Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 (5pp) doi:10.1088 1748-9326 1 1 014005 and an area covering the confluence of Mauritania, Mali, and Algeria.size LARGE&origin JSTOR-enlargePage Saharan Dust: Sources and Trajectories N. J. Middleton, A. S. Goudie Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 26, No. 2 (2001), pp. 165-181 ref>
the subservient znaga tribes. A middle caste was formed by the Zawiya, or scholarly tribes, who provided religious (religion) teaching and services. This did not necessarily mean that they maintained a monastery or school as described above, since all these tribes were more or less nomadic. However, important shaykhs would sometimes create schools, or, after their deaths, their graves (Grave (burial)) would turn into holy places of significance to the tribe. * '''Mali''': see Rail
something at an inflated price. They will try many tricks to get you to buy items from them (including "giving them to you as a gift"), and a few might even accuse you of not liking Africans if you decline to look at their souvenir shop. If someone is going beyond the normal limits to bother you, it is not impolite to tell them, without question, that you are not interested. If they ask for something that you own, just say that you need it right now, and can give it to them in a month or so. Connect There are three operators of GSM networks: Mattel (excellent English website), Mauritel Mobiles and Chinguitel. Prepaid plans are available for three of them. Further Information regarding Coverage and Roaming are available from GSM-World. For tours into the desert where no GSM-Network is available satellite phones are a good solution. Service providers include Thuraya, Iridium and Inmarsat. Thuraya tends to be the cheapest and the easiest to use. The equipment is also available for rent. Internet cafés with DSL internet can be found in Nouakchott and Nouadhibou for MRO200-300 h. Slower connections plague "cybercafés" elsewhere in the country, but it's possible to check emails. Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania
Frankfurter+L%C3%B6wen+American+football&source bl&ots 7rL1LJ4igs&sig lIzYV5fdtiVJ2ojH0MboAADDt28&hl en&ei iZktTZqQPIHEvQOWyemOCQ&sa X&oi book_result&ct result&resnum 8&ved 0CEUQ6AEwBw#v onepage&q&f false Google book review: Turnen and sport: transatlantic transfers author: Annette R. Hofmann, accessed: 12 January 2010 * August 5 – The Polisario Front signs a peace treaty with Mauritania. Mauritania withdraw from
Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania
New Guinea , the Philippines, Rwanda, Samoa, Sudan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vanuatu and Vietnam, who had not participated in the Atlanta Games, competed in Sydney. "Still growing: Paralympics world's second-largest sporting event", ''Sports Illustrated'', 20 September 2000 * 2008 - Tibetian unrest (2008 unrest in Tibet), Mar. 10 - June. ( Tibet, China
of Ancient Egypt publisher Oxford University Press year 2002 location Oxford, England page 61 isbn 0-500-05074-0 They also imported obsidian from Ethiopia (History of Ethiopia) to shape blades and other objects. Barbara G. Aston, James A. Harrell, Ian Shaw (2000). Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw editors. "Stone", in ''Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology'', Cambridge, 5-77, pp. 46-47. Also note: Barbara G. Aston (1994). "Ancient Egyptian
calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize (Arabization) many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. A schism (schism (religion)) developed between Moors who consider Mauritania to be an Arab country and others who seek a dominant role for the non-Moorish peoples. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity being suggested, but none successfully implemented. This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out
appeared to have secured his position and to have gained widespread international and internal support. Some figures, such as Senate chairman Messaoud Ould Boulkheir, continued to refuse the new order and call for Abdel Aziz's resignation. In February 2011, the waves of the Arab Spring spread to Mauritania (2011–2013 Mauritanian protests), where hundreds of people took to the streets of the capital.
Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 (5pp) doi:10.1088 1748-9326 1 1 014005 and an area covering the confluence of Mauritania, Mali, and Algeria.LARGE&origin JSTOR-enlargePage Saharan Dust: Sources and Trajectories N. J. Middleton, A. S. Goudie Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 26, No. 2 (2001), pp. 165-181 ref>
protests Bahrain , Iraq (2011 Iraqi protests), Mauritania, Pakistan, and Syria (2011 Syrian Uprising), – as well as elsewhere in the wider North Africa and Middle East. Wedged between Algeria and Libya, Tunisia has sought to maintain good
. A practical effect was government seizure of traditional communal grazing lands. Mauritania's Campaign of Terror, pp. 42, 60 Political parties (List of political parties in Mauritania), illegal during the military period, were legalized again in 1991. By April 1992, as civilian rule returned, 16 major political parties had been recognized; 12 major political parties were active in 2004. The ''Parti Républicain Démocratique et Social'' (PRDS), formerly led by President
common_name Mauritania image_flag Flag of Mauritania.svg image_coat Coat of arms of Mauritania.svg image_map Location Mauritania AU Africa.svg map_caption symbol_type Seal national_motto national_anthem نشيد وطني موريتاني File:National Anthem of Mauritania by US Navy Band.ogg official_languages Arabic (Arabic language) a national_languages languages_type Other languages languages French (French language) Zenaga Berber (Zenaga language) official_religion Sunni Islam demonym Mauritanian (Demographics of Mauritania) capital Nouakchott religion Islam (Islam in Mauritania) latd 18 latm 09 latNS N longd 15 longm 58 longEW W largest_city capital government_type Semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic b leader_title1 President (List of heads of state of Mauritania) leader_name1 Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz leader_title2 Prime Minister (List of heads of government of Mauritania) leader_name2 Yahya Ould Hademine legislature Parliament (Parliament of Mauritania) upper_house Senate (Senate (Mauritania)) lower_house National Assembly (National Assembly (Mauritania)) sovereignty_type Independence established_event1 from France (French colonial empire) established_date1 28 November 1960 established_event2 Current Constitution of Mauritania established_date2 12 July 1991 area_rank 29th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,030,700 area_sq_mi 397,954 percent_water 0.03 population_estimate 3,359,185 population_estimate_year 2012 population_estimate_rank population_census 3,537,368 population_census_year 2013 population_density_km2 3.2 population_density_sq_mi 8.2 population_density_rank 221st GDP_PPP_year 2013 GDP_PPP $8.286 billion GDP_PPP_rank 154th GDP_PPP_per_capita $2,230 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank 160th GDP_nominal $4.547 billion GDP_nominal_year 2013 GDP_nominal_rank 154th GDP_nominal_per_capita $1,224 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank 149th Gini_year 2008 Gini_change Gini 40.5 Gini_ref Gini_rank HDI_year 2013 HDI_change decrease HDI 0.487 HDI_ref HDI_rank 161st currency Ouguiya (Mauritanian ouguiya) currency_code MRO country_code MR time_zone utc_offset +0 time_zone_DST not observed utc_offset_DST +0 drives_on right calling_code +222 cctld .mr footnote_a According to Article 6 of the Constitution: "The national languages are Arabic, Pulaar (Pulaar language), Soninke (Soninke language), and Wolof (Wolof language); the official language is Arabic." footnote_b Not recognized internationally (see main article).
'''Mauritania''' ; Soninke (Soninke language): ''Murutaane''; Pulaar (Pulaar language): ''Moritani''), officially the '''Islamic Republic of Mauritania''', is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa. Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East (2009), p. 448, books.google.com books?ISBN 143812676X-"The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, situated in western North Africa..." David Seddon, ''A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East'' (2004), "We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly Arabic-speaking countries of western North Africa (the Maghreb), including Mauritania (which is a member of the Arab Maghreb Union)..." Mohamed Branine, ''Managing Across Cultures: Concepts, Policies and Practices'' (2011), p. 437, "The Magrebian countries or the Arab countries of western North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia)..." It is the eleventh largest country in Africa, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, by Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest.
The country derives its name from the ancient Berber Kingdom of Mauretania (Mauretania), which existed from the 3rd century BC to the 7th century AD, in the far north of modern-day Morocco. Approximately 90% of Mauritania's land is within the Sahara Desert and consequently the population is concentrated in the south, where precipitation is slightly higher than the rest of the country. The capital and largest city of Mauritania is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, which is home to around one-third of the country's 3.5 million people. The government of Mauritania was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup d'état (2008 Mauritanian coup d'état) led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 April 2009, General Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won.
About 20% of Mauritanians live on less than US$1.25 per day. Higher estimates suggest 10% to 20% of the population (340,000 to 680,000 people) is enslaved. Additional human rights concerns in Mauritania include female genital mutilation and child labour.