Medes

What is Medes known for?


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), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)


battle+fighting

as having brought "into subjection every nation without exception". Cambridge Ancient History IV (#refcah-iv) Chapter 3c. p. 170. The quote is from the Greek historian Herodotus. Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, as he himself died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530 BC. Beckwith, Christopher. (2009). ''Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present''. Princeton


influence including

), it is called "Paras" (Hebrew פרס), or sometimes "Paras ve Madai" (פרס ומדי) i.e. "Persia and Media (Medes)". As the Old Persians gained power, they developed the infrastructure to support their growing influence including creation of a capital named Pasargadae, and an opulent city named Persepolis. ), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)


fine gold

Texts Cassius_Dio 49*.html 27–33 * Bivar (1993), 58–65 A Midrash taught that says, “Its breast and its arms were of silver”; and brass


classical school

, their activities are largely tolerated by the Regional Government of Kurdistan (KRG (Iraqi Kurdistan)) out of a desire to remain democratic. Since 2001, ''Servant Group International'' has established three English (English language)-language Christian schools titled ''Classical School of the Medes'' in Iraqi Kurdistan. By 2005 three campuses in Sulaimaniya, Irbil and Dohuk (Duhok, Iraq) with a total enrolment of 700 students, were operational. Classical School of the Medes - Index Kurdistan Regional Government has recently awarded legal status and an official permit to the Bible Society to open a branch in the region. Future Bright for Bible Society in Iraq as Legal Status is Granted Kurdish converts to Christianity began to discuss petitioning KRG for the right to change the religious status on their ID cards in 2007. Tuck's Professional Services The '''Parthian''' ( ), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)


historical quot

*


lead art

peoples. Faravahar floats above, giving his blessing to the king. One figure appears to have been added after the others were completed, as was (oddly enough) Darius' beard, which is a separate block of stone attached with iron pins and lead. '''Art Imlech''', ("having an edge or border" or "bordering on a lake or marsh") ''Dictionary of the Irish Language'', Compact Edition, Royal Irish Academy, 1990, p. 386


power main

corners of the civilized world and contributed much to human advancement, the Persian Gulf was profoundly affected. Kish was, in particular, economically and politically linked with the civilization of the Medes and Persian and Aryan people when they were at the height of their power. ), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)


wide school

north by the Scythians. His empire included the conquering of Phoenicia in 585 BC, as well as Aramea (Syria), Israel, Judah (Kingdom of Judah) and parts of Asia Minor and Arabia. Only a small fragment of his annals has been discovered, relating


early time

), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)

Medes

thumb 200px The Apadana Palace, northern stairway (detail) – ancient 5th-century BCE bas-relief shows a Mede soldier in traditional Mede costume (behind Persian archer) (Image:Persepolis Apadana noerdliche Treppe Detail.jpg)

The '''Medes''' . C) ".. succeeded in uniting into a kingdom the many Iranian-speaking Median tribes" (from Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Media (ancient region, Iran) ). D) "Proto-Iranian split into Western (Median, ancient Persian, and others) and Eastern (Scythian, Ossetic, Saka, Pamir and others)..." ( year 2007 page 303 ) group "N" who lived in an area known as Media (Media (region)) (North-western Iran and south-east Turkey) and who spoke a northwestern Iranian language (Northwestern Iranian) referred to as the Median language. Their arrival to the region is associated with the first wave of migrating Iranic Aryans (Aryan race) tribes into Ancient Iran from the late 2nd millennium BCE (circa 1000 BC) (the Bronze Age collapse) through the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE (circa 900 BC).

This period of migration coincided with a power vacuum in the Near East, with the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365-1020 BC) which had dominated north western Iran and eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus going into a comparative decline, allowing new peoples to pass through and settle. In addition, Elam, the dominant power in Ancient Iran was suffering a period of severe weakness, as was Babylonia to the west.

From the 10th to late 7th centuries BCE, the Medes and Persians (Persian people) fell under the domination of the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire based in northern Mesopotamia, but which stretched from Cyprus to Ancient Iran, and from the Caucasus to Egypt and Arabia. Assyrian kings such as Tiglath-Pileser IV, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal and Ashur-etil-ilani imposed ''Vassal Treaties'' upon the Median and Persian rulers, and also protected them from predatory raids by marauding Scythian and Cimmerian hordes. Georges Roux, ''Ancient Iraq'', 1992

During the reign of Sinsharishkun (622-612 BC) the Assyrian empire, which had been in a state of constant civil war since 626 BC, began to unravel. Subject peoples, such as the Medes, Persians, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Scythians, Cimmerians, Lydians and Arameans quietly ceased to pay tribute to Assyria.

An alliance with the Persians (Persian people), and rebelling Babylonians (Neo-Babylonian empire), Scythians, Chaldeans, and Cimmerians, helped the Medes and Persians to capture Nineveh in 612 BCE, which resulted in the eventual collapse of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by 605 BC. The Medes were subsequently able to establish their Median kingdom (with Ecbatana as their royal centre) beyond their original homeland (central-western Iran) and had eventually a territory stretching roughly from northeastern Iran to the Halys River in Anatolia. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, between 616 BCE and 605 BCE, a unified Median state was formed, which, together with Babylonia, Lydia, and Egypt (Ancient Egypt), became one of the four major powers of the ancient Near East. The Median kingdom was conquered in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great, who established the Iranian dynasty—the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle (Medes#Archaeological evidence)" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. The Medes had almost the same equipment as the Persians and indeed the dress common to both is not so much Persian as Median. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is almost entirely unknown. However a number of words from the Median language are still in use, and there are languages being geographically and comparatively (Comparative method (linguistics)) traced to the northwestern Iranian language of Median. The Medes had an Ancient Iranian Religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian (Zoroastrianism) Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later and during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zarathustra (Zoroastrianism) spread in western Iran.

Besides Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), the other cities existing in Media were Laodicea (modern Nahavand) and the mound that was the largest city of the Medes, Rhages (also called Rey), on the outskirts of Shahr Rey (Rey, Iran), south of Tehran. The fourth city of Media was Apamea (Apamea (Media)), near Ecbatana, whose precise location is unknown. In later periods, Medes and especially Mede soldiers are identified and portrayed prominently in ancient Persian archaeological sites such as Persepolis, where they are shown to have a major role and presence in the military of the Persian Empire's Achaemenid dynasty.

According to the ''Histories of Herodotus (Histories (Herodotus))'', there were six Median tribes: Herodotus 1.101

The six Median tribes resided in Media proper, the triangle between Ecbatana, Rhagae and Aspadana, in today's central Iran , the area between Tehran , Isfahan and Hamadan. Of the Median tribes, the Magi resided in Rhaga, modern Tehran . It was a sort of sacred caste, which ministered to the spiritual needs of the Medes. The Paretaceni tribe resided in and around Aspadana, modern Isfahan, the Arizanti lived in and around Kashan and the Busae tribe lived in and around the future Median capital of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan. The Struchates and the Budii lived in villages in the Median triangle. http: books.google.no books?id rQipbjusDyQC&pg PA292&dq %22villages+in+media%22&hl no&ei Jg3ZToSBI8T74QTD-tj5DQ&sa X&oi book_result&ct result&resnum 6&ved 0CEgQ6AEwBQ#v onepage&q %22villages%20in%20media%22&f false

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