, the capital of Muttu Virappa comprising the armies of Gingee (Nayaks of Gingee), Chera (Chera dynasty), Madurai, and some Portuguese (Portugal) from the coast. Yachama led the forces of Vijayanagara (Vijayanagar Empire) and Kalahasti (Nayaks of Kalahasti) from Vellore and was joined midway by Tanjore (Tanjore Nayaks) forces headed by Raghunatha. Yachama's army was further strengthened by nobles from Karnataka. Both the Armies met at Toppur, an open field on the northern banks of River Cauvery, between Tiruchirapalli and Grand Anicut in late months of 1616. The huge assembly of forces on either side is estimated to be as many as a Million soldiers (according to Dr. Barradas in Sewell’s Book) and considered to be one of the biggest battles in the Southern India. Result In the battle, Jagga Raya's troops could not withstand the aggression generated by the imperial forces. Yachama and Raghunatha, the generals of the imperial camp led their forces with great discipline. Jagga Raya was slain by Yachama, and his army broke the ranks and took flight. Yethiraja, the brother of Jagga Raya, had to run for his life. Muttu Virappa tried to escape, he was pursued by Yachama's general Rao Dama Nayani who captured him near Tiruchirapalli. The Nayak of Gingee in the encounter lost all his forts except Gingee Fort. And the putative son of Venkata II, who was the cause of all the trouble was captured. The victory was celebrated by the imperial armies headed by the Thanjavur Nayak and Yachamanedu, who planted pillars of victory and crowned Rama Deva as Rama Deva Raya, the Vijayanagar King, in early months of 1617. Ramadeva (Rama Deva Raya) was barely 15 years old when he ascended the throne. Tirumalai Nayaka (1623—1659) Meanwhile in the Madurai country, Muthu Virappa, mentioned above, was succeeded by the great "Tirumalai Nayak", the most powerful and best-known member of his dynasty, who ruled for thirty-six eventful years. Before Thirumalai Nayaka came to power, the court of Madurai was being held at Trichy for some ten to twelve years. Thirumalai Nayaka would have continued to rule from Trichy but for a dream. Thirumalai was suffering from Catarrah which the royal physicians were unable to cure. While he was once marching towards Madurai, Thirumalai's sickness worsened and he halted near Dindigul. When he slept in his tent, God Sundareshwara and Goddess Meenakshi appeared to him in a dream, and mentioned that they would cure him if he would make Madurai his capital. As soon as he awoke from his dream just before dawn, Thirumalai called for the Brahmans and others in attendance, who advised him to obey the will of God. Thirumalai Nayaka then not only vowed to make Madurai his capital but also to expend 5 lakh pons (100,000 pounds) in sacred works. Immediately thereafter, he felt the disease leave him. An overjoyed Thirumalai Nayaka thereafter determined to devote his life to the worship and service of the Gods of Madura and supposedly adopted the Saiva faith. Category:Telugu people Category:History of Andhra Pradesh Category:Dynasties of India Category:Indian monarchs Category:Tamil people Category:Hindu monarchs Category:Telugu monarchs Category:Tamil monarchs (Category:Madurai Nayak Dynasty) Category:History of Tiruchirappalli
gave him some religious work and allowed him to attend the royal court. http: historion.net r.sewell-vijayanagar-history-india
Kanchipuram district) who had won his way by sheer ability to a high position in the Vijayanagar (Vijayanagara Empire) court. Early Capitalism and Local History in South India by David E. Ludden – History – 2005 – 342 pages http: www.hindu.com fr 2008 04 04 stories 2008040451220300.htm When the Vijayanagara empire fell, he became the Dalavoy (General) and the second-in command to the Vijayanagara viceroy Viswanatha Nayaka (Nayaks of Madurai) of Madurai. Ariyanatha Mudaliar utilized the ''palayam'' or poligar system which was widely used to govern the Nayak kingdom. The system was a quasi-fedual organization of the country, which was divided into multiple ''palayams'' or small provinces; and each palayam was ruled by a ''palayakkarar'' or a petty chief. Ariyanatha organized the Pandyan kingdom into 72 ''palayams'' and ruled over the 72 dry-zone poligars chiefs for over fifty years. The feudal chiefs of southern Tamil Nadu continue to be specially attached to his memory to this very day. Each was placed in charge of one of the 72 bastions of the Madurai fortifications. They were responsible for the immediate control of their estates. They paid a fixed tribute to the Nayaka kings and maintained a quota of troops ready for immediate service. The Meenakshi Temple, destroyed by the Mohammedans was re-constructed in 1569. At the entrance of the Thousand Pillar Mandapam, we can still see the statue of Ariyanatha Mudaliar seated on a beautiful horse-back which flanks one side of the entrance to the temple. The statue is still periodically crowned with garlands by modern worshippers. He lived until 1600 and had great influence upon the fate of the Nayaka dynasty until his death. History&Description of Sri Meenakshi Temple, by T. G. S. Balaram Iyer, T. R. Rajagopalan Ariyanatha Mudaliar was not only the pre-colonial military man but also enjoyed a cult status in southern Tamil Nadu and became a tutelary patron figure amongst some of the region's cattle-keeping predator groups. These men did much for the country in those days, founding villages, building dams, constructing tanks and erecting temples. Many of them bore the title of ''Nayakkan'', and hence the common "nayakkanur" as a termination to the place names in this district. They also brought with them the gods of the Deccan, and thus we find in Madurai many shrines to Ahobilam and other deities who rarely are worshipped in the Tamil country. Their successors, the present ''zamindars'' of the district, still look upon ''Ariyanatha'' as a sort of patron saint. Visvanatha Nayaka added the fort of Trichinopoly to his possessions. The Vijayanagar viceroy who governed the Tanjore country had failed to police the pilgrim roads which ran through Trichinopoly, to the shrines at Srirangam and Ramesvaram, and devotees were afraid to visit those holy places. Visvanatha exchanged that town for his fort at Vallam, in Tanjore. He then improved the fortifications and town of Trichinopoly, and the temple of Srirangam, and he cleared the banks of the Cauvery river of robbers. Visvanatha had difficulty with some of the local chieftains, who resisted his authority in Tinnevelly, but after vanquishing them he improved that town and district. Visvanatha died aged and honoured in 1563. He still is affectionately remembered as having been a great benefactor of his country. Vitthala Raja Nayaka (1546–1558) Category:Telugu people Category:History of Andhra Pradesh Category:Dynasties of India Category:Indian monarchs Category:Tamil people Category:Hindu monarchs Category:Telugu monarchs Category:Tamil monarchs (Category:Madurai Nayak Dynasty) Category:History of Tiruchirappalli
Latin characters, place name(s) in italics. -- conventional_long_name Madurai Nayak dynasty common_name Madurai Nayak Kingdom continent Asia region country India era status !-- Status: see Category list on template page -->
Some of the family members of Vangaru Thirumalai established the Nayak dynasty in Sri Lanka known as the Kandy Nayaks. They ruled till 1815 with Kandy as their capital and were also the last ruling dynasty of Sri Lanka. The Kings of Kandy had from an early time sought and procured their wives from Madurai. The Kandy Nayaks received military support from the Nayaks of Madurai in fighting off the Portuguese. And in the 17th and 18th centuries, marital alliances between the Kandyan kings and Nayak princesses had become a matter of policy. Enemy lines: childhood, warfare, and play in Batticaloa, By Margaret Trawick, p.40. Capitals The Nayak rulers started with Madurai as their capital. In 1616, Muttu Virappa Nayak shifted the capital to Tiruchirapalli, but Thirumalai Nayak moved it back to Madurai in 1634. In 1665, Thirumalai Nayak's grandson, Chokkanatha Nayak, once again shifted the capital to Tiruchirapalli and built a palace inside the Fort. Irrespective of the location of the capital, the region was known throughout the period as 'Madurai Country', and all rulers held their coronation in Madurai, which served as their religious and cultural capital. Nayak rule and Tiruchi The significance of Nayak rule in checking invasion by northern rulers elevated Tiruchi in the eyes of national history. Had it not been for the Nayak rule, the central part of Tamil Nadu, particularly what today has come to be known as Tiruchi, Thanjavur, and Perambalur districts, would not have gained its own historical identity and unique cultural development. The Tiruchi range comprised five major ''paalayams'': Udayarpalayam, Ariyalur, Marungapuri, Thuraiyur and Cuddalore. They constructed new ''mandapams'' at several temples, including the Srirangam Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, and the Rock Fort. The Vijayanagar dynasty was chiefly responsible for the present and permanent glory of Tamil Nadu, which was ransacked by the earlier Delhi Sultanate. But for the invasions by Kumara Kampana Udayar against the Sultans of Madurai, the state's cultural civilisation would have been doomed. Wasteland development and the setting up of water harvest structures formed part of the Nayak rulers' welfare programmes. It was at Rani Mangammal Hall in Tiruchi that one of the Nayak rulers, Vijayaranga Chokkanatha Nayak, launched a stiff opposition to the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Nayak coins Most Nayak coins were made of gold or copper. The design, figures, size, and weight of Nayak coins all were similar to those of Vijayanagara coins. Sadasiva Nayak issued some beautiful Nayak coins: one gold coin shows Shiva and Parvati seated next to one another – Shiva holds the trisula (trident) and the mriga (antelope) in his hands. Another gold coin of the same ruler features the mythical bird Gandaberunda. This coin is almost identical to the gandabherunda coins minted by the Vijayanagara ruler Achyutaraya. A rare copper coin of this ruler displays, on its obverse, the standing figure of Kartikeya (Muruga), with his favourite peacock behind him. The reverse depicts the Nandi (Nandi (bull)) (sacred bull) below the Shivalinga. The Madurai Nayaks issued many coins featuring fish, the emblem of the Pandyas, who ruled Madurai before the Vijayanagara and Nayak rulers. Some early Madurai Nayak coins portray the figure of the king. The bull also is seen frequently on the Madurai Nayak coins. Chokkanatha Nayak, one of the last rulers of the dynasty, issued coins displaying various animals, such as the bear, elephant and lion. He also issued coins featuring Hanuman and Garuda. The inscriptions on the Nayak coins are in Tamil (Tamil script), Telugu (Telugu script), Kannada (Kannada script), and Nagari (Devanāgarī) scripts. Unlike the coins of many of the earlier dynasties, the Nayak coins are easily available for coin-collectors. Category:Telugu people Category:History of Andhra Pradesh Category:Dynasties of India Category:Indian monarchs Category:Tamil people Category:Hindu monarchs Category:Telugu monarchs Category:Tamil monarchs (Category:Madurai Nayak Dynasty) Category:History of Tiruchirappalli
;ref Category:Telugu people Category:History of Andhra Pradesh Category:Dynasties of India Category:Indian monarchs Category:Tamil people Category:Hindu monarchs Category:Telugu monarchs Category:Tamil monarchs (Category:Madurai Nayak Dynasty) Category:History of Tiruchirappalli
of Madura’s old enemies, Golconda and Bijapur, and he was for many years engaged in an exhausting war with the Marathas. Moreover the young Nayak of Madurai, though imbued with a boyish love of fun and adventure which endeared him to his countrymen, also had a stock of sound sense and ability which evoked the admiration of his ministers, and he took advantage of his improving prospects. Muthu Virappa recovered his capital in 1685, and he gradually reconquered large parts of the ancient kingdom
as the ruler of Madurai; and an epigraph dated 1483 AD in Pudukkotai refers to one Bana chieftain named Virapratapa Sundarattoludaiyan Mahabali Vanadhiraya ruling in Conjivaram (Kanchipuram) in 1469 AD Proceedings – Indian History Congress, p.203-204. The Nayakas appointed to rule Madurai under the Vijayanagar empire were A Forgotten Empire, Vijayanagar: A Contribution to the History of India, Robert Sewell, p.345-346
Nayakkan again, until Vitthala Raja took over. Vitthala Raja ruled from 1546 to 1558. hereafter Vishwanatha Nayak took over again from 1559 to 1563. A Forgotten Empire, Vijayanagar: A Contribution to the History of India, Robert Sewell, p.346. ref>
of India, by Robert Sewell, p.346. Civil War in Vellore During Muthu Virappa's rule, a civil war involving succession to the throne was taking place in the Vijayanagara Kingdom, now based in Vellore and Chandragiri. Gobburi Jagga Raya, brother of the previous ruler Venkata II’s favourite Queen Obayamma claimed her putative son as the King and murdered Sriranga II along with his family in the Vellore Prison. Jagga Raya was strongly challenged by Yachamanedu,the chief
, and erected in their place an extensive double-walled fortress defended by 72 bastions; and he constructed channels from upper waters of the Vaigai river to supply the kingdom with water. Perhaps the Peranai and Chittanai dams owe their origins to him. Vishwanatha Nayakka ruled from 1535 to 1544, and was succeeded by Varathappa Nayakkar who ruled for a very short period of about a year. In 1545, Dumbicchi Nayakkan became the Governor, and after twenty months, he was succeeded by Vishwanatha
. An inscription in an old Perumal temple at Madura states that certain things were done during the rule of "Rama Raja Vitthala Deva Maha Rayar"; and based on the dates within the short period assigned, Nelson reasons that Vitthala Raja was none other than Rama Raya; and that the name Vitthala was assumed as an epithet by Rama Raya. Rama Raya ruled Madurai more or less directly until 1557–1558; after which the Madurai country was left in a state of chaos, anarchy and confusion. During this time
thehindu mp 2007 08 04 stories 2007080450090400.htm title Madurai City Chronicles : Unique in its own way work The Hindu accessdate 14 June 2008 location Chennai, India date 4 August 2007 * Category:Telugu people Category:History of Andhra Pradesh Category:Dynasties of India Category:Indian monarchs Category:Tamil people Category:Hindu monarchs Category:Telugu monarchs Category:Tamil monarchs (Category:Madurai Nayak Dynasty) Category:History of Tiruchirappalli
The '''Madurai Nayaks''' were rulers from around 1529 AD until 1736 AD, of a region comprising most of modern-day Tamil Nadu, India, with Madurai as their capital. The Nayak reign was an era noted for its achievement in arts, cultural and administrative reforms, revitalization of temples previously ransacked by the Delhi Sultans (Delhi Sultanate), and inauguration of a unique architectural style.
The dynasty consisted of 13 rulers, of whom 9 were kings, 2 were queens, and 2 were joint-kings. The most notable of these were the king, Tirumalai Nayak, and the queen, Rani Mangammal. Foreign trade was conducted mainly with the Dutch and the Portuguese (Portugal), as the British and the French had not yet made inroads in the region.
Madurai Nayaks belonged to the kamma social group. Further Sources of Vijayanagara History by K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, p.179 mentions: Moreover, Acyutadeva Maharaya formally crowned Viswanatha Nayadu of the Garikepati family of the Balija caste as the king of Pandya country yielding a revenue of 2 and 1 2 crores of varahas; and he presented him the golden idols of Durga, Laksmi and Lakshmi-Narayana and sent him with ministers, councillors and troops to the south. Visvanatha Nayudu reached the city of Madhura, from which he began to govern the country entrusted to his care.'' - taken from the Kaifiyat of Karnata-Kotikam Kings, LR8, pp.319-22.'' Religion in Vijayanagara Empire, by Konduri Sarojini Devi, p.100 mentions: ''"Granting that Acyuta conferred on Visvanatha the kingship of the Pandya Mandalam as Father Heras believes, it is possible that Visvanatha changed his faith to Vaishnavism to suit the exigencies. According to the Kaifiyat of the Karnata Kotikam Kings, "Acyutadeva Maharaya formally crowned Visvanatha Nayadu of the Garikepati family of the Balija caste as the King of Pandya country yielding a revenue of 2 and 1 2 crores of varahas..