of construction programs – see below (Mecca#Destruction of Mecca's historic and religious sites). On November 20, 1979 two hundred armed Islamist (Islamism) dissidents led by Saudi preacher Juhayman al-Otaibi seized the Grand Mosque (Grand Mosque Seizure). They claimed that the Saudi royal family no longer represented pure Islam and that the Masjid al-Haram (The Sacred Mosque) and the Kaaba, must be held by those of true faith. The rebels seized tens of thousands of pilgrims
: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pg.261- Madayi is also well known for the ''Malik Ibn Dinar mosque''. This beautiful ancient mosque is believed to have been originally built by Malik Ibn Dinar, a Muslim preacher. A block of white marble in the mosque is believed to have been brought from Mecca by its founder, who came to India to spread the word of the Prophet (Muhammad). Nearby lies a dilapidated fort believed to have been built by Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore. birth_date
and economy, consolidated the northern boundaries of the Sultanate with the Ottoman Empire, engaged in trade with other contemporaneous polities, and emerged as a great patron of art and architecture. In fact, although Qaitbay fought sixteen military campaigns, he is best remembered for the spectacular building projects that he sponsored, leaving his mark as an architectural patron on Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Damascus, Aleppo, Alexandria, and every quarter of Cairo. Consolidation of power Following the defeat of Suwar, Qaitbay set about purging his court of the remaining factions and installing his own purchased Mamluks in all positions of power. He frequently went on excursions, ostentatiously leaving the Citadel (Cairo Citadel) with limited guards to display his trust of his subordinates and of the populace. He traveled throughout his reign, visiting Alexandria, Damascus, and Aleppo, among other cities, and personally inspecting his many building projects. In 1472 he performed the Hajj to Mecca. He was struck by the poverty of the citizens of Medina and devoted a substantial portion of his private fortune to the alleviation of their plight. Through such measures Qaitbay gained a reputation for piety, charity, and royal self-confidence. Petry, ''Twilight'', 73-82. Today Qaitbay is perhaps best known for his wide-ranging architectural patronage. At least 230 monuments, either surviving or mentioned in contemporary sources, are associated with his reign. In Egypt, Qaitbay's buildings were to be found throughout Cairo, as well as in Alexandria and Rosetta; in Syria he sponsored projects in Aleppo and Damascus; in addition, he was responsible for the construction of madrasas and fountains in Jerusalem and Gaza, which still stand — most notably the Fountain of Qayt Bay and al-Ashrafiyya Madrasa. On the Arabian peninsula, Qaitbay sponsored the restoration of mosques and the construction of madrasas, fountains and hostels in Mecca and Medina. After a serious fire struck the Mosque of the Prophet (Al-Masjid al-Nabawi) in Medina in 1481, the building, including the Tomb of the Prophet, was extensively renewed through Qaitbay's patronage. Meinecke, ''Mamlukische Architektur'', II.396-442. * Calcutta Kolkata * Mecca Makkah * Gothenburg Göteborg : If I understand what you say correctly (which is that ''this issue is more about the main text references and less about the title''), I would still prefer the usage of Kolkata over Calcutta. It is not the question of discounting the whims of the governments, but analysing the impact that such renamings will have and the popularity of the new names among the local population. And of course, one needs to consider the mass appeal of the place. For example, Kolkata Calcutta attracts less international attention than Mecca Makkah every year. In which case,it is indeed in the interest of information, that the new names be used over the old ones, while reminding the reader that this is indeed the city that was formerly known as . The same may not be true of Mecca because of the renown of the latter - as a global pilgrimage spot, and the decision to rename the place may not find favour popularity among people who do visit the place every year. My point here may be prejudiced by the specific instance of Kolkata (as John (User:John Kenney) has observed in the comments section), as I think the continued reference to Calcutta in the main article, will only involve more and more people (perhaps unwittingly) trying to ''correct'' the reference - because from an Indian (Anglophone or otherwise) perspective, it sounds rather antiquated. Chancemill (User:Chancemill) 09:07, Apr 23, 2004 (UTC) ::That's exactly the main problem. Usually, locals have a big preference of the new name, and may fight tooth and nail for it (see Talk:Gdansk), whereas non-locals prefer what they are used to, also often vigorously stating their point. I am sure, people from Mecca have similar arguments why Makkah is the right name. The poll is an attempt to see what the majority wants. -- chris_73 (User:Chris 73) 09:45, 23 Apr 2004 (UTC) ::Funny you should say that Calcutta is antiquated from an Indian perspective, because I call it 'Calcutta', and so does everyone I know, except for exactly one person, and when he says 'Kolkata' he gets funny looks. Arvindn (User:Arvindn) 10:30, 23 Apr 2004 (UTC) His poems can be found in Hammad Ar-Rawiya's anthology, the ''Mu'allaqat'' ("the Suspended"), a collection of pre-Islamic poetry. He was one of the ''Seven Hanged Poets'' who were reputed to have been honoured by hanging copies of their work in the Kaaba at Mecca. He was Umar ibn Khattab's favourite poet. It was a pond or marsh formed by a spring in the wadi, located to the east of the road from Medina to Mecca, three (according to other sources two) Arab miles (roughly 4 to 6 km) from Al-Johfa (modern Rabigh), roughly 180 km from both Mecca and Medina, at ca.
control over the area. After this caliphate broke up, Yemen came under the control of many dynasties who ruled part, or often all, of South Arabia Mecca and most of Oman and even some parts of Gujarat in India during the rule of Queen Arwa al-Sulayhi Imams -- descendants of prophet Muhammad also known as sayyids -- ruled Yemen intermittently for 980 years, establishing a theocratic political structure that flourished and covered at its pinnacle all the area south
, Islamic caliphs began to exert control over the area. After this caliphate broke up, Yemen came under the control of many dynasties who ruled part, or often all, of South Arabia Mecca and most of Oman and even some parts of Gujarat in India during the rule of Queen Arwa al-Sulayhi Imams -- descendants of prophet Muhammad also known as sayyids -- ruled Yemen intermittently for 980 years, establishing a theocratic political structure that flourished and covered
in Marbella url http: www.thefirstpost.co.uk 66925,people,news,michelle-obama-avoids-adnan-khashoggi-and-mark-thatcher-in-marbella accessdate 2011-02-22 The family moved from the Iberian Peninsula and settled in Saudi Arabia. Adnan Khashoggi's sister Samira Khashoggi Fayed (Samira Kashoggi) married Mohammed Al-Fayed and was the mother of Dodi Fayed. Another sister, Soheir Khashoggi, is a well-known Arab writer
''Sheikh Sanan'' was written in 1909 in a form that was entirely opposite to the first. This time Hajibeyov employed a purely European style. ''Sheikh Sanan'' received raves as a musical composition, but the content was too progressive for the period. In this opera, Hajibeyov advocated that marriage should not be bound by nationality or religion - in essence, it was another form of integration. But this time, it backfired. The story line follows a religious sheikh on his way to Mecca who meets a very beautiful Georgian (Georgia (country)) lady. To his horror, the lovely creature's father turns out to be a swineherd, caring for what, to him, was a forbidden animal. In the end, the sheikh denounces his religion to win the woman. It is said that when the opera was performed, many people were offended and walked out, leaving Hajibeyov with the realization that he had outpaced his generation too much this time. As a result, he made a drastic decision and burned the score. When asked by Ramazan Khalilov, his assistant, how he could do that, Hajibeyov replied: "I didn't destroy my opera. It's my own creation so it's always in my head." Khalilov said that Hajibeyov went on to use this same magnificent music 27 years later to create, ''Koroghlu'' (The Opera of Koroglu), an opera that many acclaim to be his finest. "Composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov: 110 Jubilee" AZER.com, Vol 3.3 (Autumn 1995) "Why Uzeyir Hajibeyov wrote Koroghlu at Height of Stalin's Repressions" by Betty Blair, Azerbaijan International, Vol. 14:2 (Summer 2006), p. 61. In the 13th century, Arabs migrated to the shores of this lake in four boats after they were banished from Mecca for refusing to pay tributes to a new calif (Caliph). Streets with dilapidated masonry houses, once occupied by these Arabian Muslims, are still found in the area. Some remaining resident families claim records in Arabic testifying their migration to this area.
of the Saudi Arabian Defence Forces (Military of Saudi Arabia), due to its specific role as a counterbalance to the regular military. It serves both as defence force against external threats and as a security force against internal threats. Its duties include protecting the royal family, guarding against coups, protecting strategic facilities and resources, and protecting the Holy Places of Mecca and Medina. Initially, the teachings of Muslim Mosque, Inc. were similar to those
al-Ḥiǧāz '', literally "the barrier") is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. Defined primarily by its western border on the Red Sea, it extends from Haql on the Gulf of Aqaba to Jizan. Its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better known for the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina. As the site of Islam's holy places the Hejaz has significance in the Arab and Islamic historical and political landscape. The region is so
filming in Mecca but Warner Bros. initially refused to put up the money for location shooting. New Jersey was considered for filming the Mecca segments. In the end, Lee got money and permission together for filming in Mecca. The 1979 Revolution (Iranian Revolution) in Iran radically transformed the political landscape in the Middle East, as the hereditary monarchy of the Shah of Iran (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) was deposed in favor of a Shi'a theocracy. In the same year, anti-monarchist dissidents in Saudi Arabia seized the Grand Mosque (Grand Mosque Seizure) in Mecca, and accused the Saudi royal family of being insufficiently Islamic and so unfit to rule the Kingdom. Fearing that the 1979 Revolution in Iran could lead to similar Islamic upheaval in Saudi Arabia, Fahd spent considerable sums after ascending the throne in 1982 to support Saddam Hussein's Iraq in its war with Iran. Obituary: King Fahd, ''BBC News'', 1 August 2005. Retrieved 10 June 2008. He also changed his royal title to "custodian of the two holy mosques" (Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques), and took steps to support the conservative Saudi religious establishment, including spending millions of dollars on religious education, further distancing himself from his inconvenient past. Wood, Paul. Life and legacy of King Fahd, ''BBC News'', 1 August 2005. Retrieved 10 June 2008. Representation of some genuine experience Even in that part of the book which might be supposed to represent some genuine experience there are the plainest traces that another work has been made use of, more or less - we might almost say as a framework to fill up. This is the itinerary of the German knight Wilhelm von Boldensele, written in 1336 at the desire of Cardinal Hélie de Talleyrand-Périgord (Hélie de Talleyrand-Périgord, Bishop of Auxerre). A cursory comparison of this with Mandeville leaves no doubt that the latter has followed its thread, though digressing on every side, and too often eliminating the singular good sense of the German traveller. We may indicate as examples Boidensele's account of Cyprus, of Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) and the coast of Palestine, of the journey from Gaza to Egypt, passages about Babylon of Egypt (Babylon Fortress), about Mecca, the general account of Egypt, the pyramids (Giza pyramid complex), some of the wonders of Cairo, such as the slave-market, the chicken-hatching stoves, and the apples of paradise, i.e. plantains, the Red Sea, the convent on Sinai (Sinai Peninsula), the account of the church of the Holy Sepulchre, etc. * 620: Muhammad's night journey (Isra and Mi'raj to Jerusalem (Islamic sources) * 624: Jerusalem loses its place as the Qibla (focal point for Muslim prayers) to Mecca, 18 months after the Hijra (Hijra (Islam)) (Muhammad's migration to Medina) * c.625: According to Sahih al-Bukhari, Muhammad ordained the Al-Aqsa Mosque as one of the three holy mosques of Islam Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 21, Number 281: "Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e. Al-Masjid-AI-Haram, the Mosque of Allah's Apostle, and the Mosque of Al-Aqsa, (Mosque of Jerusalem)." * Embattled energy tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky has quit as CEO of Yukos. War on Terrorism : Saudi Arabian authorities have broken up, for the second time, a militant ring in Mecca amid a wide crackdown on Islamic extremists (Islamism). The police combated militants in the streets of the holy city of Mecca, killing two of the suspects and uncovering a large cache of weapons. The raid on two buildings in Mecca's al-Share'a neighborhood foiled a terrorist (terrorism) operation "that did not respect the sanctity of holy places and the month of Ramadan". Paul Bremer says that attacks on coalition forces in Iraq will get worse unless intelligence improves; he says several hundred terrorists have entered Iraq from neighbouring countries. Security officials in Saudi Arabia order 4600 extra troops into Mecca to provide increased security during Ramadan, saying that additional attacks could occur at any moment. Questions surround Yasser Arafat after further allegations about money moved out of the West Bank to secret bank accounts. highly publicized cases of deadly panic occurred during massive public events. The layout of Mecca was extensively redesigned by Saudi authorities in an attempt to eliminate frequent stampedes, which kill an average of 250 pilgrims every year.
; and new structures within the Citadel, which was now surrounded by groves of shrubs and flowers from Syria. The revenues were also largely devoted to the beautifying of Mecca, and increasing the supply of water at the Holy shrines and on the Pilgrim routes. But what surpassed all else was the brilliancy of the Court of him who but yesterday had been purchased from the Slave-dealer. It was maintained in the utmost luxury and pomp of equipage, stud, and all surroundings. Fine
gold was used, not merely at the royal table, but throughout the Palace down (we are told) to the very kitchen. The Sultan's own dress and toilet were adorned with all that was costly, grand and beautiful; while poets, singers, musicians and story-tellers flocked to the Court, and flourished on the portions of the orphan and the poor. There is not much of importance to tell of the earlier years of this reign. The outrages of the royal Mamluks must have become intolerable, for twice while
in asceticism while agreeing to sweep the religious school for its keeper who provided him a room to live in. He married the keeper's daughter that year who was later to accompany him to Sabzavar. At this time, no one knew his real identity and degree of knowledge. woman who led military resistance to prevent the Ottoman recapture of Mecca. She was from
'''Mecca''' Rarely, Bakkah. ( above sea level. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the ''hajj'' ("pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of ''Dhu al-Hijjah''.
As the birthplace of Muhammad and the site of Muhammad's first revelation (revelation) of the Quran (specifically, a Hira cave