landmass around 135 million years ago. Madagascar later split from India about 88 million years ago, allowing plants and animals on the island to evolve in relative isolation.
journal author Vences M, Wollenberg KC, Vieites DR, Lees DC title Madagascar as a model region of species diversification journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution volume 24 issue 8 pages 456–465 date June 2009 doi 10.1016 j.tree.2009.03.011 url http: www.mvences.de p p1 Vences_A163.pdf accessdate 11 February 2012 archivedate 11 February 2012 archiveurl http: www.webcitation.org 65N9YtmnD pmid 19500874
. Approximately 90 percent of all plant and animal species found in Madagascar are endemic (endemism), Hobbes & Dolan (2008), p. 517 including the lemurs
be an old building tradition among the people of Austronesian (Austronesian people) origin or intensive contact. The Austronesian language group seems to have spread to south east Asia and the Pacific islands as well as Madagascar from the island of Taiwan. Groups like the Siraya of ancient Taiwan built longhouses and practiced head hunting as did for example the later Dayaks of Borneo. math>
president - valign "top" Biodiversity hotspots are chiefly tropical regions that feature high concentrations of endemic (Endemism) species and, when all hotspots are combined, may contain over half of the world’s terrestrial (Terrestrial animal) species. Cincotta & Engelman, 2000 These hotspots are suffering from habitat loss and destruction. Most of the natural habitat on islands and in areas of high human population
handicap): *Multiple time Malagasy (Madagascar) Olympian (Olympic Games) Jean-Louis Ravelomanantsoa in 1975, who also technically holds the fastest ever time of 12.0 s due to winning from scratch *Athens 2004 Olympian (2004 Summer Olympics) and multiple Australian 100m champion Joshua Ross in 2005 '''''Proceratium google''''', also known as the '''Google ant''', was discovered in Madagascar by Dr. Brian L. Fisher, Associate Curator of Entomology
ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under the Law of South Africa. In addition to European ancestry, they may also possess ancestry from India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, China and Saint Helena. Besides the extensive combining of these diverse heritages in the Western Cape, in other parts of southern Africa, their development has usually been the result of the meeting of two distinct groups. Thus, in KwaZulu
, '''Madagascar''' They introduced a sea-faring ocean-sailing culture throughout Southeast Asia
of plants. The '''bamboo''' or '''gentle lemurs''' are the lemurs in genus '''''Hapalemur'''''. They are medium sized primates that live exclusively on Madagascar. The Greater Bamboo Lemur, formerly known as '''''Hapalemur simus
of the family is mutually unintelligible, their similarities are rather striking. Many roots have come virtually unchanged from their common Austronesian (Austronesian languages) ancestor. There are many cognates found in the languages' words for kinship, health, body parts and common animals. Numbers, especially, show remarkable similarities. On the 29 May 1942, the Japanese submarines I-10, I-16 and I-20 arrived on Madagascar. I-10's reconnaissance plane spotted Revenge class
in activity that began in the 1970s and is ongoing. This was triggered, in part, by John Ostrom's discovery of ''Deinonychus'', an active predator that may have been warm-blooded, in marked contrast to the then-prevailing image of dinosaurs as sluggish and cold-blooded (Poikilotherm). Vertebrate paleontology has become a global science. Major new dinosaur discoveries have been made by paleontologists working in previously unexploited regions, including India, South
http: www.floridata.com ref R rave_mad.cfm archiveurl http: www.webcitation.org 5xJNG5WcZ archivedate 20 March 2011 title Ravenala madagascariensis publisher Floridata.com accessdate 14 September 2009 date 16 May 2000 last McLendon first Chuck is highly iconic of Madagascar and is featured in the national emblem as well as the Air Madagascar logo.
'''Madagascar''', officially the '''Republic of Madagascar''' ( ) and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Southeast Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar (Madagascar (island)) (the fourth-largest island (List of islands by area) in the world), as well as numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from India around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90 percent of its wildlife (wildlife of Madagascar) is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats.
Initial human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and AD 550 by Austronesian peoples arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo. These were joined around AD 1000 by Bantu (Bantu peoples) migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa. Other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life. The Malagasy ethnic group (Malagasy people) is often divided into eighteen or more sub-groups (Ethnic groups of Madagascar) of which the largest are the Merina (Merina people) of the central highlands.
Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting socio-political alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar (Merina Kingdom) by a series (List of Malagasy monarchs) of Merina nobles (andriana). The monarchy collapsed in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the French colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four major constitutional periods, termed Republics. Since 1992 the nation has officially been governed as a constitutional democracy from its capital at Antananarivo. However, in a popular uprising in 2009 (2009 Malagasy political crisis) president Marc Ravalomanana was made to resign and presidential power was transferred in March 2009 to Andry Rajoelina in a move widely viewed by the international community as a ''coup d'état''. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014 when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election (Malagasy general election, 2013) deemed fair and transparent by the international community.
In 2012, the population of Madagascar was estimated at just over 22 million, 90 percent of whom live on less than two dollars per day. Malagasy (Malagasy language) and French (French language) are both official languages of the state. The majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs (Malagasy mythology), Christianity (Christianity in Madagascar), or an amalgamation of both. Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education, health and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascar's development strategy. Under Ravalomanana these investments produced substantial economic growth but the benefits were not evenly spread throughout the population, producing tensions over the increasing cost of living and declining living standards among the poor and some segments of the middle class. As of 2014, the economy has been weakened by the recently concluded political crisis and quality of life remains low for the majority of the Malagasy population.