, a traditional Bamana mudcloth, in international fashion? ...that '''Lord of the Nutcracker Men''' was a 2001 children's novel about World War I? The '''Budapest-Bamako''' or '''Great African Run''' is now the largest amateur rally in the world, MarathonRally.com http: www.marathonrally.com news budapest_bamako_participants_gear_up_for_world_s_largest_amateur_rally.10898.0.html the largest rally across the Sahara Budapest Times
for the rest of his life. ''Thomas Sankara Speaks: the Burkina Faso Revolution: 1983-87'', by Thomas Sankara, edited by Michel Prairie; Pathfinder, 2007, pg 20-21 Returning to Upper Volta in 1972, by 1974 he fought in a border war between Upper Volta and Mali. He earned fame for his heroic performance in the border war with Mali, but years later would renounce the war as "useless and unjust", a reflection of his growing political consciousness. ref name
, in the area of modern Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria and most notably the Western Sahara, with some tribes traditionally migrating into northern Mali and Niger. As with most Saharan peoples, the tribes reflect a highly mixed heritage, combining Arab, Berber, and other influences, including black African ethnic and cultural characteristics. In pre-colonial times, the tribal areas of the Sahara desert was generally considered ''bled es-Siba'' or "
and Berber people inhabiting the westernmost Sahara desert, in the area of modern Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco and Western Sahara (some tribes would also traditionally migrate into northern Mali and Niger, or even further along the Saharan caravan (caravan (travellers)) routes). As with most Saharan peoples, the tribes reflect a highly mixed heritage, combining Arab, Berber (Berber people), and other influences, including black African ethnic
trading center of Kankan, on the upper Milo River. Kankan was a center for the trade in kola nuts, and was well sited to dominate the trade routes in all directions. By 1881, Wassoulou extended through Guinea and Mali, from what is now Sierra Leone to northern Côte d'Ivoire. '''Kita''' is a town and commune in western Mali. It lies on the eastern slope of Mount Kita (Bambara: "Kita-kulu"), known for its caves and rock paintings. Today, the city
exiled dissidents. In May 1987, Senegal extradited Captain Moulaye Asham Ould Ashen, a former black member of the Haidalla government accused of corruption, but only after veiled threats from Nouakchott that failure to do so would result in Mauritania's allowing Senegalese dissidents a platform from which to speak out against the government of President Abdou Diouf. At the same time, Senegal and Mauritania have cooperated successfully with Mali under the Senegal River Development Office (Organisation pour la Mise en Valeur du Fleuve Sénégal—OMVS), which was formed in 1972 as a flood control, irrigation, and agricultural development project. *1958 – France ratifies a new Constitution of France; the French Fifth Republic is then formed upon the formal adoption of the new constitution on October 4. Guinea rejects the new constitution, voting for independence instead. *1960 – Mali and Senegal join the United Nations. *1961 – A military coup in Damascus effectively ends the United Arab Republic, the union between Egypt and Syria. The Sénégal's headwaters are the Semefé (Semefé River) (Bakoye) and Bafing (Bafing River) rivers which both originate in Guinea; they form a small part of the Guinean-Malian border before coming together at Bafoulabé in Mali. From there, the Senegal river flows west and then north through Talari Gorges near Galougo and over the Gouina Falls, then flows more gently past Kayes, where it receives the Kolinbine. After flowing together with the Karakoro (Karakoro River), it prolongs the former's course along the Mali-Mauritanian border for some tens of kilometers till Bakel (Bakel, Senegal) where it flows together with the Faleme river, which also has its source in Guinea, subsequently runs along a small part of the Guinea-Mali frontier to then trace most of the Senegal-Mali border up to Bakel. The Senegal further flows through semi-arid land in the north of Senegal, forming the border with Mauritania and into the Atlantic (Atlantic Ocean). In Kaedi it accepts the Gorgol (Gorgol River) from Mauritania. Flowing through Bogué (Bogué, Mauritania) it reaches Richard Toll where it is joined by the Ferlo coming from inland Senegal's Lac de Guiers. It passes through Rosso and, approaching its mouth, around the Senegalese island on which the city of Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal) is located, to then turn south. It is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a thin strip of sand called the Langue de Barbarie before it pours into the ocean itself. *1957 – In Haiti, Francois Duvalier is elected president. *1960 – The Sudanese Republic is renamed Mali after the withdrawal of Senegal from the Mali Federation. *1965 – The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 (also known as the Second Kashmir War) between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, ends after the UN (United Nations) calls for a cease-fire. *Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. *Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Mali from France in 1960. *OneWebDay, an annual day of Internet celebration and awareness, started in 2006. The Dogon people are an ethnic group in Mali, West Africa, reported to have traditional astronomical knowledge about Sirius that would normally be considered impossible without the use of telescopes. According to Marcel Griaule's books ''Conversations with Ogotemmêli'' and ''The Pale Fox'' they knew about the fifty-year orbital period of Sirius and its companion prior to western astronomers. They also refer to a third star accompanying Sirius A and B. Robert Temple (Robert K. G. Temple)'s 1976 book ''The Sirius Mystery'', credits them with knowledge of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the rings of Saturn. This has been the subject of controversy and speculation. According to a 1978 ''Skeptical Inquirer'' article it is possibly the result of cultural contamination. Some have suggested the contaminators to have been the ethnographers themselves. Others see this explanation as being too simplistic. ''Sharia in the secular Muslim states:'' Muslim countries such as Mali, Kazakhstan and Turkey have declared themselves to be secular. Here, religious interference in state affairs, law and politics is prohibited. Otto, Jan Michiel (2008). p. 9. In these Muslim countries, as well as the secular West, the role of sharia is limited to personal and family matters. Commons:Category:Mali WikiPedia:Mali Dmoz:Regional Africa Mali
chose MikroTik routers and operating systems because of the system's low cost, flexibility, the fact that the system already had "a substantial user base in Mali", and had a user interface deemed "superior to other products".
along the southern border of the Sahara, a territory covering modern Senegal, Mali, Niger, and Chad. Their ultimate goal was to have an uninterrupted link between the Niger River and the Nile, hence controlling all trade to and from the Sahel region, by virtue of their existing control over the caravan (Camel train) routes through the Sahara. France also had an outpost near the mouth of the Red Sea in Djibouti (French Somaliland), which could serve
as an eastern anchor to a belt of French territory across the continent. The French thrust into the African interior was mainly from West Africa (modern day Senegal) eastward, through the Sahel along the southern border of the Sahara, a territory covering modern day Senegal, Mali, Niger, and Chad. Their ultimate aim was to have an uninterrupted link between the Niger River and the Nile, thus controlling all trade to and from the Sahel region, by virtue of their existing
in its area, and also managed to expand into the Sahara, where its southern division, led by Amari Saifi (nicknamed "Abderrezak el-Para", the "paratrooper"), kidnapped a number of German tourists in 2003, before being forced to flee to sparsely populated areas of Mali, and later Niger and Chad, where he was captured. By late 2003, the group's founder had been supplanted by the even more radical Nabil Sahraoui, who announced his open support for al-Qaeda
and Senegal, millets constitute roughly 40 percent of total cereal food consumption per capita, while in Niger and arid Namibia it is over 65% (See Mahangu). Other countries in Africa where millets are a significant food source include Ethiopia, Nigeria and Uganda. Millet is also an important food item for the population living in the drier parts of many other countries, especially in eastern and central Africa, and in the northern coastal countries of western Africa
Commons:Category:Mali WikiPedia:Mali Dmoz:Regional Africa Mali
'''Mali''' . The population of Mali is 14.5 million. Its capital is Bamako.
Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger (Niger River) and Senegal (Senegal River) rivers. The country's economic structure centers on agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, ''Mali gold reserves rise in 2011 alongside price'' Retrieved on 17 January 2013 and salt. About half the population lives below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day. ''Human Development Indices'', Table 3: Human and income poverty, p. 35. Retrieved on 1 June 2009 A majority of the population (55%) are non-denominational Muslims. "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. August 9, 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (for which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art. Topics. MuslimHeritage.com (5 June 2003). Retrieved on 8 October 2012. Sankore University. Muslimmuseum.org. Retrieved on 8 October 2012. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. Mali Empire (ca. 1200- ) The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. The Black Past. Retrieved on 8 October 2012. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a 1991 coup led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. Significant portions of its legislation is derived from sharia law.
In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali (Northern Mali conflict (2012–present)), which Tuareg rebels (National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad) took control of by April and declared the secession of a new state, Azawad. Lydia Polgreen and Alan Cowell, "Mali Rebels Proclaim Independent State in North", "New York Times" (6 April 2012) The conflict was complicated by a military coup (2012 Malian coup d'état) that took place in March UN Security council condemns Mali coup. Telegraph (23 March 2012). Retrieved on 24 March 2013. and later fighting between Tuareg and Islamist rebels. In response to Islamist territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. A month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections (Malian presidential election, 2013) were held on 28 July 2013, with a second round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections (Malian parliamentary election, 2013) were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.