. Territorial animals defend areas that contain a nest, den or mating site and sufficient food resources for themselves and their young. Defense rarely takes the form of overt fights: more usually there is a highly noticeable display, which may be visual (as in the red breast of the robin), auditory (as in much bird song, or the calls of gibbons) or olfactory, through the deposit of scent marks. Many territorial mammals use scent-marking to signal the boundaries of their territories; the marks
. Habitat and Distribution The range of ''Pelomedusa subrufa'' spreads over a large portion of Africa
. In northern Nigeria, it is used with millet powder to prepare ''kunun tsamiya'', a traditional pap mostly used as breakfast, and usually eaten with bean cake. Two or three species of ''Alopochen'' from the Madagascar region have become extinct in the last 1000 years or so: * Mauritian Shelduck, ''Alopochen mauritianus'' - Mauritius, late 1690s By the time production ended in 1981 the factory at Saratov had produced 1,011 aircraft
publisher Daldy, Isbister & Co '''Poeciliidae''' is a family of fresh-water fish which are live-bearing aquarium fish (they give birth to live young). They belong to the order Cyprinodontiformes, tooth-carps, and include well-known aquarium fish such as the guppy, molly (Poecilia), platy (Xiphophorus), and swordtail. The original distribution of the family was the southeastern United States to north of Rio de la Plata, Argentina, and central
by French expatriates, and French teachers, textbooks and curricula continued to be used in schools around the country. Popular resentment over Tsiranana's tolerance for this "neo-colonial" arrangement inspired a series of farmer and student protests (rotaka) that overturned his administration in 1972. Gabriel Ramanantsoa, a Major General in the army, was appointed interim President and Prime Minister that same year, but low public approval forced
. 300px thumb right Malagasy people Malagasy (File:Bagasy musicians madagascar valiha guitar.jpg) musicians playing valiha and acoustic guitar The highly diverse and distinctive '''music of Madagascar''' has been shaped by the musical traditions of Southeast Asia, Africa, Arabia, England, France and the United States (United States of America) as successive waves of settlers have made the island their home.
(1977) and Fianarantsoa (1988). These are complemented by public teacher-training colleges and several private universities and technical colleges. As a result of increased educational access, enrollment rates more than doubled between 1996 and 2006. However, education quality is weak, producing high rates of grade repetition and dropout. Education policy in Ravalomanana's second term focused on quality issues, including an increase
be an old building tradition among the people of Austronesian (Austronesian people) origin or intensive contact. The Austronesian language group seems to have spread to south east Asia and the Pacific islands as well as Madagascar from the island of Taiwan. Groups like the Siraya of ancient Taiwan built longhouses and practiced head hunting as did for example the later Dayaks of Borneo. math>
'''Madagascar''', officially the '''Republic of Madagascar''' ( ) and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Southeast Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar (Madagascar (island)) (the fourth-largest island (List of islands by area) in the world), as well as numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from India around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90 percent of its wildlife (wildlife of Madagascar) is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats.
Initial human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and AD 550 by Austronesian peoples arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo. These were joined around AD 1000 by Bantu (Bantu peoples) migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa. Other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life. The Malagasy ethnic group (Malagasy people) is often divided into eighteen or more sub-groups (Ethnic groups of Madagascar) of which the largest are the Merina (Merina people) of the central highlands.
Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting socio-political alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar (Merina Kingdom) by a series (List of Malagasy monarchs) of Merina nobles (andriana). The monarchy collapsed in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the French colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four major constitutional periods, termed Republics. Since 1992 the nation has officially been governed as a constitutional democracy from its capital at Antananarivo. However, in a popular uprising in 2009 (2009 Malagasy political crisis) president Marc Ravalomanana was made to resign and presidential power was transferred in March 2009 to Andry Rajoelina in a move widely viewed by the international community as a ''coup d'état''. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014 when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election (Malagasy general election, 2013) deemed fair and transparent by the international community.
In 2012, the population of Madagascar was estimated at just over 22 million, 90 percent of whom live on less than two dollars per day. Malagasy (Malagasy language) and French (French language) are both official languages of the state. The majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs (Malagasy mythology), Christianity (Christianity in Madagascar), or an amalgamation of both. Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education, health and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascar's development strategy. Under Ravalomanana these investments produced substantial economic growth but the benefits were not evenly spread throughout the population, producing tensions over the increasing cost of living and declining living standards among the poor and some segments of the middle class. As of 2014, the economy has been weakened by the recently concluded political crisis and quality of life remains low for the majority of the Malagasy population.