Mali

What is Mali known for?


agricultural people

estimates, counts 2.7 million. and speak the various Senufo languages. Korhogo, an ancient town in northern Côte d'Ivoire dating from the 13th century, is the capital of the Senufo people. The Senufo are predominantly an agricultural people cultivating millet, yams, peanut, and rice. American (United States) 20th 21st century Papua New Guinea, Mali, Bhutan - The Sahara desert is a key source of dust storms, particularly the Bodélé


art+depictions

spirits (sometimes referred to as deities) worshipped by the Dogon (Dogon people) tribe of Mali. The word Nommos is derived from a Dogon word meaning, "to make one drink," The Nommos are usually described as amphibious, hermaphroditic, fish-like creatures. Folk art depictions of the Nommos show creatures with humanoid upper torsos, legs feet, and a fish-like lower torso and tail. The Nommos are also referred to as “Masters of the Water”, “the Monitors”, and "the Teachers”. Nommo can be a proper name of an individual, or can refer to the group of spirits as a whole. For purposes of this article “Nommo” refers to a specific individual and “Nommos” is used to reference the group of beings. The '''ackee''', also known as the '''Zakari el trufi''', '''y chocorras el albatros''', '''akee apple''' or '''akee''' (''Blighia sapida'') is a member of the ''Sapindaceae'' (soapberry (sapindus) family), native to tropical West Africa Commons:Category:Mali WikiPedia:Mali Dmoz:Regional Africa Mali


cultural collaboration

-cultural collaboration with kora (Kora (instrument)) player Toumani Diabaté and other Malian musicians, represented the first time the trombone had been featured in a recording of Malian traditional music. Rudd has been a frequent visitor to the African nation of Mali, performing and recording with Malian musicians. His 2001 CD ''MALIcool'', a cross-cultural collaboration with kora (Kora (instrument)) player Toumani Diabaté and other


field study

, students are mentored by AEA and on-site faculty who are experts in their respective fields. Our students engage in apprenticeships, internships, and independent field study projects. These global opportunities address their individual interests through hands-on experiences, allowing students to attain the global competency, both professionally and personally. Arabic cognate languages are spoken but not widely Iran has about 5 million Arabic speakers. Iranian Arabs are mainly found in Al-Ahwaz, a southwestern region in the Khuzestan (Khuzestan Province) province; others inhabit the Bushehr (Bushehr Province) and Hormozgan (Hormozgan Province) provinces as well as the city of Qom. Mali and Senegal recognize Hassaniya, the Arabic dialect of the Moorish (Moors) ethnic minority, as a national language. Commons:Category:Mali WikiPedia:Mali Dmoz:Regional Africa Mali


producing long

, (with the exceptions of areas with Fulani and Mande (Mande languages)-speaking majorities) the playing style of the talking drum is centered on producing long and sustained notes by hitting the drum head with the stick-holding hand and the accompanying free hand used to dampen and change tones immediately after being hit. This produces a rubbery sounding texture to its playing, which mimics the heavy and complex tones used in languages from this area (see Niger–Congo languages#Tone Niger


world album

World Music Album . The South African band Ladysmith Black Mambazo was awarded for its album ''Raise Your Spirit Higher (Raise Your Spirit Higher (2003 album))'' in the category Best Traditional World Music Album (Grammy Award for Best Traditional World Music Album). * At the Victoires de la musique 2005 (Paris, 5 March 2005), Malian singers Amadou & Mariam were rewarded in the category ''Reggae Ragga World Album of the Year'' for their album ''Dimanche à Bamako'' ("Sunday in Bamako"). * Burkina Faso: Bil Aka Kora received the Kundé d’or on 29 April. It was the second time this Burkinabé (Burkina Faso) artist won this prestigious Burkinabé musical award. * Cameroon: 1st biennial of Photography and Visual Arts, in Douala, Cameroon from 14 to 23 January 2005. Fourteen photographers and seventeen painters (African, Afro-Caribbean (African diaspora) and European) expose their works on the topic "Traces and Memory". * Mali: the 6th African Photography Encounters were held from the 10 to 17 November 2005 in Bamako. 37 photographers of 17 African countries expose their photographs around the topic "Another world". Festivals and other cultural aspects * Mali: 5th edition of the ''Festival of the desert'' in Essakane from 7 to 9 January 2005. * Mali: 5th edition of the ''Tamadacht'' festival from 18 to 20 January in the Azawagh valley. Organized by the commune of Andéramboukane to promote the Tuareg (Tuareg people) culture, this festival brings together Malians and Nigeriens. * Mali: 5th edition of the ''Festival of the desert'' in Essakane from 7 to 9 January 2005. * Mali: 5th edition of the ''Tamadacht'' festival from 18 to 20 January in the Azawagh valley. Organized by the commune of Andéramboukane to promote the Tuareg (Tuareg people) culture, this festival brings together Malians and Nigeriens. * Cameroon: The fifth edition of the jazz and blues festival ''Jazz sans frontière'' ("Jazz without borders") was held in Yaoundé from 21 to 24 February 2005. Among the performers were Etienne Mbappé and Kayou Jazz and Roots Project. * Mali: 5th edition of the ''Festival of the desert'' in Essakane from 7 to 9 January 2005. * Mali: 5th edition of the ''Tamadacht'' festival from 18 to 20 January in the Azawagh valley. Organized by the commune of Andéramboukane to promote the Tuareg (Tuareg people) culture, this festival brings together Malians and Nigeriens. * Cameroon: The fifth edition of the jazz and blues festival ''Jazz sans frontière'' ("Jazz without borders") was held in Yaoundé from 21 to 24 February 2005. Among the performers were Etienne Mbappé and Kayou Jazz and Roots Project. * Tunisia: The 4th edition of the ''Festival méditerranéen du théâtre d'enfants'' ("Mediterranean Festival of children's theatre") was organized in Ben Arous from 19 to 26 March 2005 with the participation of Algeria, Morocco, Spain, France, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, and the Netherlands (honorary visitor). * Mali: the 9th edition of the ''Festival des Masques et Marionnettes de Markala'' ("Markala Masks and Marionnettes Festival", FESMAMA) was held from 4 to 6 March 2005 in Markala, rural village in the Ségou (Ségou Region) region with companies from various areas of Mali, France and West Africa. * Mauritania: The second ''Festival des musiques nomades'' ("Festival of Nomadic Music") of Nouakchott was held in the Mauritanian capital from 4 to 8 April 2005 with among others Aïcha Mint Chighaly (Mauritania) and of Baaba Maal (Senegal). * Democratic Republic of the Congo: the fifth edition of the Panafrican Music Festival (Fespam) was held from 9 to 16 July in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire and Kinshasa. * Mali: Ali Farka Touré, musician and mayor of the town of Niafunké, in April 2005 created a foundation bearing his name. This foundation intends to organize a biannual jazz festival in Niafunké and to create a training center for young artists playing local traditional instruments. * Mali: The cultural cooperative ''Jamana'' (created by Alpha Oumar Konaré) on 13 April launched an Internet site with information in Bamanankan (Bambara language), in partnership with UNESCO. * Mali: Ali Farka Touré, musician and mayor of the town of Niafunké, in April 2005 created a foundation bearing his name. This foundation intends to organize a biannual jazz festival in Niafunké and to create a training center for young artists playing local traditional instruments. * Mali: The cultural cooperative ''Jamana'' (created by Alpha Oumar Konaré) on 13 April launched an Internet site with information in Bamanankan (Bambara language), in partnership with UNESCO. * Mali: The ''Festival dansa diawoura'' took place in Bafoulabé from 8 to 10 April 2005. * Mali: The cultural cooperative ''Jamana'' (created by Alpha Oumar Konaré) on 13 April launched an Internet site with information in Bamanankan (Bambara language), in partnership with UNESCO. * Mali: The ''Festival dansa diawoura'' took place in Bafoulabé from 8 to 10 April 2005. * Mali: the second edition of the ''West African Hunters Festival'' took place from 27 to 29 May in several cities of Mali (Bamako, Ségou, Sikasso and Yanfolila) and brought together hunters from Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, and Niger. * Mali: The ''Festival dansa diawoura'' took place in Bafoulabé from 8 to 10 April 2005. * Mali: the second edition of the ''West African Hunters Festival'' took place from 27 to 29 May in several cities of Mali (Bamako, Ségou, Sikasso and Yanfolila) and brought together hunters from Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, and Niger. * Senegal: 13th ''International Jazz Festival'' of Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal) from 4 to 7 May 2005, with among others Florin Niculescu, Richard Bona, Philip Catherine and Alexander Monty. * Cameroon: 4th edition of the ''Festival international de voix de femmes'' ("International Festival for women voices, MASSAO 2005) in Douala from 29 April to 7 May. Werewere Liking, Cameronian multidisciplinary artist (music, theatre, literature, painting, dance) was rewarded with the ''Massao d'honneur'' ("Honorary Massao"). * Mali: A conference on "multilingualism for cultural diversity and for the participation of all in cyberspace" took place in Bamako (Mali) on 6 and 7 May in the presence of Koïchiro Matsuura, director general of UNESCO. * Senegal: 3rd edition of the ''International Theatre Festival for peace'' (Fest'art) in Dakar in May 2005. * Congo (Republic of the Congo): The fifth edition of the ''Panafrican Music Festival'' (Fespam) was held from 9 to 16 July in Brazzaville. * Mali: The third edition of the "Dense Bamako Danse" festival opened on 11 November 2005 in the Malian capital (Bamako). This festival of contemporary dance, organized by association ''Donko Seko'', brought together companies from South Africa, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal and Chad. * Congo (Republic of the Congo): The fifth edition of the ''Panafrican Music Festival'' (Fespam) was held from 9 to 16 July in Brazzaville. * Mali: The third edition of the "Dense Bamako Danse" festival opened on 11 November 2005 in the Malian capital (Bamako). This festival of contemporary dance, organized by association ''Donko Seko'', brought together companies from South Africa, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal and Chad. * Western Africa: The BCEAO (''Banque Centrale des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest'', "Central Bank of the States of Western Africa") affirmed on 22 February to have recovered 99,21% of the franc CFA notes of the 1992 range, at the end of a demonetisation (Legal tender#Demonetisation) operation which was completed on 18 February. * Aeronautics Mali: The first stone of the ''Institut africain des métiers de l'aérien'' ("African Institute of Aeronautic Skills") was cast on 17 March 2005 at the Bamako-Sénou airport site. This new school was initiated by the airline Air France. * The countries of the G8 and the NEPAD ("New Partnership for Africa's Development") on 28 January in Dar Es Salaam announced actions for the development of agriculture in Eastern and Central Africa. Focus is on seeds, pesticides, the food trade, and on monitoring, warning and evaluation mechanisms for food safety. * On 4 and 5 February, on invitation by the Senegalese president Abdoulaye Wade, an international forum on "The global agricultural divide" was held in Dakar (Senegal) in the presence of several Heads of State: Amadou Toumani Touré (Mali), Jacques Chirac (France), Blaise Compaoré (Burkina Faso), Olusegun Obasanjo (Nigeria), Maaouiya Ould Taya (Mauritania), Tandja Mamadou (Niger). It brought together politicians, scientists, representatives of the civil society and agroalimentary companies around "views on developing agricultural territories". Rural organizations from Europe, Asia, Africa and North America met on an invitation by the ''Réseau des organisations paysannes et des producteurs de l'Afrique de l'Ouest'' ("Network of Rural Organizations and Producers of Western Africa", ROPPA) and the ''Conseil national de concertation et de coopération des ruraux'' ("National Council for Rural Dialogue and Co-operation", CNCR), to convey their claims: the right to food sovereignty for each country, the end of dumping practices and of disguised subsidies, and consideration for peasants' interests in negotiations of international treaties like those of the World Trade Organization. * GMO (Genetically modified organism): The West African peasants, organized in the ''Réseau des organisations paysannes et des producteurs de l'Afrique de l'Ouest'' ("Network of Rural Organizations and Producers of Western Africa", ROPPA) and the ''Réseau des chambres d’agriculture de l’Afrique de l’ouest'' ("Network of West African Chambers of Agriculture", RECAO), meeting in Bamako (Mali) on 21 June, opposed against genetically modified organisms (GMOs). * On 4 and 5 February, on invitation by the Senegalese president Abdoulaye Wade, an international forum on "The global agricultural divide" was held in Dakar (Senegal) in the presence of several Heads of State: Amadou Toumani Touré (Mali), Jacques Chirac (France), Blaise Compaoré (Burkina Faso), Olusegun Obasanjo (Nigeria), Maaouiya Ould Taya (Mauritania), Tandja Mamadou (Niger). It brought together politicians, scientists, representatives of the civil society and agroalimentary companies around "views on developing agricultural territories". Rural organizations from Europe, Asia, Africa and North America met on an invitation by the ''Réseau des organisations paysannes et des producteurs de l'Afrique de l'Ouest'' ("Network of Rural Organizations and Producers of Western Africa", ROPPA) and the ''Conseil national de concertation et de coopération des ruraux'' ("National Council for Rural Dialogue and Co-operation", CNCR), to convey their claims: the right to food sovereignty for each country, the end of dumping practices and of disguised subsidies, and consideration for peasants' interests in negotiations of international treaties like those of the World Trade Organization. * GMO (Genetically modified organism): The West African peasants, organized in the ''Réseau des organisations paysannes et des producteurs de l'Afrique de l'Ouest'' ("Network of Rural Organizations and Producers of Western Africa", ROPPA) and the ''Réseau des chambres d’agriculture de l’Afrique de l’ouest'' ("Network of West African Chambers of Agriculture", RECAO), meeting in Bamako (Mali) on 21 June, opposed against genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Cotton * Meeting in Bamako on 14 January 2005 of representatives of five Sub-Saharan cotton producing countries (Mali, Benin, Burkina Faso, Senegal and Chad) that insist on the need for developed countries to reduce subsidies to their own farmers. "Just for the cotton season 2004-2005, Central and Western Africa are estimated to have a deficit of more than 220 billion FCFA (CFA franc), or more than 400 million dollars, worsening poverty by destroying development efforts", they declared in a common statement. * On a meeting in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) on 12 March 2005 in the margin of the 3rd days of the African Cotton Association (ACA), the Ministers for Agriculture of Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali and Chad launched an appeal to African governments and the international community for the installation of a rescue fund for the African cotton producers. They also request a time frame for the United States and the European Union to reduce and totally abandon subsidies to European and American cotton producers. The competition of American and European subsidized cotton means a "loss of earnings" of 200 billion CFA francs (more than 300 million euros) for African cotton producers. * Meeting in Bamako on 14 January 2005 of representatives of five Sub-Saharan cotton producing countries (Mali, Benin, Burkina Faso, Senegal and Chad) that insist on the need for developed countries to reduce subsidies to their own farmers. "Just for the cotton season 2004-2005, Central and Western Africa are estimated to have a deficit of more than 220 billion FCFA (CFA franc), or more than 400 million dollars, worsening poverty by destroying development efforts", they declared in a common statement. * On a meeting in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) on 12 March 2005 in the margin of the 3rd days of the African Cotton Association (ACA), the Ministers for Agriculture of Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali and Chad launched an appeal to African governments and the international community for the installation of a rescue fund for the African cotton producers. They also request a time frame for the United States and the European Union to reduce and totally abandon subsidies to European and American cotton producers. The competition of American and European subsidized cotton means a "loss of earnings" of 200 billion CFA francs (more than 300 million euros) for African cotton producers. Other countries While the most significant persecution has happened in Iran and Egypt during this century and the last, other countries have restricted or persecuted Bahá'ís. In several countries with majority Muslim populations, they have done so on the same basis as Iran and Egypt—that since Islam does not recognize the Bahá'í Faith, neither should the government, and thus all manner of social services and identity are circumscribed. Banning orders have been made against Bahá'í activities in Algeria (1969), Iraq (1970 and versions since) Commons:Category:Mali WikiPedia:Mali Dmoz:Regional Africa Mali


incredible ability

, but has been recovering afterwards. It includes several desert-dwelling species, most notably a population of desert elephants (Loxodonta africana) that are sometimes classified as a distinct subspecies of African elephants because of their shorter legs and specific, desert-adapted behavior (the only other place in Africa where elephants have adapted to a desert environment is Mali, on the border of the Sahara desert). Its shorter legs, bigger feet, and incredible ability


site providing

. A good site providing information about proper care in captivity is http: savannahmonitor.org According to the US conservative review ''National Interest'', Jacques Foccart played "an essential role" in the negotiation of the Cooperation accords with the newly independent African states, former members of the French Community created in 1958. These accords involved the sectors of finance and economy, culture and education


growing political

for the rest of his life. ''Thomas Sankara Speaks: the Burkina Faso Revolution: 1983-87'', by Thomas Sankara, edited by Michel Prairie; Pathfinder, 2007, pg 20-21 Returning to Upper Volta in 1972, by 1974 he fought in a border war between Upper Volta and Mali. He earned fame for his heroic performance in the border war with Mali, but years later would renounce the war as "useless and unjust", a reflection of his growing political consciousness. ref name


independent family

characteristic of most of Niger–Congo developed, which Dimmendaal (2008) argues that for now it is best considered an independent family. * Ijoid (Ijoid languages) in Nigeria, including Ijo (Ijo languages) and Defaka (Defaka language). * Kordofanian languages: spoken in southern central Sudan, around the Nuba Mountains (not a single family) * ? Mande (Mande languages): spoken in West Africa; includes Bambara (Bambara language), the main language spoken in Mali, as well

as Soninke (Soninke language), a language spoken mainly in Mali but also in Senegal and Mauritania. The evidence linking Mande to Niger–Congo is thin. Blench regards it as an early branch that diverged before the morphology characteristic of most of Niger–Congo developed, which Dimmendaal (2008) argues that for now it is best considered an independent family. * Ijoid (Ijoid languages) in Nigeria, including Ijo (Ijo languages) and Defaka (Defaka language). * Kru languages

Mali

'''Mali''' . The population of Mali is 14.5 million. Its capital is Bamako.

Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger (Niger River) and Senegal (Senegal River) rivers. The country's economic structure centers on agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, ''Mali gold reserves rise in 2011 alongside price'' Retrieved on 17 January 2013 and salt. About half the population lives below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day. ''Human Development Indices'', Table 3: Human and income poverty, p. 35. Retrieved on 1 June 2009 A majority of the population (55%) are non-denominational Muslims. "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. August 9, 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013.

Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (for which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art. Topics. MuslimHeritage.com (5 June 2003). Retrieved on 8 October 2012. Sankore University. Muslimmuseum.org. Retrieved on 8 October 2012. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. Mali Empire (ca. 1200- ) The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. The Black Past. Retrieved on 8 October 2012. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a 1991 coup led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. Significant portions of its legislation is derived from sharia law.

In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali (Northern Mali conflict (2012–present)), which Tuareg rebels (National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad) took control of by April and declared the secession of a new state, Azawad. Lydia Polgreen and Alan Cowell, "Mali Rebels Proclaim Independent State in North", "New York Times" (6 April 2012) The conflict was complicated by a military coup (2012 Malian coup d'état) that took place in March UN Security council condemns Mali coup. Telegraph (23 March 2012). Retrieved on 24 March 2013. and later fighting between Tuareg and Islamist rebels. In response to Islamist territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. A month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections (Malian presidential election, 2013) were held on 28 July 2013, with a second round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections (Malian parliamentary election, 2013) were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.

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