Lusitania

What is Lusitania known for?


religious history

the Suevi and the Visigoths — Germanic tribes (Germanic peoples) already Christianized — came into the Iberian Peninsula in the fifth century. Early Visigoths followed the Arian heresy (Arianism), but they joined Roman mainstream after the eighth century. The city of Braga played an important role in the religious history of the period, namely when of the renunciation of the Arian and Priscillianist heresies, at two synods held there in the sixth century, marking the origin of its ecclesiastical greatness. The Archbishops of Braga (Ecclesiastical history of Braga) retains the title of Primate of Portugal, and long claimed supremacy over the whole of the churches of Hispania. In 1947 by Manuel de Matos, collector of the Geological Survey of Portugal, fossils of a large sauropod were found in the Portuguese Lourinhã Formation dating to the Tithonian stage of the Late Jurassic. In 1957 the remains were by Albert-Félix de Lapparent and Georges Zbyszewski named as a new species of ''Brachiosaurus'': ''Brachiosaurus atalaiensis''. A.F. de Lapparent & G. Zbyszewski, 1957, "Les dinosauriens du Portugal", ''Mémoires des Services Géologiques du Portugal, nouvelle série'' '''2''': 1-63 The specific name (specific name (zoology)) referred to the site, Atalaia (Atalaia (Lourinhã)). It was in 2003 by Octávio Mateus and Miguel Telles Antunes renamed a separate genus: ''Lusotitan''. The type species is ''Lusotitan atalaiensis''. The generic name is derived from ''Luso'', the Latin name for an inhabitant of Lusitania, and Greek Titan (Titan (mythology)), a mythological giant. Roman times The Romans (Ancient Rome) likely came to the Trabancos region in the 2nd century, during the campaigns of Lucius Licinius Lucullus (152 BC), but the area was peripheral to the regions of principal occupation, as well as to the creation of early towns and more importantly, trade routes: most travel routes were in the east of this region, which followed the river Eresma from the town of Coca (''Cauca'', in Roman times) and Matapozuelos village (''Nivaria'' in Roman times), up to Simancas (''Septimanca''); and at the west, for the "Vía de la Plata (Roman road#Spain)" ("silver road"), the most important Roman route in Lusitania Province. Nevertheless, it is known that in the Vallisoletan area, there was several villages that probably are of pre-Roman origin. In fact, the etymology of the word 'Trabancos' suggests a name originating before the Roman occupation. In 1909, Thomas Jeffery died and the leadership of the company passed to his son Charles, who, in 1914, renamed the car the Jeffery in honor of his late father. While successful, Charles Jeffery decided to leave auto making in 1915, following a harrowing ordeal in the sinking of the Lusitania. Jeffery’s wife had purchased a high-quality life preserver prior to her husband’s trip, and it saved his life. However the event also caused Jeffery to re-evaluate his life and priorities, and automaking wasn’t one of them; he sold the Jeffery concern to Charles Nash (Charles W. Nash), who renamed the concern the Nash Motors Company (Nash Motors). World War I Civil Defense truly began to come of age, both worldwide and in the United States, during the first World War (World War I)--although it was usually referred to as ''civilian defense.'' This was the first major Total war, which required the involvement and support of the general population. Great Britain was subjected to bombing raids by both dirigibles and airplanes (fixed-wing aircraft), resulting in thousands of injuries and deaths. Attacks on non combat ships, like the Lusitania, presented another threat to non combatants. The British responded with an organized effort which was soon copied in the US. This was formalized with the creation of the Council of National Defense on August 29, 1916. Civil defense responsibilities at the federal level were vested in this council, with subsidiary councils at the state and local levels providing additional support—a multi-level structure which was to remain throughout the history of United States civil defense.


history natural

year 1786 Ancient Romans, such as Pliny the Elder (''Natural History (Pliny's Natural History)'',


early metal

economy in Hispania (economy of Hispania), in the provinces of Lusitania and Gallaecia, as producers and exporters to the Roman Empire. This continued under the Visigoths and then Al-Andalus Moorish rule, until the Kingdom of Portugal was established in 1139. The territory's mineral wealth made it an important strategic region during the early metal ages, and one of the first objectives of the Romans (Roman Empire) when invading the peninsula was to access the mines near New Carthage. After the Second Punic War, from 29 BC to 411 AD, Rome governed the Iberian peninsula, expanding and diversifying the economy, and extending trade with the Roman Empire. Indigenous peoples paid tribute to Rome through an intricate web of alliances and allegiances. The economy experienced a major production expansion, profiting from some of the best agricultural lands under Roman hegemony and fueled by roads, trade routes, and the minting (Mint (coin)) of coins, which eased commercial transactions. Lusitania developed, driven by an intensive mining industry; fields explored included the Aljustrel (Aljustrel mine) mines (Vipasca), São Domingos (Sao Domingos Mine), and Riotinto (Rio Tinto (river)) in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, which extended to Seville, and contained copper, silver, and gold. All mines belonged to the Roman Senate, and were operated by slaves (Slavery in ancient Rome). The '''Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida (Mérida, Spain) ''' is one of the largest and most extensive archaeological sites in Spain. Mainly of Emerita Augusta, ancient capital of Lusitania (current city of Mérida (Mérida, Spain)). It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1993. :'''''Julia of Mérida''' redirects here'' '''Eulalia of Mérida''' was a young Roman Christian (Early Christianity) martyred in Emerita, the capital of Lusitania (modern Mérida (Mérida, Spain) in Spain), conventionally during the persecution (Persecution of Christians#Persecution from the second century to Constantine) under Diocletian (Diocletian#Persecution of Christians) and Maximian. Other views place her death at the time of Trajan Decius (AD 249-51). In 1957 the remains were by Albert-Félix de Lapparent and Georges Zbyszewski named as a new species of ''Brachiosaurus'': ''Brachiosaurus atalaiensis''. A.F. de Lapparent & G. Zbyszewski, 1957, "Les dinosauriens du Portugal", ''Mémoires des Services Géologiques du Portugal, nouvelle série'' '''2''': 1-63 The specific name (specific name (zoology)) referred to the site, Atalaia (Atalaia (Lourinhã)). It was in 2003 by Octávio Mateus and Miguel Telles Antunes renamed a separate genus: ''Lusotitan''. The type species is ''Lusotitan atalaiensis''. The generic name is derived from ''Luso'', the Latin name for an inhabitant of Lusitania, and Greek Titan (Titan (mythology)), a mythological giant. Roman times The Romans (Ancient Rome) likely came to the Trabancos region in the 2nd century, during the campaigns of Lucius Licinius Lucullus (152 BC), but the area was peripheral to the regions of principal occupation, as well as to the creation of early towns and more importantly, trade routes: most travel routes were in the east of this region, which followed the river Eresma from the town of Coca (''Cauca'', in Roman times) and Matapozuelos village (''Nivaria'' in Roman times), up to Simancas (''Septimanca''); and at the west, for the "Vía de la Plata (Roman road#Spain)" ("silver road"), the most important Roman route in Lusitania Province. Nevertheless, it is known that in the Vallisoletan area, there was several villages that probably are of pre-Roman origin. In fact, the etymology of the word 'Trabancos' suggests a name originating before the Roman occupation. In 1909, Thomas Jeffery died and the leadership of the company passed to his son Charles, who, in 1914, renamed the car the Jeffery in honor of his late father. While successful, Charles Jeffery decided to leave auto making in 1915, following a harrowing ordeal in the sinking of the Lusitania. Jeffery’s wife had purchased a high-quality life preserver prior to her husband’s trip, and it saved his life. However the event also caused Jeffery to re-evaluate his life and priorities, and automaking wasn’t one of them; he sold the Jeffery concern to Charles Nash (Charles W. Nash), who renamed the concern the Nash Motors Company (Nash Motors). World War I Civil Defense truly began to come of age, both worldwide and in the United States, during the first World War (World War I)--although it was usually referred to as ''civilian defense.'' This was the first major Total war, which required the involvement and support of the general population. Great Britain was subjected to bombing raids by both dirigibles and airplanes (fixed-wing aircraft), resulting in thousands of injuries and deaths. Attacks on non combat ships, like the Lusitania, presented another threat to non combatants. The British responded with an organized effort which was soon copied in the US. This was formalized with the creation of the Council of National Defense on August 29, 1916. Civil defense responsibilities at the federal level were vested in this council, with subsidiary councils at the state and local levels providing additional support—a multi-level structure which was to remain throughout the history of United States civil defense.


small part

In 1957 the remains were by Albert-Félix de Lapparent and Georges Zbyszewski named as a new species of ''Brachiosaurus'': ''Brachiosaurus atalaiensis''. A.F. de Lapparent & G. Zbyszewski, 1957, "Les dinosauriens du Portugal", ''Mémoires des Services Géologiques du Portugal, nouvelle série'' '''2''': 1-63 The specific name (specific name (zoology)) referred to the site, Atalaia (Atalaia (Lourinhã)). It was in 2003 by Octávio Mateus and Miguel Telles Antunes renamed a separate genus: ''Lusotitan''. The type species is ''Lusotitan atalaiensis''. The generic name is derived from ''Luso'', the Latin name for an inhabitant of Lusitania, and Greek Titan (Titan (mythology)), a mythological giant. Roman times The Romans (Ancient Rome) likely came to the Trabancos region in the 2nd century, during the campaigns of Lucius Licinius Lucullus (152 BC), but the area was peripheral to the regions of principal occupation, as well as to the creation of early towns and more importantly, trade routes: most travel routes were in the east of this region, which followed the river Eresma from the town of Coca (''Cauca'', in Roman times) and Matapozuelos village (''Nivaria'' in Roman times), up to Simancas (''Septimanca''); and at the west, for the "Vía de la Plata (Roman road#Spain)" ("silver road"), the most important Roman route in Lusitania Province. Nevertheless, it is known that in the Vallisoletan area, there was several villages that probably are of pre-Roman origin. In fact, the etymology of the word 'Trabancos' suggests a name originating before the Roman occupation. In 1909, Thomas Jeffery died and the leadership of the company passed to his son Charles, who, in 1914, renamed the car the Jeffery in honor of his late father. While successful, Charles Jeffery decided to leave auto making in 1915, following a harrowing ordeal in the sinking of the Lusitania. Jeffery’s wife had purchased a high-quality life preserver prior to her husband’s trip, and it saved his life. However the event also caused Jeffery to re-evaluate his life and priorities, and automaking wasn’t one of them; he sold the Jeffery concern to Charles Nash (Charles W. Nash), who renamed the concern the Nash Motors Company (Nash Motors). World War I Civil Defense truly began to come of age, both worldwide and in the United States, during the first World War (World War I)--although it was usually referred to as ''civilian defense.'' This was the first major Total war, which required the involvement and support of the general population. Great Britain was subjected to bombing raids by both dirigibles and airplanes (fixed-wing aircraft), resulting in thousands of injuries and deaths. Attacks on non combat ships, like the Lusitania, presented another threat to non combatants. The British responded with an organized effort which was soon copied in the US. This was formalized with the creation of the Council of National Defense on August 29, 1916. Civil defense responsibilities at the federal level were vested in this council, with subsidiary councils at the state and local levels providing additional support—a multi-level structure which was to remain throughout the history of United States civil defense.


ancient people

The area was dominated by two ethnic communities: the ''Zoelae'', with their seat in Castro de Avelãs, and a Lusitanian civitas under the stewardship of the ''Baniense'' in the southern part of the district. Joaquim de Santa Rosa de Viterbo (1716), p.188 A Latin map, ''Atlas de Gotha'' by Justus Perthes, mentioned three settlements within this region: Aquae Flaviae (Chaves (Chaves Municipality, Portugal)), Veniatia (Vinhais (Vinhais Municipality)) and Zoelae (its seat in Zoelas, today Castro de Avelãs) The best reference to the existence of the Zoelae come from a stone discovered near


historical people

in the book that it was named for the historical people and territory in Portugal, which the inhabitants are descended from. See also *Lusitanians *Lusitanian mythology *Lusitanian language *Emerita Augusta *Ophiussa *Portugal *History of Portugal *Timeline of Portuguese history *Spain *History of Spain *Timeline of Spanish history *Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula * Romanization of Hispania


called small

, as it is called." ' Neither of these could be called small islands or described as off the Northwest coast of Iberia, and so the Greek and Roman (Ancient Rome) geographers did not identify either as the Cassiterides. Instead, they became a third, ill-understood source of tin, conceived of as distinct from Iberia or Britain. There are more coins surviving from Achila's kingdom than Roderic's, but the findings do not overlap in territory and it is suspected that the kingdom had been divided between two factions, with the southwest (the provinces of Lusitania and western Carthaginiensis around the capital Toledo (Toledo, Spain)) following (or being subjected to) Roderic and the northeast (Tarraconensis and Narbonensis) fallilng under the rule of Achila. Collins, ''Visigothic'', 131. It is unknown to whom the provinces of Gallaecia and Baetica fell. That Roderic and Achila never appear to have come into military conflict is probably best explained by the preoccupation of Roderic with Arab (Arabs) raids and not to a formal division of the kingdom. Collins, ''Visigothic'', 139. The '''Lusa''' is a compact 9x19mm Parabellum submachine gun developed by INDEP of Portugal in 1983. Its name is derived from Lusitania, which was the Roman name for the territory that is present day central and southern Portugal, and although it was originally intended for military use, it was well-suited for law enforcement and ended up being marketed to bodyguards, VIP protection and special operations units. '''Hispania Ulterior''' (English: '''Further Hispania''') was a region of Hispania during the Roman Republic, roughly located in Baetica and in the Guadalquivir valley (Guadalquivir Valley) of modern Spain and extending to all of Lusitania (modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of Salamanca province (Province of Salamanca)) and Gallaecia (modern Northern Portugal and Galicia (Galicia (Spain))). Its capital was Corduba. * When all the slaves sing during work, a short, moustached Lusitanian (ancestor of the Portuguese (Portuguese people)) asks if he could claim a poem instead. This character is likely a reference to the Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa. In 1957 the remains were by Albert-Félix de Lapparent and Georges Zbyszewski named as a new species of ''Brachiosaurus'': ''Brachiosaurus atalaiensis''. A.F. de Lapparent & G. Zbyszewski, 1957, "Les dinosauriens du Portugal", ''Mémoires des Services Géologiques du Portugal, nouvelle série'' '''2''': 1-63 The specific name (specific name (zoology)) referred to the site, Atalaia (Atalaia (Lourinhã)). It was in 2003 by Octávio Mateus and Miguel Telles Antunes renamed a separate genus: ''Lusotitan''. The type species is ''Lusotitan atalaiensis''. The generic name is derived from ''Luso'', the Latin name for an inhabitant of Lusitania, and Greek Titan (Titan (mythology)), a mythological giant. Roman times The Romans (Ancient Rome) likely came to the Trabancos region in the 2nd century, during the campaigns of Lucius Licinius Lucullus (152 BC), but the area was peripheral to the regions of principal occupation, as well as to the creation of early towns and more importantly, trade routes: most travel routes were in the east of this region, which followed the river Eresma from the town of Coca (''Cauca'', in Roman times) and Matapozuelos village (''Nivaria'' in Roman times), up to Simancas (''Septimanca''); and at the west, for the "Vía de la Plata (Roman road#Spain)" ("silver road"), the most important Roman route in Lusitania Province. Nevertheless, it is known that in the Vallisoletan area, there was several villages that probably are of pre-Roman origin. In fact, the etymology of the word 'Trabancos' suggests a name originating before the Roman occupation. In 1909, Thomas Jeffery died and the leadership of the company passed to his son Charles, who, in 1914, renamed the car the Jeffery in honor of his late father. While successful, Charles Jeffery decided to leave auto making in 1915, following a harrowing ordeal in the sinking of the Lusitania. Jeffery’s wife had purchased a high-quality life preserver prior to her husband’s trip, and it saved his life. However the event also caused Jeffery to re-evaluate his life and priorities, and automaking wasn’t one of them; he sold the Jeffery concern to Charles Nash (Charles W. Nash), who renamed the concern the Nash Motors Company (Nash Motors). World War I Civil Defense truly began to come of age, both worldwide and in the United States, during the first World War (World War I)--although it was usually referred to as ''civilian defense.'' This was the first major Total war, which required the involvement and support of the general population. Great Britain was subjected to bombing raids by both dirigibles and airplanes (fixed-wing aircraft), resulting in thousands of injuries and deaths. Attacks on non combat ships, like the Lusitania, presented another threat to non combatants. The British responded with an organized effort which was soon copied in the US. This was formalized with the creation of the Council of National Defense on August 29, 1916. Civil defense responsibilities at the federal level were vested in this council, with subsidiary councils at the state and local levels providing additional support—a multi-level structure which was to remain throughout the history of United States civil defense.


major production

New Carthage. After the Second Punic War, from 29 BC to 411 AD, Rome governed the Iberian peninsula, expanding and diversifying the economy, and extending trade with the Roman Empire. Indigenous peoples paid tribute to Rome through an intricate web of alliances and allegiances. The economy experienced a major production expansion, profiting from some of the best agricultural lands under Roman hegemony and fueled by roads, trade routes, and the minting (Mint (coin)) of coins, which


power news

and Vespasian—successively vied for imperial power. News of Nero's death reached Vespasian as he was preparing to besiege the city of Jerusalem. Almost simultaneously the Senate had declared Galba, then governor of Hispania Tarraconensis (modern Spain), as Emperor of Rome. Rather than continue his campaign, Vespasian decided to await further orders and send Titus to greet the new Emperor. Sullivan (1953), p. 69 Before reaching Italy however, Titus

, during which the four most influential generals in the Roman Empire—Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian—successively vied for the imperial power. News of Nero's death reached Vespasian as he was preparing to besiege the city of Jerusalem. Almost simultaneously the Senate had declared Galba, then governor of Hispania Tarraconensis (modern Spain), as Emperor of Rome. Rather than continue his campaign, Vespasian decided to await further orders and send


time large

, noting that the women bore their weapons side by side with their mens, frequently preferring death to captivity. As they became politically interested in the former territories of Carthage, the Romans came to use Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for 'near' and 'far Spain'. Even at that time large sections of it were Lusitania (Portugal south of Douro river and Extremadura in western Spain), Gallaecia (Northern Portugal and Galicia (Galicia (Spain)) in Spain), Celtiberia (central Spain), Baetica (Andalusia), Cantabria (northwest Spain) and the Vascones (Basques). Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, and distance them as near and far. He was living in a time when the peninsula was divided into Roman provinces, of which Baetia (Hispania Baetica) was supervised by the Senate, whereas the others were governed on behalf of the Emperor. Whatever language may have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for Basque, protected by the Pyrenees Roman era Following the defeat of Hannibal (Hannibal Barca) during the Punic wars, the Romans determined to deprive Carthage of its most valuable possession: Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula). The defeat of Carthaginian forces by Scipio Africanus in Eastern Hispania allowed the pacification of the west, led by Consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus. Decimus obtained the alliance of Olissipo (which sent men to fight alongside the Roman Legions against the northwestern Celtic tribes) by integrating it into the Empire, as the ''Municipium Cives Romanorum Felicitas Julia''. Local authorities were granted self-rule over a territory that extended In 1957 the remains were by Albert-Félix de Lapparent and Georges Zbyszewski named as a new species of ''Brachiosaurus'': ''Brachiosaurus atalaiensis''. A.F. de Lapparent & G. Zbyszewski, 1957, "Les dinosauriens du Portugal", ''Mémoires des Services Géologiques du Portugal, nouvelle série'' '''2''': 1-63 The specific name (specific name (zoology)) referred to the site, Atalaia (Atalaia (Lourinhã)). It was in 2003 by Octávio Mateus and Miguel Telles Antunes renamed a separate genus: ''Lusotitan''. The type species is ''Lusotitan atalaiensis''. The generic name is derived from ''Luso'', the Latin name for an inhabitant of Lusitania, and Greek Titan (Titan (mythology)), a mythological giant. Roman times The Romans (Ancient Rome) likely came to the Trabancos region in the 2nd century, during the campaigns of Lucius Licinius Lucullus (152 BC), but the area was peripheral to the regions of principal occupation, as well as to the creation of early towns and more importantly, trade routes: most travel routes were in the east of this region, which followed the river Eresma from the town of Coca (''Cauca'', in Roman times) and Matapozuelos village (''Nivaria'' in Roman times), up to Simancas (''Septimanca''); and at the west, for the "Vía de la Plata (Roman road#Spain)" ("silver road"), the most important Roman route in Lusitania Province. Nevertheless, it is known that in the Vallisoletan area, there was several villages that probably are of pre-Roman origin. In fact, the etymology of the word 'Trabancos' suggests a name originating before the Roman occupation. In 1909, Thomas Jeffery died and the leadership of the company passed to his son Charles, who, in 1914, renamed the car the Jeffery in honor of his late father. While successful, Charles Jeffery decided to leave auto making in 1915, following a harrowing ordeal in the sinking of the Lusitania. Jeffery’s wife had purchased a high-quality life preserver prior to her husband’s trip, and it saved his life. However the event also caused Jeffery to re-evaluate his life and priorities, and automaking wasn’t one of them; he sold the Jeffery concern to Charles Nash (Charles W. Nash), who renamed the concern the Nash Motors Company (Nash Motors). World War I Civil Defense truly began to come of age, both worldwide and in the United States, during the first World War (World War I)--although it was usually referred to as ''civilian defense.'' This was the first major Total war, which required the involvement and support of the general population. Great Britain was subjected to bombing raids by both dirigibles and airplanes (fixed-wing aircraft), resulting in thousands of injuries and deaths. Attacks on non combat ships, like the Lusitania, presented another threat to non combatants. The British responded with an organized effort which was soon copied in the US. This was formalized with the creation of the Council of National Defense on August 29, 1916. Civil defense responsibilities at the federal level were vested in this council, with subsidiary councils at the state and local levels providing additional support—a multi-level structure which was to remain throughout the history of United States civil defense.

Lusitania

thumb 300px The Iberian peninsula in the time of Hadrian (File:Iberian Peninsula in 125.svg) (ruled 117–138 AD), showing, in western Iberia (Iberian Peninsula), the imperial province of '''Lusitania'' (Portugal and Extremadura) thumb right 300px Map of the Roman Hispania around 10 AD, Lusitania is colored in orange (File:Hispania 10dC Es.jpg)

'''Lusitania''' (

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