Lebanon

What is Lebanon known for?


construction team

and parts of Egypt, all follow this school of jurisprudence. Miscellany *Navy diver Robert Stethem was murdered by the Lebanese (Lebanon) Shia (Shia Islam) militia Hezbollah when they hijacked TWA Flight 847 in 1985. Stethem was a Steel Worker Second Class (SW2), a Seabee diver and member of Underwater Construction Team ONE. The USS ''Stethem'' (DDG-63) (USS Stethem (DDG-63)) is named in his honor. On August 24, 2010 onboard USS Stethem in Yokosuka, Japan, Stethem was posthumously made an honorary Constructionman Master Chief Petty Officer by the Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy. Tourism is important and in some cases vital for many countries, such as France, Egypt, Greece, Lebanon, Israel, the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, and Thailand, and many island nations, such as Mauritius, The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, Philippines and the Seychelles. It brings in large amounts of income in payment for goods and services available, contributing an estimated 5% to the worldwide gross domestic product (GDP), and it creates opportunities for employment in the service industries (Tertiary sector of the economy) associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services (transport), such as airlines, cruise ships and taxicabs; hospitality services, such as accommodations (lodging), including hotels and resorts; and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres. *Europe: Iceland, Norway, Portugal, Andorra, San Marino, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Luxembourg, Malta, Cyprus, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (Georgia (country)) *Asia: Lebanon, Syria, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, North Korea *Oceania: Timor-Leste, Cook Islands, Samoa, Tonga, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Federated States of Micronesia, Vanuatu Other ethnic groups There are groups of Chinese (Chinese Trinidadian and Tobagonian) who, like the Portuguese and Indians, are descended from indentured labourers. They account for about 20,000 people and live mostly in Port-of-Spain and San Fernando. There are also about 2,500 Arabs, originating from Syria and Lebanon who live mostly in Port-of-Spain. The Syrian and Lebanese communities of Trinidad are predominantly Christian, migrating from the Middle East in the 19th century while fleeing religious persecution received from the Ottoman Empire later landing in the Caribbean and Latin America. Other Lebanese and Syrians came in the early to middle 20th century to escape the war and turmoil in the region. Finally there are the mixed raced Caribs who are descended from the native, precolonial people of the islands. They are organized around the Santa Rosa Carib Community and live mostly in and around Arima. In September 2006, Pakistan recognized the Islamic Emirate of Waziristan, an association of Waziristani chieftains with close ties to the Taliban, as the de facto security force for Waziristan. This recognition was part of the agreement to end the Waziristan War (War in North-West Pakistan), which had exacted a heavy toll on the Pakistan Army since early 2004. Some commentators viewed Islamabad's shift from war to diplomacy as implicit recognition of the growing power of the resurgent Taliban relative to American influence, with the U.S. distracted by the threat of looming crises in Iraq, Lebanon, and Iran.


line design

unhappy photographs of her. The ''Flowers (Flowers (Ace of Base album))'' album uses the infamous 'blue lines' photograph, where Linn's unhappy image is bizarrely hidden behind the booklet's blue line design. ''Flowers (Flowers (Ace of Base album))''. Compact disc booklet. Mega Records, 1998. Linn granted one final radio interview on Mix FM in Lebanon in 1998, where she talked about new album plans and sang All That She Wants a capella. http


nature set

Valley in Lebanon. Two French-Lebanese-British expeditions in the years 2004 and 2005 yielded no confirmation as to the further existence of this species. Tron, 2005 In August 2010, a search organised by the Amphibian Specialist Group of the International Union for Conservation of Nature set out to look for various species of frogs thought to be extinct in the wild, including the Hula painted frog.


years significant

km mi 0 , respectively), Israel


talent special

worked in over a dozen countries including Afghanistan, Kenya, Lebanon, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast and Liberia. Aside from winning the Miss Earth 2002 title, Glavović also won the Miss Talent special award. In 2002, three


hitting number

of Arabic instruments (trumbakke, mijwiz, zamour, tabal... etc.) and contemporary ones; and a brand new look for the album cover. ''Maghroumeh'' was another success from Karam. The title track, ''Maghroumeh (I am in Love)'', was shot as a video clip, and was the biggest hit off the album, hitting number one on most radio stations in the region. Other hits were the feisty ''Ghamza (The Wink)'' and the sad love song ''Noqta al-Satr (Somewhere along the line)''. To further ''Rotana (Rotana Records)'s'' crediting of Karam's successes, an honouring assemble was held on Saturday, 23 June 2001 where Karam was awarded for her achievements throughout her singing career and for the huge success of ''Nedmaneh''. The ceremony was held at the Venesia Hotel, Beirut, Lebanon. In attendance were the Lebanese Minister of Information, Ghazi Al-Aredi who was representing the President of the Lebanese Republic, Émile Lahoud, prominent singer Wadih el Safi, acclaimed composer Elias Rahbani and a number of journalists and reporters. During the night, Karam sang some of her hits (old and new), and was presented with numerous medals and trophies. The recording was released on a special edition CD (''Live in Concert (Live in Concert (Najwa Karam album))''), along with a compilation CD of Najwa's hits from 1989-2000 titled ''The Very Best Of Najwa Karam''. In late 2002, Karam began meeting with the Lebanese (Lebanon) ''"tarab"'' star, Wadih el Safi (Born 1919). Wadi had known Najwa for a while, and had been impressed with her vocal talents. The two of them decided to make a duet together, depicting the trials of a father-daughter relationship. The song was titled ''W Kberna (We grow old together)'', and was an epic ballad in which both vocalists showed immense vocal range and depth. ''W Kberna'' was a success as the lyrics were easy to relate to and it teamed two of the region's most prominent artists together. ''Saharni (Charmed)'' was exactly the kind of album that was a rebirth of the "old Najwa Karam", and took the public by surprise, as they had at this point come to expect contemporary pop from the ''Shams el-Ghinnieh''. The music had all the makings of distinctly Lebanese (Lebanon) music: trumbakke solos, traditional wind instruments, lots of bass and a vibrant singing style - all features far removed from the "western" motif that most artists opted for at the time. Not only had Karam's music changed, but she also sported a new look, which further emphasised that the album was a turn around. ''Saharni'''s success was instantaneous, even though there was a lack of video clips for the songs, the album came through on top of the charts, and produced a number of major hits, including ''Edhak Lil Dounya (Smile to the world)'', and the title track ''Saharni (He charmed me)''. After a few months, Najwa had completed the rest of her new album, ''Shu Mghaira..!''. Like ''Saharni'', it was distinctly Lebanese (Lebanon), but it was more of a modern adaptation, with a reflective and sad overtone. Najwa continued her many live appearances to promote the album, and a notable event for 2004 was her sell-out concert in Carthage, Tunisia where she performed to thousands of enthusiastic fans. The tracks ''Bi Hawak (In your love)'' and ''Shu Mghaira (How you've changed)'' were shot in an expensive duel video clip which was riddled with special effects. It remained at the number 1 position for 6 weeks on the Rotana Top 20 Chart. The two songs were the most popular from the album, and Najwa obtained the as "Female Artist of the Year" from MusicanaNet.net, which was decided via a large scale internet poll. 2005 and beyond In the second quarter of 2005, Karam released a new single and video clip called ''Shu Jani''. Shu Jani was a contemporary pop song, with the use of traditional Lebanese instruments. The video was filmed in the Faraya ski resort in Lebanon by director Sa'aed el-Marouk. It was to be on her upcoming 2005 album. The timing of the new clip was criticised in some tabloids, because it was released during the tense electoral season in Lebanon, and the so-called ''Cedar Revolution'' (Independence Intifada). It was argued by these tabloids that it was disrespectful for Karam to release new material at such a time. Karam defended herself by putting the claim on her Saudi production company, ''Rotana (Rotana Records)'', who she says fast tracked the release against her wishes. Even though there was some controversy surrounding ''Shu Jani'', it fared well with the public. 2005 and beyond In the second quarter of 2005, Karam released a new single and video clip called ''Shu Jani''. Shu Jani was a contemporary pop song, with the use of traditional Lebanese instruments. The video was filmed in the Faraya ski resort in Lebanon by director Sa'aed el-Marouk. It was to be on her upcoming 2005 album. The timing of the new clip was criticised in some tabloids, because it was released during the tense electoral season in Lebanon, and the so-called ''Cedar Revolution'' (Independence Intifada). It was argued by these tabloids that it was disrespectful for Karam to release new material at such a time. Karam defended herself by putting the claim on her Saudi production company, ''Rotana (Rotana Records)'', who she says fast tracked the release against her wishes. Even though there was some controversy surrounding ''Shu Jani'', it fared well with the public. On the same day, Karam's 15th studio album, ''Kibir'el Hob (Love Just Got Greater)'' was officially released. The album gained widespread attention through its rigorous advertising campaign, which included the billboard posters, many television appearances on popular variety programs such as ''Dandana'', and ''Akeed Maestro'' , and music video clips for singles. ''Kibir'el Hob'' topped the highest selling album chart in Lebanon for Rotana (Rotana Records) during the Christmas sales period, and remained in the number one position through the New Year. In mid April 2006, Karam released a third and last single from the ''Kibir'el Hob'' album, accompanied by a video clip, and proved to be among the most popular Arabic songs of the year 2006. From the First week of the release of Hayda Haki it was the best selling album in Lebanon in UAE and Kwait Number one best selling Album. The Album had huge succees from the first week of release in Lebanon, the Gulf (Persian Gulf), Libya, Syria, Jordan and other Arabic countries. From the 1960s on, many of the most daring experiments in French literature have come from writers born in French overseas departments or former colonies. This Francophone literature includes the prize winning novels of Tahar ben Jelloun (Morocco), Patrick Chamoiseau (Martinique), Amin Maalouf (Lebanon) and Assia Djebar (Algeria). Many of the most lauded works in French over the last decades have been written by individuals from former French colonies or overseas possessions. This Francophone literature includes the novels of Ahmadou Kourouma (Côte d'Ivoire), Tahar ben Jelloun (Morocco), Patrick Chamoiseau (Martinique), Amin Maalouf (Lebanon) and Assia Djebar (Algeria). ''Hemiechinus auritus'' has a range that extends from the eastern Mediterranean region, through the arid and steppe areas of Asia to western Pakistan in the south; and from eastern Ukraine through Mongolia (Gobi desert), to China (Xinjiang). This species is native to the following countries: Afghanistan; China; Cyprus; Egypt; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Kyrgyzstan; Lebanon; Libya; Mongolia; Pakistan; Russia; Syria; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine and Uzbekistan. '''''Juniperus excelsa''''' ('''Greek Juniper''') is a juniper found throughout the eastern Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea), from northeastern Greece and southern Bulgaria across Turkey to Syria and the Lebanon, and the Caucasus mountains. A subspecies, ''J. excelsa'' subsp. ''polycarpos'', known as the '''Persian Juniper''', occurs in the Alborz and other mountains of Iran east to northwestern Pakistan, and an isolated population in the Jebal Akhdar (Jebel Akhdar (Oman)) mountains of Oman; some botanists treat this as a distinct species ''Juniperus polycarpos'', syn. (synonymy) ''J. macropoda''. - Lebanon 1 Beirut Fakhry Bey Street, Beirut Souks - - align "left" Lebanon Virgin Megastores style "text-align:center;" 16 - align "left" Lebanon Virgin Megastores style "text-align:center;" 5 - align "left" Lebanon Virgin Megastores style "text-align:center;" 7 - align "left" Lebanon Virgin Megastores style "text-align:center;" 1 Life Chedid was born in Cairo on 20 March 1920. When she was ten, she was sent to a boarding school, where she learned English (English language) and French (France). At fourteen, she left for Europe. She then returned to Cairo to go to the American (United States) university. Her dream was to become a dancer. She got married to a physician when she was twenty-two, with whom she has two children: Louis Chedid, now a famous French singer, and Michèle. Her work questions human condition and what links the individual to the world. Her writing seeks to evoke the Orient, but she focuses more in denouncing the civil war that destroys Lebanon. She has lived in France since 1946. Because of this diverse background, her work is truly multicultural. Her first book was written in English: ''On the Trails of my Fancy.'' She has commented about her work that it is an eternal quest for humanity. - align "left" Lebanon Virgin Megastores style "text-align:center;" 1 - align "left" Lebanon Virgin Megastores style "text-align:center;" 2 - align "left" Lebanon Virgin Megastores style "text-align:center;" 1 - align "left" Lebanon Virgin Megastores style "text-align:center;" 1 - align "left" Lebanon Virgin Megastores style "text-align:center;" 5 - align "left" Lebanon Virgin Megastores style "text-align:center;" 1 Military career He became writing-master to the Ottoman heir, Abd-ul-Medjid (Abdülmecid I), and on the succession of the latter in 1839 was made a colonel. He was military governor of Lebanon in 1842, won distinction in suppressing aristocratic rebellions led by Muslims in Albania (1843), Kurdistan (1846), de Bessé, Morris, p. 25 and Bosnia (1850) where he executed Ali-paša Rizvanbegović of Stolac, de Bessé, Morris, p. 26 but his chief services were rendered in the Russian War; he successfully defended Kalafat in 1853, entered Bucharest in 1854, and defeated 40,000 Russians next year at Eupatoria in the Crimea. His capture of Cetinje, Montenegro, in 1862 was a difficult feat. When Tabriz was taken, there was not a single book on Twelver Shiaism among the Kizilbash leaders; the book of the well known Allama Al-Hilli was procured in the town library to provide religious guidance to the state. Moojan Momen, "An Introduction to Shi'i Islam", Yale Univ. Press, 1985, ''ISBN-0-300-03499-7'', p. 397 The Shia ulema did not participate in the formation of Safavid religious policies during the early formation of the state. However, later, the ''ghulat'' doctrines were forsaken, and Arab Twelver Shia ulema resident in Lebanon, Iraq, and Bahrain were brought in increasing numbers. Initially the Shia ulema did not voice dissent about the religious stance of the monarch, but during the following century they were able to impose a stricter version of Shia Islam on both the population and the state. "if an election of a presidential candidate, would cause the islamic principles, although it's rising in the countries like Lebanon, Palestine, Venezuela and other parts of world, start diminishing it is Haraam forbidden by Islam to vote for that person. We shouldn't vote for that person and we should inform the people not to vote for him either, or else. For you, as administrators of the election, everything is permitted to this end." Nazi


charitable program

Lazarus is divided into three main obediences (''Malta, Orléans'' and ''Paris'') with own grand masters, and participate in worldwide humanitarian efforts. For example, it has been engaged in a major charitable program to revive Christianity in Eastern Europe: Russia, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), and the Near East (near east): Lebanon, Syria, and the Palestinian territories (Palestine). Millions of dollars worth of food, clothing, medical equipment


campaign based

. The US (w:United States) and France (w:France) are repeating their calls for Syria (w:Syria) to completely withdraw from Lebanon (w:Lebanon). The two countries are leading an international campaign, based upon the UN Security Council (w:UN Security Council) Resolution 1559.


production+efforts

President of Documentary Production. McClintock, Pamela. "Exec Joins Skoll Roll." ''Variety.'' October 10, 2005. The company's non-film production efforts continued to grow as well. Participant provided an undisclosed amount of financing in February 2005 to film distributor Emerging Pictures to finance that company's national network of digitally equipped cinemas (digital cinema) (with Emerging Pictures distributing Participant's films). Mohr, Ian. "Ebay Guru Clicks With Digital Cinema." ''Variety.'' February 7, 2005. The company also began its first socially-relevant outreach project, helping to finance screenings of the 1982 biographical film ''Gandhi (Gandhi (film))'' in the Palestinian territories for the first time as well as in the countries of Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. Harris, Dana. "'Gandhi' in Mideast." ''Variety.'' April 5, 2005. In support of its upcoming film, ''An Inconvenient Truth,'' the studio negotiated a deal whereby distributor Paramount Classics (Paramount Vantage) would donate 5 percent of its U.S. domestic theatrical gross box office receipts (with a minimum guarantee of $500,000) to the Alliance for Climate Protection. McNary, Dave. "Par Flexes Major Cannes Muscle." ''Variety.'' May 10, 2006. This small, slender lizard grows up to 15 cm long, and lives in Eastern Europe and southwestern Asia. It is native to Greece (including the Aegean Islands), Cyprus, Romania, Bulgaria, the former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Albania, Slovakia, the Caucasus, Turkey, Syria, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt and possibly Iraq. The ''fitzingeri'' subspecies is known from Slovakia, Hungary, Greece and the island of Corfu. The ''stepaneki'' subspecies is known from Bulgaria and Romania. He joined the Congregation of the Mission in Paris in 1944 and was ordained on March 25, 1944 in Rome. He worked in the missions in Lebanon and Egypt for 15 years. He was appointed bishop of Luqsor of the Copts May 8, 1967 and consecrated as bishop on June 9, 1967 in Alexandria by Cardinal Stéphanos I Sidarouss, patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts. He was elected patriarch himself on June 8, 1986. Pope John Paul II granted him the "ecclesiastica communio" on June 23, 1986, and created him a Cardinal in 2001. Career He graduated from the University of Damascus in 1923 with a degree in law, and joined the city government in 1925. At this time he also actively ran his family's estates throughout the country. In the 1930s, he became close associates with leading members of the anti-French National Bloc coalition (National Bloc (Syria)) such as future presidents Hashim al-Atassi and Shukri al-Kuwatli. He remained a long time supporter of the former, but often quarreled with the latter, whom he accused of being too authoritarian. In 1941 the French appointed him Prime Minister and Acting President, having had no success in finding a viable candidate since the resignation of the nationalist Atassi in 1939. However he was replaced 5 months later with a French loyalist, Taj al-Din al-Hasani. Azm served repeatedly in parliament and in the cabinet from 1943-1947. He became a focus of opposition when he resigned from the cabinet in 1945 and lead the forces opposed to Kuwatli's drive to amend the constitution to allow himself a second term in office. Kuwatli prevailed, and Azm ran against him in 1947 and lost. However he accepted the position of ambassador to France and served in that capacity for a year. He concluded successful arms purchases from France and later from the Soviet Union. In May 1948 Azm agreed to form a multi-party cabinet under Kuwatli which served until March 1949. He allied himself with France and the United States and attempted to obtain loans from them for domestic development. He traveled frequently to attend United Nations assemblies on the Palestinian problem (Israeli-Palestinian conflict). Azm clashed with members of the military, especially Chief of Staff Husni al-Za'im. The latter launched a Coup d'état on March 29, 1949 and imprisoned both Azm and president Kuwatli. When Za'im was overthrown five months later, Azm returned to parliament as deputy for Damascus and became minister of finance. He was also elected into the Constituent Assembly that drafted a new constitution for Syria. He became Prime Minister again under Hashim al-Atassi's second administration, in June 1950, heading three cabinets between then and 1951. Azm closed the border to Lebanese (Lebanon) goods in an attempt to prevent the crash of domestic Syrian industry due to rampant Lebanese imports. He also clashed repeatedly with the military because he refused to appoint officers in any of his cabinets, and always reserved the defense portfolio for himself. He also clashed with pro-Hashemite elements in Syrian politics that advocated union with Iraq. Socialists distrusted him because of his aristocratic and wealthy Ottoman background. Azm left the public arena from 1951 to 1954 in protest over the coup of Adib al-Shishakli which toppled Atassi's democratic administration. The 1992 Mykonos restaurant assassinations and Mykonos Trial in Berlin severely soured relations. On September 17, 1992, Iranian-Kurdish (Kurdish people#Kurds in Iran) insurgent leaders Sadegh Sharafkandi, Fattah Abdoli, Homayoun Ardalan and their translator Nouri Dehkordi were assassinated at the Mykonos Greek restaurant in Berlin, Germany. In the Mykonos trial, the courts found Kazem Darabi, an Iranian national who worked as a grocer in Berlin, and Lebanese (Lebanon) Abbas Rhayel, guilty of murder and sentenced them to life in prison. Two other Lebanese, Youssef Amin and Mohamed Atris, were convicted of being accessories to murder. In its 10 April 1997 ruling, the court issued an international arrest warrant for Iranian intelligence minister Hojjat al-Islam Ali Fallahian Israel fails to prevent Germany freeing Iranian after declaring that the assassination had been ordered by him with knowledge of supreme leader Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (Ali Khamenei) and president Ayatollah Rafsanjani


international literary

since published 12 books of poetry, the last of which is ''Muntasaf al-Lail'' (Midnight, Beirut, 2005, Riad El Rayes Publishers). His ''Collected Works'' came out in Beirut in 1997. ''A Small Sun'', his first poetry book in English translation, was published by The Aldeburgh Poetry Trust in 2003. He was awarded the Palestine Award for Poetry (2000). His poems are published in Arabic and international literary magazines. English translations of his poetry have been published in ''Al Ahram

Lebanon

'''Lebanon''' (

The earliest evidence (Archaeological evidence) of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Phoenicians, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years (c. (Circa) 1550–539 BC). In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, and eventually became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion and identity. However, a new religious group, the Druze (Druze in Lebanon), established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, a religious divide that would last for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church (Roman Catholic) and asserted their communion with Rome. The ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era.

The region eventually came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the Empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon were mandated to France (French Mandate of Lebanon). The French (France) expanded the borders of Mount Lebanon Governorate, which was mostly populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing a unique political system

Before the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture, commerce, and banking.

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