Mecca

What is Mecca known for?


based world

arts administrator, with many sex scenes and an approving attitude towards prostitution and sex tourism. The novel's depiction of life and its explicit criticism of Islam, together with an interview its author gave to the magazine ''Lire'', led to accusations against Houellebecq by several organisations, including France's Human Rights League (Human Rights League (France)), the Mecca-based World Islamic League and the mosques of Paris and Lyon. Charges were brought


political landscape

al-Ḥiǧāz '', literally "the barrier") is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. Defined primarily by its western border on the Red Sea, it extends from Haql on the Gulf of Aqaba to Jizan. Its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better known for the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina. As the site of Islam's holy places the Hejaz has significance in the Arab and Islamic historical and political landscape. The region is so

filming in Mecca but Warner Bros. initially refused to put up the money for location shooting. New Jersey was considered for filming the Mecca segments. In the end, Lee got money and permission together for filming in Mecca. The 1979 Revolution (Iranian Revolution) in Iran radically transformed the political landscape in the Middle East, as the hereditary monarchy of the Shah of Iran (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) was deposed in favor of a Shi'a theocracy. In the same year, anti-monarchist dissidents in Saudi Arabia seized the Grand Mosque (Grand Mosque Seizure) in Mecca, and accused the Saudi royal family of being insufficiently Islamic and so unfit to rule the Kingdom. Fearing that the 1979 Revolution in Iran could lead to similar Islamic upheaval in Saudi Arabia, Fahd spent considerable sums after ascending the throne in 1982 to support Saddam Hussein's Iraq in its war with Iran. Obituary: King Fahd, ''BBC News'', 1 August 2005. Retrieved 10 June 2008. He also changed his royal title to "custodian of the two holy mosques" (Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques), and took steps to support the conservative Saudi religious establishment, including spending millions of dollars on religious education, further distancing himself from his inconvenient past. Wood, Paul. Life and legacy of King Fahd, ''BBC News'', 1 August 2005. Retrieved 10 June 2008. Representation of some genuine experience Even in that part of the book which might be supposed to represent some genuine experience there are the plainest traces that another work has been made use of, more or less - we might almost say as a framework to fill up. This is the itinerary of the German knight Wilhelm von Boldensele, written in 1336 at the desire of Cardinal Hélie de Talleyrand-Périgord (Hélie de Talleyrand-Périgord, Bishop of Auxerre). A cursory comparison of this with Mandeville leaves no doubt that the latter has followed its thread, though digressing on every side, and too often eliminating the singular good sense of the German traveller. We may indicate as examples Boidensele's account of Cyprus, of Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) and the coast of Palestine, of the journey from Gaza to Egypt, passages about Babylon of Egypt (Babylon Fortress), about Mecca, the general account of Egypt, the pyramids (Giza pyramid complex), some of the wonders of Cairo, such as the slave-market, the chicken-hatching stoves, and the apples of paradise, i.e. plantains, the Red Sea, the convent on Sinai (Sinai Peninsula), the account of the church of the Holy Sepulchre, etc. * 620: Muhammad's night journey (Isra and Mi'raj to Jerusalem (Islamic sources) * 624: Jerusalem loses its place as the Qibla (focal point for Muslim prayers) to Mecca, 18 months after the Hijra (Hijra (Islam)) (Muhammad's migration to Medina) * c.625: According to Sahih al-Bukhari, Muhammad ordained the Al-Aqsa Mosque as one of the three holy mosques of Islam Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 21, Number 281: "Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e. Al-Masjid-AI-Haram, the Mosque of Allah's Apostle, and the Mosque of Al-Aqsa, (Mosque of Jerusalem)." * Embattled energy tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky has quit as CEO of Yukos. War on Terrorism : Saudi Arabian authorities have broken up, for the second time, a militant ring in Mecca amid a wide crackdown on Islamic extremists (Islamism). The police combated militants in the streets of the holy city of Mecca, killing two of the suspects and uncovering a large cache of weapons. The raid on two buildings in Mecca's al-Share'a neighborhood foiled a terrorist (terrorism) operation "that did not respect the sanctity of holy places and the month of Ramadan". Paul Bremer says that attacks on coalition forces in Iraq will get worse unless intelligence improves; he says several hundred terrorists have entered Iraq from neighbouring countries. Security officials in Saudi Arabia order 4600 extra troops into Mecca to provide increased security during Ramadan, saying that additional attacks could occur at any moment. Questions surround Yasser Arafat after further allegations about money moved out of the West Bank to secret bank accounts. highly publicized cases of deadly panic occurred during massive public events. The layout of Mecca was extensively redesigned by Saudi authorities in an attempt to eliminate frequent stampedes, which kill an average of 250 pilgrims every year.


excellent modern

by an Islamic center. Usually your mosque will be able to arrange this or at least point the way. By plane Jeddah is the gateway to Mecca. The Hajj Terminal at '''King Abdulaziz International Airport''' ( ), used only for the Hajj, is served mostly by charter flights, although there are some scheduled services. During Umrah, scheduled services use the airport's other terminals. By car There is an excellent modern multi-lane highway from Jeddah. During the Hajj


religious social

important historical sites both in terms of the history of Islam and the history of West Africa. Despite tensions in the Middle East, North Africa, and Nigeria since the mid-1970s, Ghanaian Muslims and Christians have had excellent relations. Guided by the authority of the Muslim Representative Council, religious, social, and economic matters affecting Muslims have often been redressed through negotiations. The Muslim Council has also been responsible for arranging pilgrimages


characteristic voice

Arabia , and the "Islamic Personality Of the Year" 2005. He is known world wide primarily for his characteristic voice and for his emotional recitation of the Quran in accordance with Tajweed. http: www.assabile.com Saudi-Arabia abdul-rahman-al-sudais abdul-rahman-al-sudais-12.htm


religious+title

possible level of understanding attainable by a Muslim. In particular, it refers to the illuminative, mystical sort of wisdom that a Gnostic or Sufi might accomplish. ;Maulvi (مولوی) : an honorific Islamic religious title often, but not exclusively, given to Muslim religious scholars or Ulema preceding their names. Maulvi generally means any religious cleric or teacher. ;Mecca (مكّة ''Makkah'') : the holiest city in Islam ;Medina (مدينة ''Madīnah'') : "city"; Medinat-un-Nabi means "the City of the Prophet." See Hijra (Islam). In 2000, Houellebecq published the short fiction ''Lanzarote (Lanzarote (novel))'' (published in France with a volume of his photographs), in which he develops a number of the themes he would explore in later novels, including fringe religions and cult leaders. His subsequent novel, ''Plateforme (Platform (novel))'' (2001), earned him a wider reputation. It is a romance told mostly in the first-person by a 40 year-old male arts administrator, with many sex scenes and an approving attitude towards prostitution and sex tourism. The novel's depiction of life and its explicit criticism of Islam, together with an interview its author gave to the magazine ''Lire'', led to accusations against Houellebecq by several organisations, including France's Human Rights League (Human Rights League (France)), the Mecca-based World Islamic League and the mosques of Paris and Lyon. Charges were brought to trial, but a panel of three judges, delivering their verdict to a packed Paris courtroom, acquitted the author of having provoked 'racial' hatred, ascribing Houellebecq's opinions to the legitimate right of criticizing religions. thumb right A Muslim cemetery in Sahara, all graves point across the desert towards Mecca (File:Desert Cemetery Merzouga.jpg) Burials may be placed in a number of different positions. Christian (Christianity) burials are made '''extended''', i.e., lying flat with arms and legs straight, or with the arms folded upon the chest, and with the eye (Human eye)s and mouth closed. Extended burials may be '''supine''' (lying on the back) or '''prone''' (lying on the front). However, in some cultures, being buried face down shows marked disrespect. Other ritual practices place the body in a '''flexed''' position with the legs bent or '''crouched''' with the legs folded up to the chest. Warriors in some ancient societies were buried in an '''upright''' position. In Islam, the head is pointed toward and the face is turned toward Mecca, the holiest city in Islam. Many cultures treat placement of dead people in an appropriate position to be a sign of respect even when burial is impossible. In popular culture Bahiyyih Nakhjavani’s first novel ''The Saddlebag – A Fable for Doubters and Seekers'' describes events set in the Najd plateau along the pilgrim (Hajj) route between Mecca and Medina in 1844–1845. Cheras The early political history of the Thrissur and Thrissur District is interlinked with that of the Chera Dynasty of the Sangam age (Sangam period), who ruled over vast portions of Kerala with their capital at Vanchi (Vanchi Muthur). Kodungallur was also the capital of Cheraman Perumal, the last Chera (Chera dynasty) ruler in the 7th century A.D. The legend is that he abdicated his throne and divided his kingdom among the local chieftains and left for Mecca to embrace Islam. This place was later ruled by the Kingdom of Cochin (Perumpadapu Swaroopam). During the time of the Chera ruler, Kodungallur was an important trade link in Indian Ancient Maritime History. Burckhardt temporarily abandoned this goal to travel up the Nile as far as Dar Mahass; and then, finding it impossible to penetrate westward, he made a journey through the Nubian desert in the character of a poor Syrian merchant, passing by Berber (Berber, Sudan) and Shendi to Suakin, on the Red Sea, whence he performed the pilgrimage to Mecca by way of Jidda. At Mecca he stayed three months and afterwards visited Medina. Soon after his conquest of Kuwait, Hussein began verbally attacking the Saudi kingdom. He argued that the U.S.-supported Saudi state was an illegitimate and unworthy guardian of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. He combined the language of the Islamist groups that had recently fought in Afghanistan with the rhetoric Iran had long used to attack the Saudis. Gilles Kepel ''Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam.'' Islam It is considered to be incumbent upon sufficiently wealthy Muslims to sacrifice a large mammal during ''Eid ul-Adha'' (the Festival of Sacrifice), which falls during the period of ''Hajj'' (pilgrimage to Mecca). Typically, a sheep or goat is sacrificed, although some sacrifice cattle or a camel instead. The meat is usually given as charity to the poor, in commemoration of the Sacrifice of Ismail (Binding of Isaac#Muslim responses), in which God (Allah) tested the faith of Abraham (Islamic view of Abraham) (Ibrahim) by ordering him to sacrifice his son Ishmael (Ismail#Islam) (Ismail). Over 100 million animals are slaughtered annually during Eid ul-Adha across the Islamic world within a 48 hour period.


business including

. After attending high school in Beirut, Lebanon, Bin Ladin studied economics at Göteborg University, Sweden, and business administration at USC (University of Southern California). On February 25, 2005, he was granted permission by the Swiss government to use the name bin Ladin to brand products for his business including a perfume for men and women dubbed "Yeslam," and a second one for women "Passion," and other


good sense

Talleyrand-Périgord . A cursory comparison of this with Mandeville leaves no doubt that the latter has followed its thread, though digressing on every side, and too often eliminating the singular good sense of the German traveller. We may indicate as examples Boidensele's account of Cyprus, of Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) and the coast of Palestine, of the journey from Gaza to Egypt, passages about Babylon of Egypt (Babylon Fortress), about Mecca, the general account of Egypt, the pyramids (Giza pyramid complex), some of the wonders of Cairo, such as the slave-market, the chicken-hatching stoves, and the apples of paradise, i.e. plantains, the Red Sea, the convent on Sinai (Sinai Peninsula), the account of the church of the Holy Sepulchre, etc. * 620: Muhammad's night journey (Isra and Mi'raj to Jerusalem (Islamic sources) * 624: Jerusalem loses its place as the Qibla (focal point for Muslim prayers) to Mecca, 18 months after the Hijra (Hijra (Islam)) (Muhammad's migration to Medina) * c.625: According to Sahih al-Bukhari, Muhammad ordained the Al-Aqsa Mosque as one of the three holy mosques of Islam Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 21, Number 281: "Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e. Al-Masjid-AI-Haram, the Mosque of Allah's Apostle, and the Mosque of Al-Aqsa, (Mosque of Jerusalem)." * Embattled energy tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky has quit as CEO of Yukos. War on Terrorism : Saudi Arabian authorities have broken up, for the second time, a militant ring in Mecca amid a wide crackdown on Islamic extremists (Islamism). The police combated militants in the streets of the holy city of Mecca, killing two of the suspects and uncovering a large cache of weapons. The raid on two buildings in Mecca's al-Share'a neighborhood foiled a terrorist (terrorism) operation "that did not respect the sanctity of holy places and the month of Ramadan". Paul Bremer says that attacks on coalition forces in Iraq will get worse unless intelligence improves; he says several hundred terrorists have entered Iraq from neighbouring countries. Security officials in Saudi Arabia order 4600 extra troops into Mecca to provide increased security during Ramadan, saying that additional attacks could occur at any moment. Questions surround Yasser Arafat after further allegations about money moved out of the West Bank to secret bank accounts. highly publicized cases of deadly panic occurred during massive public events. The layout of Mecca was extensively redesigned by Saudi authorities in an attempt to eliminate frequent stampedes, which kill an average of 250 pilgrims every year.


ancient+community

; ref tribal politics, and Mohammad's deep frustration at Jewish refusals to accept his prophethood, According to Reuven Firestone, Muhammad expected the Jews of Medina to accept his prophethood since Jews were respected by Arabs as ‘a wise and ancient community of monotheists with a long prophetic tradition’. This rejection was a major blow to his authority in Medina, and relations soon deteriorated. Reuven Firestone,''An introduction to Islam for Jews'', p.33 quickly


violent culture

was in the eighth century mosque of Medina). Views On Radical Islam In Palazzi's view, Islam has been "hijacked" by the Wahabi movement in Saudi Arabia, a radical reformist movement which denies the moderate understanding of the Koran and has taken control of Mecca and Medina. He says that Oil money made a primitive and violent culture powerful on a global scale. And now, "they are reshaping Islam in accordance with their political issues." He said "unless an urgent change of regime is realized in Saudi Arabia, winning the war against terror is totally impossible. One cannot win a war without attacking the headquarters of the enemy." It was first held in 2001, but the name was used as early as 1995. Uppsala Reggae Festival attracts attendees of all ages from all over northern Europe. In connection with the 2001 festival, Uppsala was given the epithet "The Reggae Mecca of Scandinavia" by the Swedish National TV4 (TV4 (Sweden)), on the grounds that the festival then was the only festival in Scandinavia specifically dedicated to reggae. The third Uppsala Reggae Festival was awarded that year's cultural award by Swedish National Radio Broadcasting, and the fourth festival featured the largest reggae lineup ever to play in Scandinavia. Since 2002, the festival has been held in August each year in Uppsala, 70 km north of Stockholm. Both in 2004 and 2005, the festival had approximately 10,000 attendees. It started as a one-day festival, but has since expanded to two, then three days. Conversion to Islam Born as Chauncey Lamont Hawkins changed his name to '''Amir Junaid Muhadith''' after converting to Islam. He recently traveled to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest site of Islam, http: www.youtube.com watch?v jZFueqQnops to perform Umrah. He has since ended his career from rap, and right now is focusing on seeking knowledge and giving Da'wa. On May 26, 2010, he traveled to Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada and spoke about his life and why he converted to Islam . http: www.youtube.com watch?v qhLWOXKlHys On November 22, 2011, he was arrested when he arrived in the Brussels Airport and sent to jail in Vorst. The Belgian Police said he will extradited to the US because of a crime he might have committed in the US before his conversion to Islam. http: www.rtl.be info belgique faitsdivers 839401 le-rappeur-americain-loon-incarcere-a-la-prison-de-forest In 622, the Islamic prophet Muhammad arrived at Yathrib from Mecca and reportedly established a compact (Constitution of Medina) between the conflicting parties. Alford Welch, ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'', "Muhammad". While the city found itself at war with Muhammad's native Meccan tribe of the Quraysh (Quraysh (tribe)), tensions between the growing numbers of Muslims and the Jewish communities mounted. Account of the king of Himyar Ibn Ishaq tells of a conflict between the last Yemenite King of Himyar Muslim sources usually referred to Himyar kings by the dynastic title of "Tubba". and the residents of Yathrib. When the king was passing by the oasis, the residents killed his son, and the Yemenite ruler threatened to exterminate the people and cut down the palms. According to Ibn Ishaq, he was stopped from doing so by two rabbis from the Banu Qurayza, who implored the king to spare the oasis because it was the place "to which a prophet of the Quraysh (Quraysh (tribe)) would migrate in time to come, and it would be his home and resting-place". The Yemenite king thus did not destroy the town and converted to Judaism. He took the rabbis with him, and in Mecca, they reportedly recognized Kaaba as a temple built by Abraham and advised the king "to do what the people of Mecca did: to circumambulate the temple, to venerate and honor it, to shave his head and to behave with all humility until he had left its precincts." On approaching Yemen, tells Ibn Ishaq, the rabbis demonstrated to the local people a miracle by coming out of a fire unscathed and the Yemenites accepted Judaism. Peters, ''Muhammad and the Origins of Islam'', p. 49f. Protection The Saudi Government has not improved its efforts to protect victims of trafficking but continues to operate three shelters (Women's shelter) for abused female expatriate workers in Riyadh, Jeddah, and Dammam. It also operates facilities for abandoned children, including trafficking victims, in Jeddah, Mecca, and Medina. However, the government does not provide shelter to adult male workers. There are no NGOs (Non-governmental organization) working with trafficking victims. The government mediates disputes and alleged abuses of foreign workers — including complaints of a criminal nature — and seeks to return victims to their home countries without adequately investigating and prosecuting crimes committed against them. Wolfe's first works on Islam were a pair of books from Grove Press on the pilgrimage to Mecca: ''The Hadj'' (1993), http: www.groveatlantic.com a first-person travel account, and ''One Thousand Roads to Mecca'' (1997), an anthology of 10 centuries of travelers writing about the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca. Shortly after 11 September 2001 (September 11 attacks), he edited a collection of essays by American Muslims (Islam in the United States) called ''Taking Back Islam: American Muslims Reclaim Their Faith''. http: www.rodalestore.com webapp wcs stores servlet ProductDisplay?catalogId 10002&storeId 10051&productId 14942&langId -1&nav_wt search ''Taking Back Islam'' won the 2003 annual Wilbur Award for "Best Book of the year on a Religious Theme". http: 72.14.209.104 search?q cache:L--iG-xEI_IJ:www.zaytuna.org seasonsjournal writer.cfm%3Fauthor_id%3D37+Wilbur+Award+%2B+Michael+Wolfe&hl en&ct clnk&cd 7&gl us&client firefox-a In 2010, Blue Press Books published a chapbook of poems by Wolfe entitled ''Paradise: Reading Notes''. He recently completed a fourth volume of poetry, entitled '' Digging Up Russia: Selected Poems, 1968-2010''. He left his hometown to travel the Islamic world (Muslim world) visiting Iraq, Makkah (Mecca), the Levant and Egypt. He studied under Abū Bakr ibn Abī Shaybah (through whom came over a quarter of ''al-Sunan''), Muḥammad ibn ʻAbdillāh ibn Numayr, Jubārah ibn al-Mughallis, Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mundhir al-Ḥizāmī, ʻAbdullāh ibn Muʻāwiyah, Hishām ibn ʻAmmār, Muḥammad ibn Rumḥ, Dāwūd ibn Rashīd and others from their era. Abū Yaʻlā al-Khalīlī praised Ibn Mājah as "reliable (''thiqah''), prominent, agreed upon, a religious authority, possessing knowledge and the capability to memorize."

Mecca

'''Mecca''' Rarely, Bakkah. ( above sea level. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the ''hajj'' ("pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of ''Dhu al-Hijjah''.

As the birthplace of Muhammad and the site of Muhammad's first revelation (revelation) of the Quran (specifically, a Hira cave

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