolerated by the Regional Government of Kurdistan (KRG (Iraqi Kurdistan)) out of a desire to remain democratic. Since 2001, ''Servant Group International'' has established three English (English language)-language Christian schools titled ''Classical School of the Medes'' in Iraqi Kurdistan. By 2005 three campuses in Sulaimaniya, Irbil and Dohuk (Duhok, Iraq) with a total enrolment of 700 students, were operational. Classical School of the Medes - Index Kurdistan Regional Government has recently awarded legal status and an official permit to the Bible Society to open a branch in the region. Future Bright for Bible Society in Iraq as Legal Status is Granted Kurdish converts to Christianity began to discuss petitioning KRG for the right to change the religious status on their ID cards in 2007. Tuck's Professional Services The '''Parthian''' ( ), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)


historical quot

*


harsh+natural

from aquifers on the piedmont to gardens or palm groves on the plains. These inventions were important reasons behind the success of the Achaemenid Empire and survival of Mykians in their largely harsh natural environment. Other inscriptions also record that gold, silver, lapis lazuli, turquise, cornalin, cedar wood, wood and the decoration for the relief at Susa were from Maka.


independent power

to the time of the conquest of Media (Medes) by Cyrus the Great, emperors ruled the conquered lands, through client kings (Client state) and governors. The chief difference was that in Persian culture the concept of kingship was indivisible from divinity: divine authority validated the divine right of kings. The twenty satraps established by Cyrus were never kings, but viceroys ruling in the king's name, although in political reality many grabbed any chance to carve themselves an independent

power base. Darius the Great (Darius I) gave the satrapies a definitive organization, increased their number to twenty-three and fixed their annual tribute (Behistun inscription). Demetrius I is famous in Jewish history for his victory over the Maccabees, killing Judas Maccabaeus in Nisan (Nisan-years), 160 BC. 1 Macc 9:3 (312 - A.S. 152 160 B.C. ) Demetrius acquired his surname of ''Soter'', or Savior, from the Babylonians, whom he delivered

Medes

thumb 200px The Apadana Palace, northern stairway (detail) – ancient 5th-century BCE bas-relief shows a Mede soldier in traditional Mede costume (behind Persian archer) (Image:Persepolis Apadana noerdliche Treppe Detail.jpg)

The '''Medes''' . C) ".. succeeded in uniting into a kingdom the many Iranian-speaking Median tribes" (from Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Media (ancient region, Iran) ). D) "Proto-Iranian split into Western (Median, ancient Persian, and others) and Eastern (Scythian, Ossetic, Saka, Pamir and others)..." ( year 2007 page 303 ) group "N" who lived in an area known as Media (Media (region)) (North-western Iran and south-east Turkey) and who spoke a northwestern Iranian language (Northwestern Iranian) referred to as the Median language. Their arrival to the region is associated with the first wave of migrating Iranic Aryans (Aryan race) tribes into Ancient Iran from the late 2nd millennium BCE (circa 1000 BC) (the Bronze Age collapse) through the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE (circa 900 BC).

This period of migration coincided with a power vacuum in the Near East, with the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365-1020 BC) which had dominated north western Iran and eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus going into a comparative decline, allowing new peoples to pass through and settle. In addition, Elam, the dominant power in Ancient Iran was suffering a period of severe weakness, as was Babylonia to the west.

From the 10th to late 7th centuries BCE, the Medes and Persians (Persian people) fell under the domination of the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire based in northern Mesopotamia, but which stretched from Cyprus to Ancient Iran, and from the Caucasus to Egypt and Arabia. Assyrian kings such as Tiglath-Pileser IV, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal and Ashur-etil-ilani imposed ''Vassal Treaties'' upon the Median and Persian rulers, and also protected them from predatory raids by marauding Scythian and Cimmerian hordes. Georges Roux, ''Ancient Iraq'', 1992

During the reign of Sinsharishkun (622-612 BC) the Assyrian empire, which had been in a state of constant civil war since 626 BC, began to unravel. Subject peoples, such as the Medes, Persians, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Scythians, Cimmerians, Lydians and Arameans quietly ceased to pay tribute to Assyria.

An alliance with the Persians (Persian people), and rebelling Babylonians (Neo-Babylonian empire), Scythians, Chaldeans, and Cimmerians, helped the Medes and Persians to capture Nineveh in 612 BCE, which resulted in the eventual collapse of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by 605 BC. The Medes were subsequently able to establish their Median kingdom (with Ecbatana as their royal centre) beyond their original homeland (central-western Iran) and had eventually a territory stretching roughly from northeastern Iran to the Halys River in Anatolia. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, between 616 BCE and 605 BCE, a unified Median state was formed, which, together with Babylonia, Lydia, and Egypt (Ancient Egypt), became one of the four major powers of the ancient Near East. The Median kingdom was conquered in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great, who established the Iranian dynasty—the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle (Medes#Archaeological evidence)" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. The Medes had almost the same equipment as the Persians and indeed the dress common to both is not so much Persian as Median. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is almost entirely unknown. However a number of words from the Median language are still in use, and there are languages being geographically and comparatively (Comparative method (linguistics)) traced to the northwestern Iranian language of Median. The Medes had an Ancient Iranian Religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian (Zoroastrianism) Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later and during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zarathustra (Zoroastrianism) spread in western Iran.

Besides Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), the other cities existing in Media were Laodicea (modern Nahavand) and the mound that was the largest city of the Medes, Rhages (also called Rey), on the outskirts of Shahr Rey (Rey, Iran), south of Tehran. The fourth city of Media was Apamea (Apamea (Media)), near Ecbatana, whose precise location is unknown. In later periods, Medes and especially Mede soldiers are identified and portrayed prominently in ancient Persian archaeological sites such as Persepolis, where they are shown to have a major role and presence in the military of the Persian Empire's Achaemenid dynasty.

According to the ''Histories of Herodotus (Histories (Herodotus))'', there were six Median tribes: Herodotus 1.101

The six Median tribes resided in Media proper, the triangle between Ecbatana, Rhagae and Aspadana, in today's central Iran , the area between Tehran , Isfahan and Hamadan. Of the Median tribes, the Magi resided in Rhaga, modern Tehran . It was a sort of sacred caste, which ministered to the spiritual needs of the Medes. The Paretaceni tribe resided in and around Aspadana, modern Isfahan, the Arizanti lived in and around Kashan and the Busae tribe lived in and around the future Median capital of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan. The Struchates and the Budii lived in villages in the Median triangle. http: books.google.no books?id rQipbjusDyQC&pg PA292&dq %22villages+in+media%22&hl no&ei Jg3ZToSBI8T74QTD-tj5DQ&sa X&oi book_result&ct result&resnum 6&ved 0CEgQ6AEwBQ#v onepage&q %22villages%20in%20media%22&f false

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