from the Gulf (Persian Gulf) are involved in large-scale projects in Morocco, including the giant Tanger Med port on the Mediterranean. Morocco remains the preferred destination of foreign investors in the Maghreb region (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia), with a total of $13.6 billion between 2001 and 2007, which puts it largely on the top of the list. thumb 250px right Casablanca Twin Center (File:Casablanca Twin Center.jpg). While the Moroccan
name LeHeron2009A - '''''Mad Pigeon''''' is an international series of short films created and directed by Julien Vergne. These brief (usually 2 min, but up to 6 min) and humorous films do not use any specific language: every actor must talk what he thinks to be Danish (no real Danish-speaking actor has ever played in a Mad Pigeon film yet). They are conceived with a universal spirit and are therefore understandable to anybody in the world. The first films were written and played with local authors and actors in Mauritania, Senegal, in the UK (United Kingdom) and in France. The first films were broadcast for the first time in 2005 in Senegal on RTS2S channel, then in 2006 and 2007 on Canal Plus (France). The Mad Pigeon films were selected at the prestigious Fespaco 2005, the biggest African cinema festival. Previously, from 1983 to 1989, Gerhard Pfanzelter had served as Austria's Ambassador to Senegal, Gambia, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Guinea and Mauritania. He then became the Ambassador to Syria for a four-year term, ending in 1993, when he became the Head of the Department for International Organizations of the Austrian Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Sahelian Acacia savanna Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Sudan, Sudan - Saharan halophytics Algeria, Egypt, Mauritania, Tunisia, Western Sahara - Atlantic coastal desert Mauritania, Western Sahara - Sahara desert (Sahara Desert (ecoregion)) Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan - South Saharan steppe and woodlands Algeria, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan - West Saharan montane xeric woodlands Algeria, Mali, Mauritania, Niger Between 2001 and 2009 Essakane was the site of an annual music festival held in January called the Festival au Désert (Festival in the Desert). Because of the difficulty of guaranteeing the security of foreign tourists, in 2010 and 2011 the Malian Government moved the festival to the outskirts of Timbuktu. Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania
the proposed referendum and took its case to the International Court of Justice at The Hague, which ruled that despite historical “ties of allegiance” between Morocco and the tribes of Western Sahara, there was no legal justification for departing from the UN position on self-determination. Spain, meanwhile, had declared that even in the absence of a referendum, it intended to surrender political control of Western Sahara, and Spain, Morocco, and Mauritania convened a Madrid Accords
the Spanish Government's decision (Madrid Accords) to hand over the territory to Morocco and Mauritania towards the end of 1975, numbers of them deserted. Many of the Tropas Nómadas soldiers are believed to have joined Polisario and Spanish-trained fighters formed the core of the Sahrawi People's Liberation Army (Polisario Front#Armed forces (SPLA)) set up to fight Morocco and Mauritania after the Green March. * Morocco invoked historical ties between its King of Morocco
(1948) – activist, scholar, co-founder of the Institute for Policy Studies History of Sahel Kingdoms *The first major state to rise in this region was the Kingdom of Ghana. Established between 2500 BCE to 2000 BCE, Ghana was centered in what is today Senegal and Mauritania, it was the first to benefit from the introduction of pack animals by Arab traders. Ghana dominated the region between about 750 and 1078. Smaller states in the region at this time included Takrur
, French (French language), Spanish (Spanish language), Russian (Russian language), Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin Chinese) and Esperanto. Two covers are available: "World Passport," and "World Government Passport" (for registered World Citizens), ("passport" is in 7 languages on both covers). Duration is 8 years, 5 years or 3 years. Other documents issued by WSA are a World Birth Certificate (Art. 1, UDHR), a World Political Asylum Card (Art. 14, UDHR
name "OTAL" The trawlers operating in the area are 30–45 m long and are able to land 55-65 tonnes of fish (usually redfish and club and scad mackerel) per fishing trip. The tuna vessels range from smaller boats around 45–50 m in length, able to land 200-250 tonnes of catch, to larger versions with a length of 50–65 m and the ability to land up to 650 tonnes per fishing trip. The largest fishing vessels, the deep-sea carriers (with lengths of 90–105 m), are mostly chartered vessels which land between 700-1,400 tonnes of imported fish, mostly from Mauritania and Namibia. Since 1984, the national catch has averaged about 200,000 to 300,000 metric tonnes per annum. Ghana's tuna catch has maintained a stable level of 30,000 tonnes per annum since 1981. Abdallah ibn Yasin was from the tribe of the Jazulah (''pronounced Guezula''), a Sanhaja sub-tribe from the Sous. He was a Maliki theologian, he was a disciple of Waggag ibn Zallu al-Lamti and studied in his Ribat, "Dar al-Murabitin" which was located in the village of Aglu, (near present-day Tiznit). In 1046 the Gudala chief Yahya Ibn Ibrahim, came to the Ribat asking for someone to promulgate Islmaic religious teachings amongst the Berber (Berber people) of the Adrar (present-day Mauritania) and Waggag ibn Zallu chose to send Abdallah ibn Yasin with him. The Sanhaja were at this stage only superficially Islamicised and still clung to many heathen practices, and so Ibn Yasin preached to them an orthodox Sunnism. Alone among Mali's many northern rebel groups, the FIAA drew its members mainly from north-west Mali's Hassani (Hassaniyya) Arab minority, which is closely related by tribal ties (tribe), dialect and culture to the Moorish population of Mauritania and the Sahrawis (Sahrawi people) of Western Sahara, Algeria and Morocco. Most other rebel groups in Mali's civil war (First_Tuareg_Rebellion#Mali_Civil_War.2C_1990-1996) were dominated by the north's larger population of Tuareg (Taureg people). On January 6, 1991, the MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Azawad) and FIAA signed the Algeria-backed Tamanrasset Accords with the government of Mali. The accord, however, failed to prevent further conflict. In December 1991 FIAA joined the United Movements and Fronts of Azawad (MFUA), which would then sign the National Pact (National Pact (Mali)) peace treaty. Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania
Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 (5pp) doi:10.1088 1748-9326 1 1 014005 and an area covering the confluence of Mauritania, Mali, and Algeria.LARGE&origin JSTOR-enlargePage Saharan Dust: Sources and Trajectories N. J. Middleton, A. S. Goudie Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 26, No. 2 (2001), pp. 165-181 ref>
calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize (Arabization) many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. A schism (schism (religion)) developed between Moors who consider Mauritania to be an Arab country and others who seek a dominant role for the non-Moorish peoples. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity being suggested, but none successfully implemented. This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out
and ruler. The Polisario Front claims to represent the aspirations of the Western Saharan inhabitants for independence. Algeria claims none of the territory for itself but maintains that Sahrawis should determine the territory’s future status. *1958 – Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community (French colonial empire). *1960 – Mauritania becomes independent of France. *1964 &
. The sedimentary rocks comprising this structure dip outward at 10°-20°. Differential erosion of resistant layers of quartzite has created high-relief circular cuestas. Its center consists of a siliceous breccia covering an area that is at least 3 km in diameter. Matton, G. (2008) ''The Cretaceous Richat Complex (Mauritania); a peri-Atlantic alkaline.'' 47
Historical Documentary Records journal Annals of the Association of American Geographers volume 91 issue 3 pages 453–464 doi 10.1111 0004-5608.00253 In North America, the early European settlers reported exceptionally severe winters. For example, in 1607-1608, ice persisted on Lake Superior until June. The journal of Pierre de Troyes, Chevalier de Troyes, who led an expedition to James Bay in 1686, recorded that James Bay
which is largely very empty Cities *Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania. *Atar *Chinguetti *Nouadhibou, large fishing centre and industrial harbour. *Tichit Other destinations Get in Citizens of all Western nations need a visa to enter. Holders of West African passports do not require a visa. As of 2009, visas for Mauritania are no longer available at on arrival at land borders, so overland travellers have to arrange them in e.g. Rabat. Single entry visa fee is €37, double entry is €52. Two passport-size photos are required, as well as a copy of the information pages of your passport. Visas are available on the next day for people of most nationalities. For most people there are no vaccinations required in Mauritania. Only ones coming from yellow fever endemic zones are required to present a vaccination certificate. By plane '''Nouakchott International Airport''' ( Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania
common_name Mauritania image_flag Flag of Mauritania.svg image_coat Coat of arms of Mauritania.svg image_map Location Mauritania AU Africa.svg map_caption symbol_type Seal national_motto national_anthem نشيد وطني موريتاني File:National Anthem of Mauritania by US Navy Band.ogg official_languages Arabic (Arabic language) a national_languages languages_type Other languages languages French (French language) Zenaga Berber (Zenaga language) official_religion Sunni Islam demonym Mauritanian (Demographics of Mauritania) capital Nouakchott religion Islam (Islam in Mauritania) latd 18 latm 09 latNS N longd 15 longm 58 longEW W largest_city capital government_type Semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic b leader_title1 President (List of heads of state of Mauritania) leader_name1 Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz leader_title2 Prime Minister (List of heads of government of Mauritania) leader_name2 Yahya Ould Hademine legislature Parliament (Parliament of Mauritania) upper_house Senate (Senate (Mauritania)) lower_house National Assembly (National Assembly (Mauritania)) sovereignty_type Independence established_event1 from France (French colonial empire) established_date1 28 November 1960 established_event2 Current Constitution of Mauritania established_date2 12 July 1991 area_rank 29th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,030,700 area_sq_mi 397,954 percent_water 0.03 population_estimate 3,359,185 population_estimate_year 2012 population_estimate_rank population_census 3,537,368 population_census_year 2013 population_density_km2 3.2 population_density_sq_mi 8.2 population_density_rank 221st GDP_PPP_year 2013 GDP_PPP $8.286 billion GDP_PPP_rank 154th GDP_PPP_per_capita $2,230 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank 160th GDP_nominal $4.547 billion GDP_nominal_year 2013 GDP_nominal_rank 154th GDP_nominal_per_capita $1,224 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank 149th Gini_year 2008 Gini_change Gini 40.5 Gini_ref Gini_rank HDI_year 2013 HDI_change decrease HDI 0.487 HDI_ref HDI_rank 161st currency Ouguiya (Mauritanian ouguiya) currency_code MRO country_code MR time_zone utc_offset +0 time_zone_DST not observed utc_offset_DST +0 drives_on right calling_code +222 cctld .mr footnote_a According to Article 6 of the Constitution: "The national languages are Arabic, Pulaar (Pulaar language), Soninke (Soninke language), and Wolof (Wolof language); the official language is Arabic." footnote_b Not recognized internationally (see main article).
'''Mauritania''' ; Soninke (Soninke language): ''Murutaane''; Pulaar (Pulaar language): ''Moritani''), officially the '''Islamic Republic of Mauritania''', is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa. Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East (2009), p. 448, books.google.com books?ISBN 143812676X-"The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, situated in western North Africa..." David Seddon, ''A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East'' (2004), "We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly Arabic-speaking countries of western North Africa (the Maghreb), including Mauritania (which is a member of the Arab Maghreb Union)..." Mohamed Branine, ''Managing Across Cultures: Concepts, Policies and Practices'' (2011), p. 437, "The Magrebian countries or the Arab countries of western North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia)..." It is the eleventh largest country in Africa, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, by Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest.
The country derives its name from the ancient Berber Kingdom of Mauretania (Mauretania), which existed from the 3rd century BC to the 7th century AD, in the far north of modern-day Morocco. Approximately 90% of Mauritania's land is within the Sahara Desert and consequently the population is concentrated in the south, where precipitation is slightly higher than the rest of the country. The capital and largest city of Mauritania is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, which is home to around one-third of the country's 3.5 million people. The government of Mauritania was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup d'état (2008 Mauritanian coup d'état) led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 April 2009, General Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won.
About 20% of Mauritanians live on less than US$1.25 per day. Higher estimates suggest 10% to 20% of the population (340,000 to 680,000 people) is enslaved. Additional human rights concerns in Mauritania include female genital mutilation and child labour.